Gene References

 A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z

CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4)

Abadie-Viollon C, Martin H, Blanchard N et al. Follow-up to the pre-validation of a harmonised protocol for assessment of CYP induction responses in freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes with respect to culture format, treatment, positive reference inducers and incubation conditions. Toxicol In Vitro 2010; 24:346-56.

Abass K, Reponen P, Mattila S, Pelkonen O. Metabolism of carbosulfan II. Human interindividual variability in its in vitro hepatic biotransformation and the identification of the cytochrome P450 isoforms involved. Chem Biol Interact 2010; 185:163-73.

Abass K, Reponen P, Turpeinen M, Jalonen J, Pelkonen O. Characterization of diuron N-demethylation by mammalian hepatic microsomes and cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1634-41.

Abass K, Turpeinen M, Pelkonen O. An evaluation of the cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of selected pesticides in human hepatic microsomes. J Environ Sci Health B 2009; 44:553-63.

Abdel-Rahman SM, Jacobs RF, Massarella J et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenous itraconazole and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in infants, children, and adolescents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51:2668-73.

Abduljalil K, Kinzig M, Bulitta J et al. Modeling the autoinhibition of clarithromycin metabolism during repeated oral administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:2892-901.

Abel S, Back DJ, Vourvahis M. Maraviroc: pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Antivir Ther 2009; 14:607-18.

Abel S, Beaumont KC, Crespi CL et al. Potential role for P-glycoprotein in the non-proportional pharmacokinetics of UK-343,664 in man. Xenobiotica 2001; 31:665-76.

Abel S, Jenkins TM, Whitlock LA, Ridgway CE, Muirhead GJ. Effects of CYP3A4 inducers with and without CYP3A4 inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65 Suppl 1:38-46.

Abel S, Russell D, Taylor-Worth RJ, Ridgway CE, Muirhead GJ. Effects of CYP3A4 inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65 Suppl 1:27-37.

Abel S, Russell D, Whitlock LA, Ridgway CE, Muirhead GJ. Effect of maraviroc on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, lamivudine/zidovudine, and ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65 Suppl 1:19-26.

Abel S, van der Ryst E, Rosario MC et al. Assessment of the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of maraviroc, a novel CCR5 antagonist, in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65 Suppl 1:5-18.

Abelö A, Andersson TB, Antonsson M, Naudot AK, Skånberg I, Weidolf L. Stereoselective metabolism of omeprazole by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:966-72.

Abelö A, Andersson TB, Bredberg U, Skånberg I, Weidolf L. Stereoselective metabolism by human liver CYP enzymes of a substituted benzimidazole. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:58-64.

Abou-Donia MB, El-Masry EM, Abdel-Rahman AA, McLendon RE, Schiffman SS. Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2008; 71:1415-29.

Abu-Qare AW, Abou-Donia MB. Combined exposure to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) and permethrin: pharmacokinetics and toxicological effects. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 2003; 6:41-53.

Achira M, Suzuki H, Ito K, Sugiyama Y. Comparative studies to determine the selective inhibitors for P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A4. AAPS PharmSci 1999; 1:18.

Adams M, Pieniaszek HJ Jr, Gammaitoni AR, Ahdieh H. Oxymorphone extended release does not affect CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 metabolic pathways. J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 45:337-45.

Adams VR, Leggas M. Sunitinib malate for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clin Ther 2007; 29:1338-53.

Adkison KK, Shachoy-Clark A, Fang L et al. The effects of ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of a novel CCR5 antagonist, aplaviroc, in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:336-44.

Afshar M, Thormann W. Validated capillary electrophoresis assay for the simultaneous enantioselective determination of propafenone and its major metabolites in biological samples. Electrophoresis 2006; 27:1517-25.

Afshar M, Thormann W. Capillary electrophoretic investigation of the enantioselective metabolism of propafenone by human cytochrome P-450 SUPERSOMES: Evidence for atypical kinetics by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Electrophoresis 2006; 27:1526-36.

Afzelius L, Arnby CH, Broo A et al. State-of-the-art tools for computational site of metabolism predictions: comparative analysis, mechanistical insights, and future applications. Drug Metab Rev 2007; 39:61-86.

Agalliu I, Salinas CA, Hansten PD, Ostrander EA, Stanford JL. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer: results from a population-based epidemiologic study. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 168:250-60.

Agarwal S, Boddu SH, Jain R, Samanta S, Pal D, Mitra AK. Peptide prodrugs: improved oral absorption of lopinavir, a HIV protease inhibitor. Int J Pharm 2008; 359:7-14.

Agarwal S, Holton KL, Lanza R. Efficient differentiation of functional hepatocytes from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 2008; 26:1117-27.

Agarwal V, Kommaddi RP, Valli K et al. Drug metabolism in human brain: high levels of cytochrome P4503A43 in brain and metabolism of anti-anxiety drug alprazolam to its active metabolite. PLoS One 2008. doi:10. 1371/journal. pone. 0002337.

Agbonon A, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Aklikokou K et al. In vitro inhibitory effect of West African medicinal and food plants on human cytochrome P450 3A subfamily. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 128:390-4.

Agrawal DK. Pharmacology and clinical efficacy of desloratadine as an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drug. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2001; 10:547-60.

Agúndez JA. Cytochrome P450 gene polymorphism and cancer. Curr Drug Metab 2004; 5:211-24.

Agrawal AK, Hop CE, Pang J et al. In vitro metabolism of a new oxazolidinedione hypoglycemic agent utilizing liver microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2005; 37:351-8.

Ahlström MM, Zamora I. Characterization of type II ligands in CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. J Med Chem 2008; 51:1755-63.

Ahmad A, Ali SM, Ahmad MU, Sheikh S, Ahmad I. Orally administered endoxifen is a new therapeutic agent for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010; 122:579-84.

Ahn CY, Kim EJ, Kwon JW et al. Effects of cysteine on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous clarithromycin in rats with protein-calorie malnutrition. Life Sci 2003; 73:1783-94.

Ahn JH, Park WS, Jun MA et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of homopiperazine derivatives with beta-aminoacyl group as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:6525-9.

Ahn MR, Kim DK, Sheen YY. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor stimulate CYP3A4 proximal promoter activity in Hepa-I cells. Arch Pharm Res 2004; 27:415-21.

Ahn T, Yun CH. High-level expression of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by co-expression with human molecular chaperone HDJ-1 (Hsp40). Arch Pharm Res 2004; 27:319-23.

Ahn T, Yun CH. Effects of epitope sequence tandem repeat and proline incorporation on polyclonal antibody production against cytochrome 1A2 and 3A4. BMB Rep 2009; 42:418-20.

Ahonen J, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of route of administration of fluconazole on the interaction between fluconazole and midazolam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 51:415-9.

Ahonen J, Olkkola KT, Takala A, Neuvonen PJ. Interaction between fluconazole and midazolam in intensive care patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999; 43:509-14.

Aiba T, Susa M, Fukumori S, Hashimoto Y. The effects of culture conditions on CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA induction by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in human intestinal cell lines, Caco-2 and LS180. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2005; 20:268-74.

Aiba T, Takehara Y, Okuno M, Hashimoto Y. Poor correlation between intestinal and hepatic metabolic rates of CYP3A4 substrates in rats. Pharm Res 2003; 20:745-8.

Aichhorn W, Whitworth AB, Weiss EM, Marksteiner J. Second-generation antipsychotics: is there evidence for sex differences in pharmacokinetic and adverse effect profiles? Drug Saf 2006; 29:587-98.

Aigrain L, Pompon D, Moréra S, Truan G. Structure of the open conformation of a functional chimeric NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase. EMBO Rep 2009; 10:742-7.

Aitken AE, Lee CM, Morgan ET. Roles of nitric oxide in inflammatory downregulation of human cytochromes P450. Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 44:1161-8.

Aitken AE, Morgan ET. Gene-specific effects of inflammatory cytokines on cytochrome P450 2C, 2B6 and 3A4 mRNA levels in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1687-93.

Akiyama I, Tomiyama K, Sakaguchi M et al. Expression of CYP3A4 by an immortalized human hepatocyte line in a three-dimensional culture using a radial-flow bioreactor. Int J Mol Med 2004; 14:663-8.

Alayli G, Cengiz K, Cantürk F, Durmuş D, Akyol Y, Menekşe EB. Acute myopathy in a patient with concomitant use of pravastatin and colchicine. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:1358-61.

Albertí JJ, Sentellas S, Salvà M. In vitro liver metabolism of aclidinium bromide in preclinical animal species and humans: identification of the human enzymes involved in its oxidative metabolism. Biochem Pharmacol 2011; 81:761-76.

Alcorn J, McNamara PJ. Ontogeny of hepatic and renal systemic clearance pathways in infants: part II. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:1077-94.

Alderman CP, Gebauer MG, Gilbert AL, Condon JT. Possible interaction of zopiclone and nefazodone. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35:1378-80.

Alderman J. Coadministration of sertraline with cisapride or pimozide: an open-label, nonrandomized examination of pharmacokinetics and corrected QT intervals in healthy adult volunteers. Clin Ther 2005; 27:1050-63.

Al-Dosari M, Zhang G, Knapp JE, Liu D. Evaluation of viral and mammalian promoters for driving transgene expression in mouse liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 339:673-8.

Aleksa K, Matsell D, Krausz K, Gelboin H, Ito S, Koren G. Cytochrome P450 3A and 2B6 in the developing kidney: implications for ifosfamide nephrotoxicity. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20:872-85.

Ali F, Raufi MA, Washington B, Ghali JK. Conivaptan: a dual vasopressin receptor v1a/v2 antagonist [corrected]. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2007; 25:261-79.

Al-Jenoobi FI, Al-Thukair AA, Abbas FA et al. Effect of black seed on dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects. Drug Metab Lett 2010; 4:51-5.

Allegaert K, van den Anker JN, Debeer A et al. Maturational changes in the in vivo activity of CYP3A4 in the first months of life. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 44:303-8.

Allegaert K, Verbesselt R, Rayyan M, Debeer A, de Hoon J. Urinary metabolites to assess in vivo ontogeny of hepatic drug metabolism in early neonatal life. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2007; 29:251-6.

Allis JW, Zhao G. Quantitative evaluation of bromodichloromethane metabolism by recombinant rat and human cytochrome P450s. Chem Biol Interact 2002; 140:137-53.

Allmyr M, Panagiotidis G, Sparve E, Diczfalusy U, Sandborgh-Englund G. Human exposure to triclosan via toothpaste does not change CYP3A4 activity or plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2009; 105:339-44.

Allqvist A, Miura J, Bertilsson L, Mirghani RA. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 catalyzed metabolism of alprazolam and quinine by ketoconazole as racemate and four different enantiomers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:173-9.

Almeida S, Zandoná MR, Franken N, Callegari-Jacques SM, Osório-Wender MC, Hutz MH. Estrogen-metabolizing gene polymorphisms and lipid levels in women with different hormonal status. Pharmacogenomics J 2005; 5:346-51.

Alon US. Clinical practice: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23: a new hormone. Eur J Pediatr 2011; 170:545-54.

Alonen A, Finel M, Kostiainen R. The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A3 is highly selective towards N2 in the tetrazole ring of losartan, candesartan, and zolarsartan. Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 76:763-72.

Alonen A, Jansson J, Kallonen S et al. Enzyme-assisted synthesis and structure characterization of glucuronic acid conjugates of losartan, candesartan, and zolarsartan. Bioorg Chem 2008; 36:148-55.

Althaus M, Retzow A, Castell JV et al. In vitro identification of the cytochrome P450 isoform responsible for the metabolism of alpha-dihydroergocryptine. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:1033-45.

Amchin J, Zarycranski W, Taylor KP, Albano D, Klockowski PM. Effect of venlafaxine on the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998; 34:211-9.

Amchin J, Zarycranski W, Taylor KP, Albano D, Klockowski PM. Effect of venlafaxine on the pharmacokinetics of terfenadine. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998; 34:383-9.

Amet Y, Berthou F, Baird S, Dreano Y, Bail JP, Menez JF. Validation of the (omega-1)-hydroxylation of lauric acid as an in vitro substrate probe for human liver CYP2E1. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 50:1775-82.

Amirimani B, Ning B, Deitz AC, Weber BL, Kadlubar FF, Rebbeck TR. Increased transcriptional activity of the CYP3A4*1B promoter variant. Environ Mol Mutagen 2003; 42:299-305.

Anapolsky A, Teng S, Dixit S, Piquette-Miller M. The role of pregnane X receptor in 2-acetylaminofluorene-mediated induction of drug transport and -metabolizing enzymes in mice. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:405-9.

Andersen V, Pedersen N, Larsen NE, Sonne J, Larsen S. Intestinal first pass metabolism of midazolam in liver cirrhosis -effect of grapefruit juice. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 54:120-4.

Anderson GD. A mechanistic approach to antiepileptic drug interactions. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32:554-63.

Anderson GD. Pregnancy-induced changes in pharmacokinetics: a mechanistic-based approach. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:989-1008.

Anderson GD. Using pharmacokinetics to predict the effects of pregnancy and maternal-infant transfer of drugs during lactation. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2006; 2:947-60.

Anderson GD. Gender differences in pharmacological response. Int Rev Neurobiol 2008; 83:1-10.

Anderson GD, Rosito G, Mohustsy MA, Elmer GW. Drug interaction potential of soy extract and Panax ginseng. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:643-8.

Andersson T, Hassan-Alin M, Hasselgren G, Röhss K, Weidolf L. Pharmacokinetic studies with esomeprazole, the (S)-isomer of omeprazole. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:411-26.

Andersson T, Hassan-Alin M, Hasselgren G, Röhss K. Drug interaction studies with esomeprazole, the (S)-isomer of omeprazole. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:523-37.

Ando H, Tsuruoka S, Yanagihara H et al. Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin and atorvastatin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:494-7.

Ando Y, Shimizu T, Nakamura K et al. Potent and non-specific inhibition of cytochrome P450 by JM216, a new oral platinum agent. Br J Cancer 1998; 78:1170-4.

Andrade RA, Evans RT, Hamill RJ, Zerai T, Giordano TP. Clinical evidence of interaction between itraconazole and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients with disseminated histoplasmosis. Ann Pharmacother 2009; 43:908-13.

Andrade RJ, Agúndez JA, Lucena MI, Martínez C, Cueto R, García-Martín E. Pharmacogenomics in drug induced liver injury. Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:956-70.

Andreasen AH, Brøsen K, Damkier P. A comparative pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers of the effect of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine on cyp3a4. Epilepsia 2007; 48:490-6.

Andrén L, Andreasson A, Eggertsen R. Interaction between a commercially available St. John’s wort product (Movina) and atorvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:913-6.

Andrews E, Damle BD, Fang A et al. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of voriconazole and a combination oral contraceptive co-administered in healthy female subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65:531-9.

Andrews E, Glue P, Fang J, Crownover P, Tressler R, Damle B. Assessment of the pharmacokinetics of co-administered maraviroc and raltegravir. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 69:51-7.

Andrews J, Abd-Ellah MF, Randolph NL et al. Comparative study of the metabolism of drug substrates by human cytochrome P450 3A4 expressed in bacterial, yeast and human lymphoblastoid cells. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:937-47.

Angiolillo DJ, Fernández-Ortiz A, Bernardo E et al. Contribution of gene sequence variations of the hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme to variability in individual responsiveness to clopidogrel. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26:1895-900.

Anglicheau D, Le Corre D, Lechaton S et al. Consequences of genetic polymorphisms for sirolimus requirements after renal transplant in patients on primary sirolimus therapy. Am J Transplant 2005; 5:595-603.

Anglicheau D, Legendre C, Beaune P, Thervet E. Cytochrome P450 3A polymorphisms and immunosuppressive drugs: an update. Pharmacogenomics 2007; 8:835-49.

Aninat C, Seguin P, Descheemaeker PN, Morel F, Malledant Y, Guillouzo A. Catecholamines induce an inflammatory response in human hepatocytes. Crit Care Med 2008; 36:848-54.

Annas A, Carlström K, Alván G, AL-Shurbaji A. The effect of ketoconazole and diltiazem on oestrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women after single dose oestradiol treatment. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56:334-6.

Antherieu S, Chesne C, Li R et al. Stable expression, activity and inducibility of cytochromes P450 in differentiated HepaRG cells. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:516-25.

Antia U. ‘Party pill’ drugs-BZP and TFMPP. N Z Med J 2009; 122:55-68.

Antia U, Tingle MD, Russell BR. Metabolic interactions with piperazine-based ‘party pill’ drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 61:877-82.

Antila S, Honkanen T, Lehtonen L, Neuvonen PJ. The CYP3A4 inhibitor intraconazole does not affect the pharmacokinetics of a new calcium-sensitizing drug levosimendan. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 36:446-9.

Antolino Lobo I, Meulenbelt J, Nijmeijer SM, Scherpenisse P, van den Berg M, van Duursen MB. Differential roles of phase I and phase II enzymes in 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine-induced cytotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1105-12.

Antoniou T, Tseng AL. Interactions between antiretrovirals and antineoplastic drug therapy. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:111-45.

Anttila AK, Rasanen L, Leinonen EV. Fluvoxamine augmentation increases serum mirtazapine concentrations three- to fourfold. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35:1221-3.

Anttila S, Hukkanen J, Hakkola J et al. Expression and localization of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in human lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1997; 16:242-9.

Anttila SA, Leinonen EV. A review of the pharmacological and clinical profile of mirtazapine. CNS Drug Rev 2001; 7:249-64.

Anzenbacherová E, Bec N, Anzenbacher P et al. Flexibility and stability of the structure of cytochromes P450 3A4 and BM-3. Eur J Biochem 2000; 267:2916-20.

Aoyama K, Yoshinari K, Kim HJ, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y. Simultaneous expression of plural forms of human cytochrome P450 at desired ratios in HepG2 cells: adenovirus-mediated tool for cytochrome P450 reconstitution. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2009; 24:209-17.

Aoyama T, Yamano S, Waxman DJ et al. Cytochrome P-450 hPCN3, a novel cytochrome P-450 IIIA gene product that is differentially expressed in adult human liver. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence and distinct specificities of cDNA-expressed hPCN1 and hPCN3 for the metabolism of steroid hormones and cyclosporine. J Biol Chem 1989; 264:10388-95.

Aplenc R, Glatfelter W, Han P et al. CYP3A genotypes and treatment response in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 2003; 122:240-4.

Appiah-Opong R, Commandeur JN, Axson C, Vermeulen NP. Interactions between cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and Ghanaian medicinal plants. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46:3598-603.

Appiah-Opong R, Commandeur JN, van Vugt-Lussenburg B, Vermeulen NP. Inhibition of human recombinant cytochrome P450s by curcumin and curcumin decomposition products. Toxicology 2007; 235:83-91.

Appiah-Opong R, de Esch I, Commandeur JN, Andarini M, Vermeulen NP. Structure-activity relationships for the inhibition of recombinant human cytochromes P450 by curcumin analogues. Eur J Med Chem 2008; 43:1621-31.

Araki K, Yasui-Furukori N, Fukasawa T et al. Inhibition of the metabolism of etizolam by itraconazole in humans: evidence for the involvement of CYP3A4 in etizolam metabolism. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 60:427-30.

Araki N, Tsuruoka S, Wang N et al. Human CYP3A4-introduced HepG2 cells: in vitro screening system of new chemicals for the evaluation of CYP3A4-inhibiting activity. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:1355-64.

Araya Z, Wikvall K. 6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1438:47-54.

Arayne MS, Sultana N, Bibi Z. Grape fruit juice-drug interactions. Pak J Pharm Sci 2005; 18:45-57.

Arbus C, Benyamina A, Llorca PM et al. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of cyamemazine. Eur J Pharm Sci 2007; 32:357-66.

Arellano C, Philibert C, Vachoux C, Woodley J, Houin G. The metabolism of midazolam and comparison with other CYP enzyme substrates during intestinal absorption: in vitro studies with rat everted gut sacs. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2007; 10:26-36.

Arikuma T, Yoshikawa S, Azuma R, Watanabe K, Matsumura K, Konagaya A. Drug interaction prediction using ontology-driven hypothetical assertion framework for pathway generation followed by numerical simulation. BMC Bioinformatics 2008; 9 Suppl 6:11.

Arimoto R, Prasad MA, Gifford EM. Development of CYP3A4 inhibition models: comparisons of machine-learning techniques and molecular descriptors. J Biomol Screen 2005; 10:197-205.

Arlander E, Ekström G, Alm C et al. Metabolism of ropivacaine in humans is mediated by CYP1A2 and to a minor extent by CYP3A4: an interaction study with fluvoxamine and ketoconazole as in vivo inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:484-91.

Armstrong SC, Wynn GH, Sandson NB. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of synthetic opiate analgesics. Psychosomatics 2009; 50:169-76.

Arold G, Donath F, Maurer A et al. No relevant interaction with alprazolam, caffeine, tolbutamide, and digoxin by treatment with a low-hyperforin St John’s wort extract. Planta Med 2005; 71:331-7.

Arora V, Cate ML, Ghosh C, Iversen PL. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino antisense oligomers inhibit expression of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and alter selected drug metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:757-62.

Arora V, Iversen PL. Redirection of drug metabolism using antisense technology. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2001; 3:249-57.

Arrington-Sanders R, Hutton N, Siberry GK. Ritonavir-fluticasone interaction causing Cushing syndrome in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25:1044-8.

Asano T, Kushida H, Sadakane C et al. Metabolism of ipecac alkaloids cephaeline and emetine by human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s, and their inhibitory effects on P450 enzyme activities. Biol Pharm Bull 2001; 24:678-82.

Asano T, Takahashi KA, Fujioka M et al. Genetic analysis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Orthop Sci 2003; 8:329-33.

Asberg A. Interactions between cyclosporin and lipid-lowering drugs: implications for organ transplant recipients. Drugs 2003; 63:367-78.

Asghar A, Gorski JC, Haehner-Daniels B, Hall SD. Induction of multidrug resistance-1 and cytochrome P450 mRNAs in human mononuclear cells by rifampin. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:20-6.

Assaraf YG. The role of multidrug resistance efflux transporters in antifolate resistance and folate homeostasis. Drug Resist Updat 2006; 9:227-46.

Assenat E, Gerbal-Chaloin S, Larrey D et al. Interleukin 1beta inhibits CAR-induced expression of hepatic genes involved in drug and bilirubin clearance. Hepatology 2004; 40:951-60.

Atack JR. GABA(A) receptor subtype-selective efficacy: TPA023, an alpha2/alpha3 selective non-sedating anxiolytic and alpha5IA, an alpha5 selective cognition enhancer. CNS Neurosci Ther 2008; 14:25-35.

Atanasova SY, von Ahsen N, Toncheva DI, Dimitrov TG, Oellerich M, Armstrong VW. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 among patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Clin Biochem 2005; 38:223-8.

Auerbach SS, Dekeyser JG, Stoner MA, Omiecinski CJ. CAR2 displays unique ligand binding and RXRalpha heterodimerization characteristics. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:428-39.

Auerbach SS, Stoner MA, Su S, Omiecinski CJ. Retinoid X receptor-alpha-dependent transactivation by a naturally occurring structural variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (NR1I3). Mol Pharmacol 2005; 68:1239-53.

Aurich H, Sgodda M, Kaltwasser P et al. Hepatocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue in vitro promotes hepatic integration in vivo. Gut 2009; 58:570-81.

Ayajiki K, Fujioka H, Toda N et al. Mediation of arachidonic acid metabolite(s) produced by endothelial cytochrome P-450 3A4 in monkey arterial relaxation. Hypertens Res 2003; 26:237-43.

Azarpira N, Ashraf MJ, Khademi B, Darai M, Hakimzadeh A, Abedi E. Study the polymorphism of CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 loci in Iranian population with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Biol Rep 2011; 38:5443-8.

Baba T, Touchi A, Ito K et al. Effects of serum albumin and liver cytosol on CYP2C9- and CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:522-31.

Babalola CP, Kolade YT, Olaniyi AA, Adedapo A, Scriba GK. Effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of halofantrine in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharm Ther 2009; 34:677-82.

Bachleda P, Vrzal R, Dvorák Z. Activation of MAPKs influences the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in primary human hepatocytes. Gen Physiol Biophys 2009; 28:316-20.

Bachleda P, Vrzal R, Pivnicka J, Cvek B, Dvorak Z. Examination of Zolpidem effects on AhR- and PXR-dependent expression of drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett 2009; 191:74-8.

Bachmann K, He Y, Sarver JG, Peng N. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of ethosuximide by human hepatic microsomal enzymes. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:265-76.

Bachmann K, Jauregui L, Chandra R, Thakker K. Influence of a 3-day regimen of azithromycin on the disposition kinetics of cyclosporine A in stable renal transplant patients. Pharmacol Res 2003; 47:549-54.

Backman JT, Granfors MT, Neuvonen PJ. Rifampicin is only a weak inducer of CYP1A2-mediated presystemic and systemic metabolism: studies with tizanidine and caffeine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:451-61.

Backman JT, Kyrklund C, Kivistö KT, Wang JS, Neuvonen PJ. Plasma concentrations of active simvastatin acid are increased by gemfibrozil. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:122-9.

Backman JT, Mäenpää J, Belle DJ, Wrighton SA, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of tangeretin and tangerine juice on midazolam hydroxylation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67:382-90.

Backman JT, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Rifampin drastically reduces plasma concentrations and effects of oral midazolam. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 59:7-13.

Backman JT, Wang JS, Wen X, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Mibefradil but not isradipine substantially elevates the plasma concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate triazolam. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:401-7.

Badawi AF, Cavalieri EL, Rogan EG. Role of human cytochrome P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, and 3A4 in the 2-, 4-, and 16alpha-hydroxylation of 17beta-estradiol. Metabolism 2001; 50:1001-3.

Bader A, Hansen T, Kirchner G, Allmeling C, Haverich A, Borlak JT. Primary porcine enterocyte and hepatocyte cultures to study drug oxidation reactions. Br J Pharmacol 2000; 129:331-42.

Bae SH, Bae SK, Lee MG. Effect of hepatic CYP inhibitors on the metabolism of sildenafil and formation of its metabolite, N-desmethylsildenafil, in rats in vitro and in vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 61:1637-42.

Baede-van Dijk PA, Hugen PW, Verweij-van Wissen CP, Koopmans PP, Burger DM, Hekster YA. Analysis of variation in plasma concentrations of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8 in HIV-positive patients. AIDS 2001; 15:991-8.

Baede-van Dijk PA, van Galen E, Lekkerkerker JF. Drug interactions of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) are potentially hazardous. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2000; 144:811-2.

Baek MS, Kim JY, Myung SW, Yim YH, Jeong JH, Kim DH. Metabolism of dimethyl-4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-dimethylene dioxybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate (DDB) by human liver microsomes: characterization of metabolic pathways and of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:381-8.

Baer BR, Rettie AE, Henne KR. Bioactivation of 4-ipomeanol by CYP4B1: adduct characterization and evidence for an enedial intermediate. Chem Res Toxicol 2005; 18:855-64.

Baer BR, Wienkers LC, Rock DA. Time-dependent inactivation of P450 3A4 by raloxifene: identification of Cys239 as the site of apoprotein alkylation. Chem Res Toxicol 2007; 20:954-64.

Bai S, Stepkowski SM, Kahan BD, Brunner LJ. Metabolic interaction between cyclosporine and sirolimus. Transplantation 2004; 77:1507-12.

Bailey DG, Bend JR, Arnold JM, Tran LT, Spence JD. Erythromycin-felodipine interaction: magnitude, mechanism, and comparison with grapefruit juice. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60:25-33.

Bailey DG, Dresser GK, Bend JR. Bergamottin, lime juice, and red wine as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity: comparison with grapefruit juice. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 73:529-37.

Bailey DG, Dresser GK, Kreeft JH, Munoz C, Freeman DJ, Bend JR. Grapefruit-felodipine interaction: effect of unprocessed fruit and probable active ingredients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:468-77.

Bailey DG, Dresser GK, Leake BF, Kim RB. Naringin is a major and selective clinical inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) in grapefruit juice. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81:495-502.

Bailey DG, Dresser GK. Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2004; 4:281-97.

Bailey DG, Malcolm J, Arnold O, Spence JD. Grapefruit juice-drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 46:101-10.

Bajrami B, Zhao L, Schenkman JB, Rusling JF. Rapid LC-MS drug metabolite profiling using microsomal enzyme bioreactors in a parallel processing format. Anal Chem 2009; 81:9921-9.

Bakare-Odunola MT, Enemali I, Garba M, Obodozie OO, Mustapha KB. The influence of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine on the pharmacokinetics of chlorpropamide in human subjects. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2008; 33:165-71.

Baker DE. Loperamide: a pharmacological review. Rev Gastroenterol Disord 2007; 7 Suppl 3:11-8.

Baker JR, Best AM, Pade PA, McCance-Katz EF. Effect of buprenorphine and antiretroviral agents on the QT interval in opioid-dependent patients. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40:392-6.

Baker JR, Satarug S, Reilly PE et al. Relationships between non-occupational cadmium exposure and expression of nine cytochrome P450 forms in human liver and kidney cortex samples. Biochem Pharmacol 2001; 62:713-21.

Baker MT, Olson MJ, Wang Y, Ronnenberg WC Jr, Johnson JT, Brady AN. Isoflurane-chlorodifluoroethene interaction in human liver microsomes. Role of cytochrome P4502B6 in potentiation of haloethene metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:60-4.

Baker SD, van Schaik RH, Rivory LP et al. Factors affecting cytochrome P-450 3A activity in cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10:8341-50.

Baker SD, Verweij J, Cusatis GA et al. Pharmacogenetic pathway analysis of docetaxel elimination. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 85:155-63.

Bakken GV, Rudberg I, Christensen H, Molden E, Refsum H, Hermann M. Metabolism of quetiapine by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in presence or absence of cytochrome B5. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:254-8.

Balakin KV, Ekins S, Bugrim A et al. Quantitative structure-metabolism relationship modeling of metabolic N-dealkylation reaction rates. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1111-20.

Balakin KV, Ekins S, Bugrim A et al. Kohonen maps for prediction of binding to human cytochrome P450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1183-9.

Ball SE, Ahern D, Scatina J, Kao J. Venlafaxine: in vitro inhibition of CYP2D6 dependent imipramine and desipramine metabolism; comparative studies with selected SSRIs, and effects on human hepatic CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43:619-26.

Ball SE, Maurer G, Zollinger M, Ladona M, Vickers AE. Characterization of the cytochrome P-450 gene family responsible for the N-dealkylation of the ergot alkaloid CQA 206-291 in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 1992; 20:56-63.

Ball SE, Scatina J, Kao J et al. Population distribution and effects on drug metabolism of a genetic variant in the 5’ promoter region of CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:288-94.

Ballard JE, Prueksaritanont T, Tang C. Hepatic metabolism of MK-0457, a potent aurora kinase inhibitor: interspecies comparison and role of human cytochrome P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1447-51.

Baltes MR, Dubois JG, Hanocq M. Application to drug-food interactions of living cells as in vitro model expressing cytochrome P450 activity: enzyme inhibition by lemon juice. Talanta 2001; 54:983-7.

Bandur S, Petrasek J, Hribova P, Novotna E, Brabcova I, Viklicky O. Haplotypic structure of ABCB1/MDR1 gene modifies the risk of the acute allograft rejection in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 2008; 86:1206-13.

Banfield C, Herron J, Keung A, Padhi D, Affrime M. Desloratadine has no clinically relevant electrocardiographic or pharmacodynamic interactions with ketoconazole. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41 Suppl 1:37-44.

Banfield C, Hunt T, Reyderman L, Statkevich P, Padhi D, Affrime M. Lack of clinically relevant interaction between desloratadine and erythromycin. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41 Suppl 1:29-35.

Bang L, Goa K. Oxcarbazepine: a review of its use in children with epilepsy. Paediatr Drugs 2003; 5:557-73.

Bang LM, Goa KL. Spotlight on oxcarbazepine in epilepsy. CNS Drugs 2004; 18:57-61.

Bangsi D, Zhou J, Sun Y et al. Impact of a genetic variant in CYP3A4 on risk and clinical presentation of prostate cancer among white and African-American men. Urol Oncol 2006; 24:21-7.

Baranczewski P, Möller L. Relationship between content and activity of cytochrome P450 and induction of heterocyclic amine DNA adducts in human liver samples in vivo and in vitro. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13:1071-8.

Barau C, Blouin P, Creput C, Taburet AM, Durrbach A, Furlan V. Effect of coadministered HIV-protease inhibitors on tacrolimus and sirolimus blood concentrations in a kidney transplant recipient. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2009; 23:423-5.

Barecki ME, Casciano CN, Johnson WW, Clement RP. In vitro characterization of the inhibition profile of loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-OH-desloratadine for five human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1173-5.

Baririan N, Desager JP, Petit M, Horsmans Y. CYP3A4 activity in four different animal species liver microsomes using 7-benzyloxyquinoline and HPLC/spectrofluorometric determination. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2006; 40:211-4.

Baririan N, Horsmans Y, Desager JP et al. Alfentanil-induced miosis clearance as a liver CYP3A4 and 3A5 activity measure in healthy volunteers: improvement of experimental conditions. J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 45:1434-41.

Baririan N, van Obbergh L, Desager JP et al. Alfentanil-induced miosis as a surrogate measure of alfentanil pharmacokinetics in patients with mild and moderate liver cirrhosis. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:261-70.

Barkin RL. Zolpidem extended-release: a single insomnia treatment option for sleep induction and sleep maintenance symptoms. Am J Ther 2007; 14:299-305.

Barner EL, Gray SL. Donepezil use in Alzheimer disease. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32:70-7.

Baron JM, Goh LB, Yao D, Wolf CR, Friedberg T. Modulation of P450 CYP3A4-dependent metabolism by P-glycoprotein: implications for P450 phenotyping. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 296:351-8.

Barone GW, Gurley BJ, Ketel BL, Lightfoot ML, Abul-Ezz SR. Drug interaction between St. John’s wort and cyclosporine. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34:1013-6.

Barque JP, Abahamid A, Flinois JP, Beaune P, Bonaly J. Constitutive overexpression of immunoidentical forms of PCP-induced Euglena gracilis CYP-450. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 298:277-81.

Barragan E, Collado M, Cervera J et al. The GST deletions and NQO1*2 polymorphism confers interindividual variability of response to treatment in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res 2007; 31:947-53.

Barthe L, Woodley J, Houin G. Gastrointestinal absorption of drugs: methods and studies. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1999; 13:154-68.

Bartik L, Whitfield GK, Kaczmarska M et al. Curcumin: a novel nutritionally derived ligand of the vitamin D receptor with implications for colon cancer chemoprevention. J Nutr Biochem 2010; 21:1153-61.

Bartsch H, Dally H, Popanda O, Risch A, Schmezer P. Genetic risk profiles for cancer susceptibility and therapy response. Recent Results Cancer Res 2007; 174:19-36.

Barwick JL, Quattrochi LC, Mills AS, Potenza C, Tukey RH, Guzelian PS. Trans-species gene transfer for analysis of glucocorticoid-inducible transcriptional activation of transiently expressed human CYP3A4 and rabbit CYP3A6 in primary cultures of adult rat and rabbit hepatocytes. Mol Pharmacol 1996; 50:10-6.

Bates DE, Herman RJ. Carbamazepine toxicity induced by lopinavir/ritonavir and nelfinavir. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40:1190-5.

Battino D, Croci D, Rossini A, Messina S, Mamoli D, Perucca E. Serum carbamazepine concentrations in elderly patients: a case-matched pharmacokinetic evaluation based on therapeutic drug monitoring data. Epilepsia 2003; 44:923-9.

Batty KT, Davis TM, Ilett KF, Dusci LJ, Langton SR. The effect of ciprofloxacin on theophylline pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 39:305-11.

Baulac M, Leppik IE. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive zonisamide therapy for refractory partial seizures. Epilepsy Res 2007; 75:75-83.

Bauman JN, Frederick KS, Sawant A et al. Comparison of the bioactivation potential of the antidepressant and hepatotoxin nefazodone with aripiprazole, a structural analog and marketed drug. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1016-29.

Baumann P. Care of depression in the elderly: comparative pharmacokinetics of SSRIs. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 13 Suppl 5:35-43.

Baumann P, Rochat B. Comparative pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a look behind the mirror. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1995; 10 Suppl 1:15-21.

Baumhäkel M, Kasel D, Rao-Schymanski RA et al. Screening for inhibitory effects of antineoplastic agents on CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 39:517-28.

Beaird SL. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: assessing differences in drug interactions and safety profiles. J Am Pharm Assoc 2000; 40:637-44.

Bearden DT, Neuhauser MM, Garey KW. Telithromycin: an oral ketolide for respiratory infections. Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21:1204-22.

Bebawy M, Chetty M. Gender differences in p-glycoprotein expression and function: effects on drug disposition and outcome. Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:322-8.

Bebia Z, Buch SC, Wilson JW et al. Bioequivalence revisited: influence of age and sex on CYP enzymes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:618-27.

Becker ML, Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, Stricker BH. Influence of genetic variation in CYP3A4 and ABCB1 on dose decrease or switching during simvastatin and atorvastatin therapy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2010; 19:75-81.

Becker SL. The role of pharmacological enhancement in protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2003; 12:401-12.

Beckmann-Knopp S, Rietbrock S, Weyhenmeyer R et al. Inhibitory effects of trospium chloride on cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 85:299-304.

Beckmann-Knopp S, Rietbrock S, Weyhenmeyer R et al. Inhibitory effects of silibinin on cytochrome P-450 enzymes in human liver microsomes. Pharmacol Toxicol 2000; 86:250-6.

Becquemont L, Camus M, Eschwege V et al. Lymphocyte P-glycoprotein expression and activity before and after rifampicin in man. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2000; 14:519-25.

Becquemont L, Chazouilleres O, Serfaty L et al. Effect of interferon alpha-ribavirin bitherapy on cytochrome P450 1A2 and 2D6 and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities in patients with chronic active hepatitis C. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:488-95.

Becquemont L, Glaeser H, Drescher S et al. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 79:449-60.

Becquemont L, Mouajjah S, Escaffre O, Beaune P, Funck-Brentano C, Jaillon P. Cytochrome P-450 3A4 and 2C8 are involved in zopiclone metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1068-73.

Beedham C, Miceli JJ, Obach RS. Ziprasidone metabolism, aldehyde oxidase, and clinical implications. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003; 23:229-32.

Begré S, von Bardeleben U, Ladewig D et al. Paroxetine increases steady-state concentrations of (R)-methadone in CYP2D6 extensive but not poor metabolizers. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2002; 22:211-5.

Beierle I, Meibohm B, Derendorf H. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 37:529-47.

Beil W, Sewing KF, Kromer W. Basic aspects of selectivity of pantoprazole and its pharmacological actions. Drugs Today 1999; 35:753-64.

Bell EC, Ravis WR, Chan HM, Lin YJ. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between St. John’s wort and prednisone. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:1819-24.

Bellec G, Dréano Y, Lozach P, Ménez JF, Berthou F. Cytochrome P450 metabolic dealkylation of nine N-nitrosodialkylamines by human liver microsomes. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17:2029-34.

Belloc C, Baird S, Cosme J et al. Human cytochromes P450 expressed in Escherichia coli: production of specific antibodies. Toxicology 1996; 106:207-19.

Beltinger J, Haschke M, Kaufmann P, Michot M, Terracciano L, Krähenbühl S. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with immunosuppressive cyclophosphamide dosing and roxithromycin. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40:767-70.

Benedetti MS. Enzyme induction and inhibition by new antiepileptic drugs: a review of human studies. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2000; 14:301-19.

Benedetti MS, Whomsley R, Canning M. Drug metabolism in the paediatric population and in the elderly. Drug Discov Today 2007; 12:599-610.

Benet LZ, Cummins CL, Wu CY. Transporter-enzyme interactions: implications for predicting drug-drug interactions from in vitro data. Curr Drug Metab 2003; 4:393-8.

Benet LZ, Cummins CL, Wu CY. Unmasking the dynamic interplay between efflux transporters and metabolic enzymes. Int J Pharm 2004; 277:3-9.

Benet LZ, Izumi T, Zhang Y, Silverman JA, Wacher VJ. Intestinal MDR transport proteins and P-450 enzymes as barriers to oral drug delivery. J Control Release 1999; 62:25-31.

Benetton SA, Borges VM, Chang TK, McErlane KM. Role of individual human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the in vitro metabolism of hydromorphone. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:335-44.

Benetton SA, Fang C, Yang YO et al. P450 phenotyping of the metabolism of selegiline to desmethylselegiline and methamphetamine. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:78-87.

Benod C, Subra G, Nahoum V et al. N-1H-benzimidazol-5-ylbenzenesulfonamide derivatives as potent hPXR agonists. Bioorg Med Chem 2008; 16:3537-49.

Berbel García A, Latorre Ibarra A, Porta Etessam J et al. Protease inhibitor-induced carbamazepine toxicity. Clin Neuropharmacol 2000; 23:216-8.

Berecz R, Dorado P, de la Rubia A, Cáceres MC, Degrell I, Llerena A. The role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the metabolism of risperidone and its clinical relevance for drug interactions. Curr Drug Targets 2004; 5:573-9.

Berge M, Chevalier P, Benammar M et al. Safe management of tacrolimus together with posaconazole in lung transplant patients with cystic fibrosis. Ther Drug Monit 2009; 31:396-9.

Berge M, Guillemain R, Boussaud V et al. Voriconazole pharmacokinetic variability in cystic fibrosis lung transplant patients. Transpl Infect Dis 2009; 11:211-9.

Berges R, Gsur A, Feik E et al. Association of polymorphisms in CYP19A1 and CYP3A4 genes with lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate volume, uroflow and PSA in a population-based sample. World J Urol 2011; 29:143-8.

Berggren S, Gall C, Wollnitz N et al. Gene and protein expression of P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2, and CYP3A4 in the small and large human intestine. Mol Pharm 2007; 4:252-7.

Berggren S, Lennernäs P, Ekelund M, Weström B, Hoogstraate J, Lennernäs H. Regional transport and metabolism of ropivacaine and its CYP3A4 metabolite PPX in human intestine. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003; 55:963-72.

Bergheim I, Bode C, Parlesak A. Distribution of cytochrome P450 2C, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5 in human colon mucosa. BMC Clin Pharmacol 2005; 5:4.

Bergheim I, Bode C, Parlesak A. Decreased expression of cytochrome P450 protein in non-malignant colonic tissue of patients with colonic adenoma. BMC Gastroenterol 2005; 5:34.

Bergheim I, Wolfgarten E, Bollschweiler E, Hölscher AH, Bode C, Parlesak A. Cytochrome P450 levels are altered in patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13:997-1002.

Berlin M, Ting PC, Vaccaro WD et al. Reduction of CYP450 inhibition in the 4-[(1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]piperidine series of histamine H3 receptor antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006; 16:989-94.

Bernauer U, Heinrich-Hirsch B, Tönnies M, Peter-Matthias W, Gundert-Remy U. Characterisation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing Cytochrome P450 expression pattern in human lung tissue by immunochemical and activity determination. Toxicol Lett 2006; 164:278-88.

Berndt SI, Chatterjee N, Huang WY et al. Variant in sex hormone-binding globulin gene and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16:165-8.

Bernini F, Poli A, Paoletti R. Safety of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: focus on atorvastatin. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2001; 15:211-8.

Berry LM, Zhao Z. An examination of IC50 and IC50-shift experiments in assessing time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Lett 2008; 2:51-9.

Berthou F, Dreano Y, Belloc C, Kangas L, Gautier JC, Beaune P. Involvement of cytochrome P450 3A enzyme family in the major metabolic pathways of toremifene in human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47:1883-95.

Bertilsson G, Berkenstam A, Blomquist P. Functionally conserved xenobiotic responsive enhancer in cytochrome P450 3A7. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 280:139-44.

Bertilsson L, Tybring G, Widén J, Chang M, Tomson T. Carbamazepine treatment induces the CYP3A4 catalysed sulphoxidation of omeprazole, but has no or less effect on hydroxylation via CYP2C19. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:186-9.

Bertilsson PM, Olsson P, Magnusson KE. Cytokines influence mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and MDRI in intestinal cells. J Pharm Sci 2001; 90:638-46.

Bertrand J, Treluyer JM, Panhard X et al. Influence of pharmacogenetics on indinavir disposition and short-term response in HIV patients initiating HAART. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65:667-78.

Bethke L, Webb E, Sellick G et al. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk. BMC Cancer 2007; 7:123.

Beulz-Riché D, Grudé P, Puozzo C et al. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the metabolism of vinorelbine. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2005; 19:545-53.

Beulz-Riché D, Robert J, Riché C, Ratanasavanh D. Effects of paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen and cyclosporine on the metabolism of methoxymorpholinodoxorubicin in human liver microsomes. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2002; 49:274-80.

Beuten J, Gelfond JA, Franke JL et al. Single and multigenic analysis of the association between variants in 12 steroid hormone metabolism genes and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18:1869-80.

Beyeler C, Frey BM, Bird HA. Urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1997; 36:54-8.

Bhardwaj RK, Glaeser H, Becquemont L, Klotz U, Gupta SK, Fromm MF. Piperine, a major constituent of black pepper, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 302:645-50.

Bharucha AE, Skaar T, Andrews CN et al. Relationship of cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics to the effects of yohimbine on gastrointestinal transit and catecholamines in healthy subjects. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20:891-9.

Bhatnagar V, Garcia EP, O’Connor DT et al. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms and blood pressure response to amlodipine among African-American men and women with early hypertensive renal disease. Am J Nephrol 2010; 31:95-103.

Bhumbra NA, Sahloff EG, Oehrtman SJ, Horner JM. Exogenous Cushing syndrome with inhaled fluticasone in a child receiving lopinavir/ritonavir. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:1306-9.

Bidstrup TB, Bjørnsdottir I, Sidelmann UG, Thomsen MS, Hansen KT. CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 are the principal enzymes involved in the human in vitro biotransformation of the insulin secretagogue repaglinide. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56:305-14.

Bidstrup TB, Damkier P, Olsen AK, Ekblom M, Karlsson A, Brøsen K. The impact of CYP2C8 polymorphism and grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 61:49-57.

Bidstrup TB, Stilling N, Damkier P, Scharling B, Thomsen MS, Brøsen K. Rifampicin seems to act as both an inducer and an inhibitor of the metabolism of repaglinide. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 60:109-14.

Bieler CA, Arlt VM, Wiessler M, Schmeiser HH. DNA adduct formation by the environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in V79 cells expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cancer Lett 2003; 200:9-18.

Biggs JS, Wan J, Cutler NS et al. Transcription factor binding to a putative double E-box motif represses CYP3A4 expression in human lung cells. Mol Pharmacol 2007; 72:514-25.

Bilgi N, Bell K, Ananthakrishnan AN, Atallah E. Imatinib and Panax ginseng: a potential interaction resulting in liver toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 2010; 44:926-8.

Bischoff E. Vardenafil preclinical trial data: potency, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and adverse events. Int J Impot Res 2004; 16 Suppl 1:34-7.

Bistrup C, Nielsen FT, Jeppesen UE, Dieperink H. Effect of grapefruit juice on Sandimmun Neoral absorption among stable renal allograft recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16:373-7.

Björkman S. Prediction of drug disposition in infants and children by means of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling: theophylline and midazolam as model drugs. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 59:691-704.

Björkman S. Prediction of cytochrome p450-mediated hepatic drug clearance in neonates, infants and children: how accurate are available scaling methods? Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45:1-11.

Blagojevic A, Delaney JA, Lévesque LE, Dendukuri N, Boivin JF, Brophy JM. Investigation of an interaction between statins and clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009; 18:362-9.

Blake JA, Pritchard M, Ding S et al. Coexpression of a human P450 (CYP3A4) and P450 reductase generates a highly functional monooxygenase system in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett 1996; 397:210-4.

Blake MJ, Abdel-Rahman SM, Pearce RE, Leeder JS, Kearns GL. Effect of diet on the development of drug metabolism by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in healthy infants. Pediatr Res 2006; 60:717-23.

Blakey GE, Lockton JA, Perrett J et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment of a five-probe metabolic cocktail for CYPs 1A2, 3A4, 2C9, 2D6 and 2E1. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:162-9.

Blanco JG, Edick MJ, Hancock ML et al. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and NQO1 in children who developed therapy-related myeloid malignancies. Pharmacogenetics 2002; 12:605-11.

Blanco JG, Harrison PL, Evans WE, Relling MV. Human cytochrome P450 maximal activities in pediatric versus adult liver. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:379-82.

Bland TM, Haining RL, Tracy TS, Callery PS. CYP2C-catalyzed delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolism: kinetics, pharmacogenetics and interaction with phenytoin. Biochem Pharmacol 2005; 70:1096-103.

Bleasby K, Castle JC, Roberts CJ et al. Expression profiles of 50 xenobiotic transporter genes in humans and pre-clinical species: a resource for investigations into drug disposition. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:963-88.

Blech S, Ludwig-Schwellinger E, Gräfe-Mody EU, Withopf B, Wagner K. The metabolism and disposition of the oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:667-78.

Bliesath H, Huber R, Steinijans VW, Koch HJ, Kunz K, Wurst W. Pantoprazole does not interact with nifedipine in man under steady-state conditions. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 34:51-5.

Blokzijl H, van der Borght S, Bok LI et al. Decreased P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1) expression in inflamed human intestinal epithelium is independent of PXR protein levels. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13:710-20.

Blume H, Donath F, Warnke A, Schug BS. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction profiles of proton pump inhibitors. Drug Saf 2006; 29:769-84.

Bodin K, Bretillon L, Aden Y et al. Antiepileptic drugs increase plasma levels of 4beta-hydroxycholesterol in humans: evidence for involvement of cytochrome p450 3A4. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:38685-9.

Bodin K, Lindbom U, Diczfalusy U. Novel pathways of bile acid metabolism involving CYP3A4. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005; 1687:84-93.

Boek-Dohalská L, Hodek P, Sulc M, Stiborová M. alpha-Naphthoflavone acts as activator and reversible or irreversible inhibitor of rabbit microsomal CYP3A6. Chem Biol Interact 2001; 138:85-106.

Bogaards JJ, van Ommen B, Wolf CR, van Bladeren PJ. Human cytochrome P450 enzyme selectivities in the oxidation of chlorinated benzenes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1995; 132:44-52.

Bogaards JJ, Venekamp JC, van Bladeren PJ. The biotransformation of isoprene and the two isoprene monoepoxides by human cytochrome P450 enzymes, compared to mouse and rat liver microsomes. Chem Biol Interact 1996; 102:169-82.

Bohets H, Lavrijsen K, Hendrickx J et al. Identification of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of cisapride: in vitro studies of potential co-medication interactions. Br J Pharmacol 2000; 129:1655-67.

Böhmer GM, Drollmann A, Gleiter CH, Nave R. Effect of coadministered ketoconazole, a strong cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of ciclesonide and its active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide. Clin Pharmacokinet 2008; 47:343-9.

Bohnenstengel F, Hofmann U, Eichelbaum M, Kroemer HK. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 involved in side-chain oxidation of cyclophosphamide in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 51:297-301.

Bolland MJ, Bagg W, Thomas MG, Lucas JA, Ticehurst R, Black PN. Cushing’s syndrome due to interaction between inhaled corticosteroids and itraconazole. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38:46-9.

Bolt HM. Rifampicin, a keystone inducer of drug metabolism: from Herbert Remmer’s pioneering ideas to modern concepts. Drug Metab Rev 2004; 36:497-509.

Bolufer P, Collado M, Barragán E et al. The potential effect of gender in combination with common genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the risk of developing acute leukemia. Haematologica 2007; 92:308-14.

Bolufer P, Collado M, Barragan E et al. Profile of polymorphisms of drug-metabolising enzymes and the risk of therapy-related leukaemia. Br J Haematol 2007; 136:590-6.

Bombail V, Taylor K, Gibson GG, Plant N. Role of Sp1, C/EBP alpha, HNF3, and PXR in the basal- and xenobiotic-mediated regulation of the CYP3A4 gene. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:525-35.

Bomsien S, Aderjan R, Mattern R, Skopp G. Effect of psychotropic medication on the in vitro metabolism of buprenorphine in human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:639-43.

Bomsien S, Skopp G. An in vitro approach to potential methadone metabolic-inhibition interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:821-7.

Bondolfi G, Chautems C, Rochat B, Bertschy G, Baumann P. Non-response to citalopram in depressive patients: pharmacokinetic and clinical consequences of a fluvoxamine augmentation. Psychopharmacology 1996; 128:421-5.

Boni J, Leister C, Burns J, Cincotta M, Hug B, Moore L. Pharmacokinetic profile of temsirolimus with concomitant administration of cytochrome p450-inducing medications. J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 47:1430-9.

Boni JP, Hug B, Leister C, Sonnichsen D. Intravenous temsirolimus in cancer patients: clinical pharmacology and dosing considerations. Semin Oncol 2009; 36 Suppl 3:18-25.

Boni JP, Leister C, Burns J, Hug B. Differential effects of ketoconazole on exposure to temsirolimus following intravenous infusion of temsirolimus. Br J Cancer 2008; 98:1797-802.

Bonn B, Masimirembwa CM, Castagnoli N Jr. Exploration of catalytic properties of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 through metabolic studies of levorphanol and levallorphan. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:187-99.

Bonnabry P, Leemann T, Dayer P. Role of human liver microsomal CYP2C9 in the biotransformation of lornoxicam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 49:305-8.

Bonnabry P, Sievering J, Leemann T, Dayer P. Quantitative drug interactions prediction system (Q-DIPS): a computer-based prediction and management support system for drug metabolism interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:341-7.

Bonora-Centelles A, Jover R, Mirabet V et al. Sequential hepatogenic transdifferentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells: relevance of different extracellular signaling molecules, transcription factors involved and expression of new key marker genes. Cell Transplant 2009; 18:1319-40.

Boobis AR, McKillop D, Robinson DT, Adams DA, McCormick DJ. Interlaboratory comparison of the assessment of P450 activities in human hepatic microsomal samples. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:493-506.

Boocock DJ, Brown K, Gibbs AH, Sánchez E, Turteltaub KW, White IN. Identification of human CYP forms involved in the activation of tamoxifen and irreversible binding to DNA. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23:1897-901.

Borlak J, Zwadlo C. Expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, nuclear transcription factors and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:927-43.

Bortezomib: new indication. Second-line treatment of myeloma: limited efficacy, major risks. Prescrire Int 2006; 15:98-100.

Bosch TM, Deenen M, Pruntel R et al. Screening for polymorphisms in the PXR gene in a Dutch population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:395-9.

Bosch TM, Doodeman VD, Smits PH, Meijerman I, Schellens JH, Beijnen JH. Pharmacogenetic screening for polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in a Dutch population. Mol Diagn Ther 2006; 10:175-85.

Bosch TM, Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolising enzymes and drug transporters in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45:253-85.

Botsch S, Gautier JC, Beaune P, Eichelbaum M, Kroemer HK. Identification and characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in N-dealkylation of propafenone: molecular base for interaction potential and variable disposition of active metabolites. Mol Pharmacol 1993; 43:120-6.

Böttiger Y. Use of omeprazole sulfone in a single plasma sample as a probe for CYP3A4. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:621-5.

Böttiger Y, Säwe J, Brattström C et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between single oral doses of diltiazem and sirolimus in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69:32-40.

Böttiger Y, Tybring G, Götharson E, Bertilsson L. Inhibition of the sulfoxidation of omeprazole by ketoconazole in poor and extensive metabolizers of S-mephenytoin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:384-91.

Bottorff MB. Statin safety and drug interactions: clinical implications. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97:27-31.

Boulton DW, Arnaud P, DeVane CL. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone enantiomers after a single oral dose of racemate. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:48-57.

Bournique B, Lambert N, Boukaiba R, Martinet M. In vitro metabolism and drug interaction potential of a new highly potent anti-cytomegalovirus molecule, CMV423 (2-chloro 3-pyridine 3-yl 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizine I-carboxamide). Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 52:53-63.

Bournique B, Petry M, Gousset G. Usefulness of statistic experimental designs in enzymology: example with recombinant hCYP3A4 and 1A2. Anal Biochem 1999; 276:18-26.

Bourrié M, Meunier V, Berger Y, Fabre G. Cytochrome P450 isoform inhibitors as a tool for the investigation of metabolic reactions catalyzed by human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 277:321-32.

Bourrié M, Meunier V, Berger Y, Fabre G. Role of cytochrome P-4502C9 in irbesartan oxidation by human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:288-96.

Bowen WP, Carey JE, Miah A et al. Measurement of cytochrome P450 gene induction in human hepatocytes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:781-8.

Boyd RA, Stern RH, Stewart BH et al. Atorvastatin coadministration may increase digoxin concentrations by inhibition of intestinal P-glycoprotein-mediated secretion. J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 40:91-8.

Boyer SH, Sun Z, Jiang H et al. Synthesis and characterization of a novel liver-targeted prodrug of cytosine-1-beta-D-arabinofuranoside monophosphate for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Med Chem 2006; 49:7711-20.

Bozina N, Bradamante V, Lovrić M. Genetic polymorphism of metabolic enzymes P450 (CYP) as a susceptibility factor for drug response, toxicity, and cancer risk. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2009; 60:217-42.

Brachtendorf L, Jetter A, Beckurts KT, Hölscher AH, Fuhr U. Cytochrome P450 enzymes contributing to demethylation of maprotiline in man. Pharmacol Toxicol 2002; 90:144-9.

Brackbill ML, Kidd RS, Abdoo AD, Warner JG Jr, Harralson AF. Frequency of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 variant alleles in patients receiving clopidogrel that experience repeat acute coronary syndrome. Heart Vessels 2009; 24:73-8.

Brackett CC, Bloch JD. Phenytoin as a possible cause of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: case report and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20:229-33.

Branch RA, Chern HD, Adedoyin A et al. The procarcinogen hypothesis for bladder cancer: activities of individual drug metabolizing enzymes as risk factors. Pharmacogenetics 1995; 5 Spec No:S97-102.

Brandes LJ. N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl) phenoxy] ethanamine (DPPE; tesmilifene), a chemopotentiating agent with hormetic effects on DNA synthesis in vitro, may improve survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Hum Exp Toxicol 2008; 27:143-7.

Brandes LJ, Queen GM, LaBella FS. N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethanamine (DPPE) a chemopotentiating and cytoprotective agent in clinical trials: interaction with histamine at cytochrome P450 3A4 and other isozymes that metabolize antineoplastic drugs. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2000; 45:298-304.

Brandhorst G, Tenderich G, Zittermann A et al. Everolimus exposure in cardiac transplant recipients is influenced by concomitant calcineurin inhibitor. Ther Drug Monit 2008; 30:113-6.

Brandin H, Myrberg O, Rundlöf T, Arvidsson AK, Brenning G. Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:565-70.

Brandin H, Viitanen E, Myrberg O, Arvidsson AK. Effects of herbal medicinal products and food supplements on induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in the human colon carcinoma cell line LS180. Phytother Res 2007; 21:239-44.

Brandon EF, Sparidans RW, Guijt KJ et al. In vitro characterization of the human biotransformation and CYP reaction phenotype of ET-743 (Yondelis, Trabectidin), a novel marine anti-cancer drug. Invest New Drugs 2006; 24:3-14.

Brandon EF, Sparidans RW, Meijerman I, Manzanares I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. In vitro characterization of the biotransformation of thiocoraline, a novel marine anti-cancer drug. Invest New Drugs 2004; 22:241-51.

Brandon EF, Sparidans RW, van Ooijen RD et al. In vitro characterization of the human biotransformation pathways of aplidine, a novel marine anti-cancer drug. Invest New Drugs 2007; 25:9-19.

Brandt JT, Close SL, Iturria SJ et al. Common polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel but not prasugrel. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5:2429-36.

Bredberg E, Andersson TB, Frison L et al. Ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, has a low potential for cytochrome P450-mediated drug-drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:765-77.

Breinholt VM, Offord EA, Brouwer C, Nielsen SE, Brøsen K, Friedberg T. In vitro investigation of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of dietary flavonoids. Food Chem Toxicol 2002; 40:609-16.

Brennan B, Chiu Y, Berthelon L, Kolis S, Davies B. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of R667, a novel agent for the treatment of emphysema, in healthy volunteers. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2007; 10:9-16.

Brennan BJ, Brown AB, Kolis SJ, Rutman O, Gooden C, Davies BE. Effect of R667, a novel emphysema agent, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in healthy men. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46:222-8.

Bressler R. Grapefruit juice and drug interactions. Exploring mechanisms of this interaction and potential toxicity for certain drugs. Geriatrics 2006; 61:12-8.

Breuer MA, Schmidt B, Schuphan I. Utility of Nicotiana tabacum cell suspension cultures expressing human CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 to study the oxidative metabolism of the herbicide 14C-fluometuron. Drug Metab Lett 2009; 3:18-27.

Brigelius-Flohé R. Vitamin E and drug metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; 305:737-40.

Brigelius-Flohé R. Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by vitamin E. J Plant Physiol 2005; 162:797-802.

Brill S, Zimmermann C, Berger K, Drewe J, Gutmann H. In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration-to peel or not to peel? Planta Med 2009; 75:332-5.

Brimer C, Dalton JT, Zhu Z et al. Creation of polarized cells coexpressing CYP3A4, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res 2000; 17:803-10.

Brophy DF, Israel DS, Pastor A et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between amprenavir and clarithromycin in healthy male volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44:978-84.

Brophy JM, Babapulle MN, Costa V, Rinfret S. A pharmacoepidemiology study of the interaction between atorvastatin and clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention. Am Heart J 2006; 152:263-9.

Brøsen K. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and therapeutic drug monitoring in psychiatry. Ther Drug Monit 1996; 18:393-6.

Brøsen K. Differences in interactions of SSRIs. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 13 Suppl 5:45-7.

Brøsen K, Naranjo CA. Review of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction studies with citalopram. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2001; 11:275-83.

Brown CS, Farmer RG, Soberman JE, Eichner SF. Pharmacokinetic factors in the adverse cardiovascular effects of antipsychotic drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:33-56.

Brown HS, Galetin A, Hallifax D, Houston JB. Prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions from in vitro data: factors affecting prototypic drug-drug interactions involving CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45:1035-50.

Brown HS, Ito K, Galetin A, Houston JB. Prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions from in vitro data: impact of incorporating parallel pathways of drug elimination and inhibitor absorption rate constant. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:508-18.

Brown SD. Benefit-risk assessment of telithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Drug Saf 2008; 31:561-75.

Bruns S, Stark Y, Röker S et al. Collagen biomaterial doped with colominic acid for cell culture applications with regard to peripheral nerve repair. J Biotechnol 2007; 131:335-45.

Brynne N, Böttiger Y, Hallén B, Bertilsson L. Tolterodine does not affect the human in vivo metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine, debrisoquine and omeprazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47:145-50.

Brynne N, Forslund C, Hallén B, Gustafsson LL, Bertilsson L. Ketoconazole inhibits the metabolism of tolterodine in subjects with deficient CYP2D6 activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:564-72.

Bu HZ. A literature review of enzyme kinetic parameters for CYP3A4-mediated metabolic reactions of 113 drugs in human liver microsomes: structure-kinetics relationship assessment. Curr Drug Metab 2006; 7:231-49.

Bu HZ, Knuth K, Magis L, Teitelbaum P. High-throughput cytochrome P450 inhibition screening via cassette probe-dosing strategy. IV. Validation of a direct injection on-line guard cartridge extraction/tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous CYP3A4, 2D6 and 2E1 inhibition assessment. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2000; 4:1943-8.

Bu HZ, Pool WF, Wu EY, Raber SR, Amantea MA, Shetty BV. Metabolism and excretion of capravirine, a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, alone and in combination with ritonavir in healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:689-98.

Bu HZ, Zhao P, Kang P, Pool WF, Wu EY. Identification of enzymes responsible for primary and sequential oxygenation reactions of capravirine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1798-802.

Bu HZ, Zhao P, Kang P, Pool WF, Wu EY, Shetty BV. Evaluation of capravirine as a CYP3A probe substrate: in vitro and in vivo metabolism of capravirine in rats and dogs. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1593-602.

Buchanan FF, Myles PS, Cicuttini F. Patient sex and its influence on general anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care 2009; 37:207-18.

Buchkowsky SS, Partovi N, Ensom MH. Clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring of itraconazole is warranted in only a subset of patients. Ther Drug Monit 2005; 27:322-33.

Buczko W, Hermanowicz JM. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aliskiren, an oral direct renin inhibitor. Pharmacol Rep 2008; 60:623-31.

Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000; 7:273-82.

Budzinski JW, Trudeau VL, Drouin CE, Panahi M, Arnason JT, Foster BC. Modulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cell monolayers by selected commercial-source milk thistle and goldenseal products. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2007; 85:966-78.

Bui PH, Hsu EL, Hankinson O. Fatty acid hydroperoxides support cytochrome P450 2S1-mediated bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol. Mol Pharmacol 2009; 76:1044-52.

Bui PH, Quesada A, Handforth A, Hankinson O. The mibefradil derivative NNC55-0396, a specific T-type calcium channel antagonist, exhibits less CYP3A4 inhibition than mibefradil. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1291-9.

Buratti FM, Leoni C, Testai E. Foetal and adult human CYP3A isoforms in the bioactivation of organophosphorothionate insecticides. Toxicol Lett 2006; 167:245-55.

Buratti FM, Testai E. Evidences for CYP3A4 autoactivation in the desulfuration of dimethoate by the human liver. Toxicology 2007; 241:33-46.

Buratti FM, Volpe MT, Meneguz A, Vittozzi L, Testai E. CYP-specific bioactivation of four organophosphorothioate pesticides by human liver microsomes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2003; 186:143-54.

Burk O, Arnold KA, Nussler AK et al. Antimalarial artemisinin drugs induce cytochrome P450 and MDR1 expression by activation of xenosensors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67:1954-65.

Burk O, Koch I, Raucy J et al. The induction of cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) in the human liver and intestine is mediated by the xenobiotic sensors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutively activated receptor (CAR). J Biol Chem 2004; 279:38379-85.

Burk O, Tegude H, Koch I et al. Molecular mechanisms of polymorphic CYP3A7 expression in adult human liver and intestine. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:24280-8.

Burstein AH, Horton RL, Dunn T, Alfaro RM, Piscitelli SC, Theodore W. Lack of effect of St John’s Wort on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:605-12.

Burstein AH, Reiss WG, Kantor E, Anderson GD. Cytochrome P450 3A4 activity in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on 6-beta-hydroxycortisol:cortisol ratios. Pharmacotherapy 1998; 18:1271-6.

Burt HJ, Galetin A, Houston JB. IC50-based approaches as an alternative method for assessment of time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:331-43.

Burton JR, Burton I, Pearson GJ. Clopidogrel-precipitated rhabdomyolysis in a stable heart transplant patient. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:133-7.

Busby WF Jr, Ackermann JM, Crespi CL. Effect of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile on in vitro activities of cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:246-9.

Busby WF Jr, Penman BW, Crespi CL. Human cell mutagenicity of mono- and dinitropyrenes in metabolically competent MCL-5 cells. Mutat Res 1994; 322:233-42.

Busi F, Cresteil T. CYP3A5 mRNA degradation by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 68:808-15.

Busse D, Cosme J, Beaune P, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M. Cytochromes of the P450 2C subfamily are the major enzymes involved in the O-demethylation of verapamil in humans. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1995; 353:116-21.

Busse KH, Penzak SR. Darunavir: a second-generation protease inhibitor. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64:1593-602.

Busti AJ, Hall RG, Margolis DM. Atazanavir for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pharmacotherapy 2004; 24:1732-47.

Buters JT, Korzekwa KR, Kunze KL, Omata Y, Hardwick JP, Gonzalez FJ. cDNA-directed expression of human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using baculovirus. Drug Metab Dispos 1994; 22:688-92.

Butler AM, Murray M. Biotransformation of parathion in human liver: participation of CYP3A4 and its inactivation during microsomal parathion oxidation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 280:966-73.

Buzdar AU, Robertson JF. Fulvestrant: pharmacologic profile versus existing endocrine agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40:1572-83.

Bylund J, Kunz T, Valmsen K, Oliw EH. Cytochromes P450 with bisallylic hydroxylation activity on arachidonic and linoleic acids studied with human recombinant enzymes and with human and rat liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 284:51-60.

Cable EE, Finn PD, Stebbins JW et al. Reduction of hepatic steatosis in rats and mice after treatment with a liver-targeted thyroid hormone receptor agonist. Hepatology 2009; 49:407-17.

Caboni P, Sammelson RE, Casida JE. Phenylpyrazole insecticide photochemistry, metabolism, and GABAergic action: ethiprole compared with fipronil. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51:7055-61.

Cabrera SE, Santos D, Valverde MP et al. Influence of the cytochrome P450 2B6 genotype on population pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in human immunodeficiency virus patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:2791-8.

Cacabelos R. Pharmacogenomics and therapeutic strategies for dementia. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2009; 9:567-611.

Caccia S. Biotransformation of post-clozapine antipsychotics: pharmacological implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 38:393-414.

Caccia S. New antipsychotic agents for schizophrenia: pharmacokinetics and metabolism update. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2002; 3:1073-80.

Caccia S. Metabolism of the newest antidepressants: comparisons with related predecessors. IDrugs 2004; 7:143-50.

Caccia S. N-dealkylation of arylpiperazine derivatives: disposition and metabolism of the 1-aryl-piperazines formed. Curr Drug Metab 2007; 8:612-22.

Cai J, Zhao Y, Liu Y et al. Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into functional hepatic cells. Hepatology 2007; 45:1229-39.

Cai P, Tsao R, Ruppen ME. In vitro metabolic study of temsirolimus: preparation, isolation, and identification of the metabolites. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1554-63.

Calabresi L, Pazzucconi F, Ferrara S, Di Paolo A, Tacca MD, Sirtori C. Pharmacokinetic interactions between omeprazole/pantoprazole and clarithromycin in health volunteers. Pharmacol Res 2004; 49:493-9.

Caley CF, Cooper CK. Ziprasidone: the fifth atypical antipsychotic. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36:839-51.

Callahan SM, Wonganan P, Croyle MA. Molecular and macromolecular alterations of recombinant adenoviral vectors do not resolve changes in hepatic drug metabolism during infection. Virol J 2008; 5:111.

Cameron MD, Wen B, Allen KE et al. Cooperative binding of midazolam with testosterone and alpha-naphthoflavone within the CYP3A4 active site: a NMR T1 paramagnetic relaxation study. Biochemistry 2005; 44:14143-51.

Cameron MD, Wen B, Roberts AG, Atkins WM, Campbell AP, Nelson SD. Cooperative binding of acetaminophen and caffeine within the P450 3A4 active site. Chem Res Toxicol 2007; 20:1434-41.

Cameron MD, Wright J, Black CB, Ye N. In vitro prediction and in vivo verification of enantioselective human tofisopam metabolite profiles. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1894-902.

Canaparo R, Finnström N, Serpe L et al. Expression of CYP3A isoforms and P-glycoprotein in human stomach, jejunum and ileum. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2007; 34:1138-44.

Canaparo R, Nordmark A, Finnström N et al. Expression of cytochromes P450 3A and P-glycoprotein in human large intestine in paired tumour and normal samples. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007; 100:240-8.

Cantrell MA, Bream-Rouwenhorst HR, Hemerson P, Magera JS Jr. Silodosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Ann Pharmacother 2010; 44:302-10.

Cao W, Cao YJ, Hu ZY et al. Inhibition of 1,3,8-trihydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone on cytochrome P450s. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2006; 31:858-61.

Cao X, Gibbs ST, Fang L et al. Why is it challenging to predict intestinal drug absorption and oral bioavailability in human using rat model. Pharm Res 2006; 23:1675-86.

Cao YF, Zhang YY, Li J et al. CYP3A catalyses schizandrin biotransformation in human, minipig and rat liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:38-47.

Caraco Y. Genetic determinants of drug responsiveness and drug interactions. Ther Drug Monit 1998; 20:517-24.

Caraco Y, Lagerstrom PO, Wood AJ. Ethnic and genetic determinants of omeprazole disposition and effect. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60:157-67.

Caraco Y, Tateishi T, Guengerich FP, Wood AJ. Microsomal codeine N-demethylation: cosegregation with cytochrome P4503A4 activity. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:761-4.

Cardona Pera D. Drug-food interactions. Nutr Hosp 1999; 14 Suppl 2:129-40.

Carmo H, Brulport M, Hermes M et al. Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘Ecstasy’) cytotoxicity. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:789-99.

Carmo H, Brulport M, Hermes M et al. CYP2D6 increases toxicity of the designer drug 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA). Toxicology 2007; 229:236-44.

Caro AA, Cederbaum AI. Synergistic toxicity of iron and arachidonic acid in HepG2 cells overexpressing CYP2E1. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 60:742-52.

Caro AA, Cederbaum AI. Inhibition of CYP2E1 catalytic activity in vitro by S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Biochem Pharmacol 2005; 69:1081-93.

Caron G, Ermondi G, Testa B. Predicting the oxidative metabolism of statins: an application of the MetaSite algorithm. Pharm Res 2007; 24:480-501.

Carr B, Norcross R, Fang Y et al. Characterization of the rhesus monkey CYP3A64 enzyme: species comparisons of CYP3A substrate specificity and kinetics using baculovirus-expressed recombinant enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1703-12.

Carrasco-Portugal Mdel C, Aguilar-Carrasco JC, Luján M, Reyes-García G, Medina-Santillán R, Flores-Murrieta FJ. Further evidence for interethnic differences in the oral pharmacokinetics of meloxicam. Clin Drug Investig 2005; 25:307-13.

Carrasco-Portugal Mdel C, Luján M, Flores-Murrieta FJ. Evaluation of gender in the oral pharmacokinetics of clindamycin in humans. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2008; 29:427-30.

Casabar RC, Das PC, Dekrey GK et al. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2010; 245:335-43.

Casabar RC, Wallace AD, Hodgson E, Rose RL. Metabolism of endosulfan-alpha by human liver microsomes and its utility as a simultaneous in vitro probe for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1779-85.

Castberg I, Spigset O. Effects of comedication on the serum levels of aripiprazole: evidence from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring service. Pharmacopsychiatry 2007; 40:107-10.

Castell JV, Donato MT, Gómez-Lechón MJ. Metabolism and bioactivation of toxicants in the lung. The in vitro cellular approach. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2005; 57 Suppl 1:189-204.

Cavaco I, Gil JP, Gil-Berglund E, Ribeiro V. CYP3A4 and MDR1 alleles in a Portuguese population. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003; 41:1345-50.

Cavaco I, Reis R, Gil JP, Ribeiro V. CYP3A4*1B and NAT2*14 alleles in a native African population. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003; 41:606-9.

Cazali N, Tran A, Treluyer JM et al. Inhibitory effect of stiripentol on carbamazepine and saquinavir metabolism in human. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56:526-36.

Cerveny L, Svecova L, Anzenbacherova E et al. Valproic acid induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1032-41.

César TB, Manthey JA, Myung K. Minor furanocoumarins and coumarins in grapefruit peel oil as inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 3A4. J Nat Prod 2009; 2:1702-4.

Chakrapani BP, Kumar S, Subramaniam JR. Development and evaluation of an in vivo assay in Caenorhabditis elegans for screening of compounds for their effect on cytochrome P450 expression. J Biosci 2008; 33:269-77.

Chalkiadis GA, Anderson BJ, Tay M, Bjorksten A, Kelly JJ. Pharmacokinetics of levobupivacaine after caudal epidural administration in infants less than 3 months of age. Br J Anaesth 2005; 95:524-9.

Chamberlin KW, Cottle M, Neville R, Tan J. Oral oxymorphone for pain management. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:1144-52.

Chan JD. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of vinca alkaloids: summary of case reports. Pharmacotherapy 1998; 18:1304-7.

Chan LM, Cooper AE, Dudley AL, Ford D, Hirst BH. P-glycoprotein potentiates CYP3A4-mediated drug disappearance during Caco-2 intestinal secretory detoxification. J Drug Target 2004; 12:405-13.

Chan WK, Delucchi AB. Resveratrol, a red wine constituent, is a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 3A4. Life Sci 2000; 67:3103-12.

Chan WK, Nguyen LT, Miller VP, Harris RZ. Mechanism-based inactivation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by grapefruit juice and red wine. Life Sci 1998; 62:135-42.

Chang HC, Chen TL, Chen RM. Cytoskeleton interruption in human hepatoma HepG2 cells induced by ketamine occurs possibly through suppression of calcium mobilization and mitochondrial function. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:24-31.

Chang JH, Kochansky CJ, Shou M. The role of P-glycoprotein in the bioactivation of raloxifene. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:2073-8.

Chang SY, Chen C, Yang Z, Rodrigues AD. Further assessment of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol as an inhibitor of different human cytochrome P450 forms in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1667-75.

Chang SY, Fancher RM, Zhang H, Gan J. Mechanism-based inhibition of human cytochrome P4503A4 by domperidone. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:138-45.

Chang SY, Li W, Traeger SC et al. Confirmation that cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) plays a minor role in (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-ibuprofen hydroxylation in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2513-22.

Chang TK, Yeung RK. Effect of trans-resveratrol on 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-dealkylation catalyzed by human recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2001; 79:220-6.

Chang TK, Yu L, Maurel P, Waxman DJ. Enhanced cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide activation in primary human hepatocyte cultures: response to cytochrome P-450 inducers and autoinduction by oxazaphosphorines. Cancer Res 1997; 57:1946-54.

Chantarangsu S, Cressey TR, Mahasirimongkol S et al. Influence of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on the persistence of plasma nevirapine concentrations following a single intra-partum dose for the prevention of mother to child transmission in HIV-infected Thai women. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 64:1265-73.

Chapman TM, Goa KL. Cilostazol: a review of its use in intermittent claudication. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2003; 3:117-38.

Charasson V, Haaz MC, Robert J. Determination of drug interactions occurring with the metabolic pathways of irinotecan. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:731-3.

Charbit B, Becquemont L, Lepère B, Peytavin G, Funck-Brentano C. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between grapefruit juice and halofantrine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:514-23.

Charles KA, Rivory LP, Brown SL, Liddle C, Clarke SJ, Robertson GR. Transcriptional repression of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 gene in the presence of cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:7492-7.

Chatterjee P, Franklin MR. Human cytochrome p450 inhibition and metabolic-intermediate complex formation by goldenseal extract and its methylenedioxyphenyl components. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1391-7.

Chauret N, Yergey JA, Brideau C et al. In vitro metabolism considerations, including activity testing of metabolites, in the discovery and selection of the COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib (MK-0663). Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2001; 11:1059-62.

Cheer SM, Goa KL. Fluoxetine: a review of its therapeutic potential in the treatment of depression associated with physical illness. Drugs 2001; 61:81-110.

Chefson A, Auclair K. CYP3A4 activity in the presence of organic cosolvents, ionic liquids, or water-immiscible organic solvents. Chembiochem 2007; 8:1189-97.

Chefson A, Zhao J, Auclair K. Sugar-mediated lyoprotection of purified human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. J Biotechnol 2007; 130:436-40.

Chen AY, Lee AJ, Jiang XR, Zhu BT. Chemical synthesis of six novel 17beta-estradiol and estrone dimers and study of their formation catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 isoforms. J Med Chem 2007; 50:5372-81.

Chen BL, Chen Y, Tu JH et al. Clopidogrel inhibits CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole related to CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 49:574-81.

Chen C, Chen Y, Pontillo J et al. Potent and orally bioavailable zwitterion GnRH antagonists with low CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:3301-5.

Chen C, Thakker DR. The fallacy of using adrenochrome reaction for measurement of reactive oxygen species formed during cytochrome p450-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 300:417-20.

Chen C, Wu D, Guo Z et al. Discovery of sodium R-(+)-4-{2-[5-(2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-fluoro-6-[trifluoromethyl]benzyl)-4-methyl-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl]-1-phenylethylamino}butyrate (elagolix), a potent and orally available nonpeptide antagonist of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. J Med Chem 2008; 51:7478-85.

Chen CS, Jounaidi Y, Waxman DJ. Enantioselective metabolism and cytotoxicity of R-ifosfamide and S-ifosfamide by tumor cell-expressed cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1261-7.

Chen H, Chen W, Gan LS, Mutlib AE. Metabolism of (S)-5,6-difluoro-4-cyclopropylethynyl-4-trifluoromethyl-3, 4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinazolinone, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, in human liver microsomes. Metabolic activation and enzyme kinetics. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:122-32.

Chen H, Howald WN, Juchau MR. Biosynthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid from all-trans-retinol: catalysis of all-trans-retinol oxidation by human P-450 cytochromes. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:315-22.

Chen H, Zientek M, Jalaie M, Zhang Y, Bigge C, Mutlib A. Characterization of cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation of a compound containing the chemical scaffold, 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carboxylic acid-(4-chlorophenyl amide), to a chemically reactive p-chlorophenyl isocyanate intermediate in human liver microsomes. Chem Res Toxicol 2009; 22:1603-12.

Chen J, Tran C, Xiao L et al. Co-induction of CYP3A12 and 3A26 in dog liver slices by xenobiotics: species difference between human and dog CYP3A induction. Drug Metab Lett 2009; 3:61-6.

Chen J, Yang XX, Huang M et al. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of cytochrome P450 3A4 gene. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1650-7.

Chen JT, Chen RM. Mechanisms of ketamine-involved regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2010; 6:273-81.

Chen Q, Wu J, Yu Y. Establishment of transgenic cell line CHL-3A4 and its metabolic activation. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 1998; 32:281-4.

Chen S, Wang K, Wan YJ. Retinoids activate RXR/CAR-mediated pathway and induce CYP3A. Biochem Pharmacol 2010; 9:270-6.

Chen X, Wang H, Zhou G et al. Molecular population genetics of human CYP3A locus: signatures of positive selection and implications for evolutionary environmental medicine. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117:1541-8.

Chen Y, Liu L, Laille E, Kumar G, Surapaneni S. In vitro assessment of cytochrome P450 inhibition and induction potential of azacitidine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2010; 65:995-1000.

Chen Y, Tang Y, Chen S, Nie D. Regulation of drug resistance by human pregnane X receptor in breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 2009; 8:1265-72.

Chen Y, Tang Y, Wang MT, Zeng S, Nie D. Human pregnane X receptor and resistance to chemotherapy in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2007; 67:10361-7.

Chen YX, Cabana B, Kivel N, Pieniaszek H, Gilman S, Michaelis A. Lack of effect of rifalazil on ethinyl estradiol pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 45:418-22.

Chen Z, Dunning LA, Anderson KE, Holtzman JL, Zheng W. Within-person variability of urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol to urinaryl ratios in Caucasian women. Steroids 2004; 69:67-70.

Chenel M, Bouzom F, Aarons L, Ogungbenro K. Drug-drug interaction predictions with PBPK models and optimal multiresponse sampling time designs: application to midazolam and a phase I compound. Part 1: comparison of uniresponse and multiresponse designs using PopDes. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2008; 35:635-59.

Chenel M, Bouzom F, Cazade F, Ogungbenro K, Aarons L, Mentré F. Drug-drug interaction predictions with PBPK models and optimal multiresponse sampling time designs: application to midazolam and a phase I compound. Part 2: clinical trial results. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2008; 35:661-81.

Cheng J, Ma X, Krausz KW, Idle JR, Gonzalez FJ. Rifampicin-activated human pregnane X receptor and CYP3A4 induction enhance acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1611-21.

Cheng J, Wan DF, Gu JR et al. Establishment of a yeast system that stably expresses human cytochrome P450 reductase: application for the study of drug metabolism of cytochrome P450s in vitro. Protein Expr Purif 2006; 47:467-76.

Cheng JW. Bosentan. Heart Dis 2003; 5:161-9.

Cheng N, Wauthier E, Reid LM. Mature human hepatocytes from ex vivo differentiation of alginate-encapsulated hepatoblasts. Tissue Eng 2008; 14:1-7.

Cheng Q, Sohl CD, Guengerich FP. High-throughput fluorescence assay of cytochrome P450 3A4. Nat Protoc 2009; 4:1258-61.

Cheng ZN, Shu Y, Liu ZQ, Wang LS, Ou-Yang DS, Zhou HH. Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2001; 22:148-54.

Chenhsu RY, Loong CC, Chou MH, Lin MF, Yang WC. Renal allograft dysfunction associated with rifampin-tacrolimus interaction. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34:27-31.

Chesné C, Guyomard C, Guillouzo A, Schmid J, Ludwig E, Sauter T. Metabolism of Meloxicam in human liver involves cytochromes P4502C9 and 3A4. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:1-13.

Chetty M, d’Esposito F, Zhang WV et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the inhibition potential of risperidone toward clozapine biotransformation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68:574-9.

Chetty M, Murray M. CYP-mediated clozapine interactions: how predictable are they? Curr Drug Metab 2007; 8:307-13.

Cheung C, Gonzalez FJ. Humanized mouse lines and their application for prediction of human drug metabolism and toxicological risk assessment. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008; 327:288-99.

Cheung C, Yu AM, Chen CS et al. Growth hormone determines sexual dimorphism of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 expression in transgenic mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 316:1328-34.

Chew WM, Xu MJ, Cordova CA, Chow HH. Quantification of a cytochrome P450 3A4 substrate, buspirone, in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2006; 844:235-9.

Chhun S, Verstuyft C, Rizzo-Padoin N et al. Gefitinib-phenytoin interaction is not correlated with the C-erythromycin breath test in healthy male volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68:226-37.

Chiba M, Hensleigh M, Nishime JA, Balani SK, Lin JH. Role of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human metabolism of MK-639, a potent human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:307-14.

Chiba M, Jin L, Neway W et al. P450 interaction with HIV protease inhibitors: relationship between metabolic stability, inhibitory potency, and P450 binding spectra. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1-3.

Chiba M, Nishime JA, Neway W, Lin Y, Lin JH. Comparative in vitro metabolism of indinavir in primates-a unique stereoselective hydroxylation in monkey. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:117-29.

Chiba M, Tang C, Neway WE et al. P450 interaction with farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitors metabolic stability, inhibitory potency, and P450 binding spectra in human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 2001; 62:773-6.

Chiba M, Xu X, Nishime JA, Balani SK, Lin JH. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of montelukast, a potent leukotriene D4 receptor antagonist, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:1022-31.

Chien CC, Yen BL, Lee FK et al. In vitro differentiation of human placenta-derived multipotent cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Stem Cells 2006; 24:1759-68.

Chiron C. Stiripentol. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 14:905-11.

Chiron C. Stiripentol. Neurotherapeutics 2007; 4:123-5.

Cho TM, Rose RL, Hodgson E. In vitro metabolism of naphthalene by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:176-83.

Cho TM, Rose RL, Hodgson E. The effect of chlorpyrifos-oxon and other xenobiotics on the human cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of naphthalene and deet. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2007; 22:235-62.

Choi DH, Chang KS, Hong SP, Choi JS, Han HK. Effect of atorvastatin on the intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of verapamil in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2008; 29:45-50.

Choi DH, Chung JH, Choi JS. Pharmacokinetic interaction between oral lovastatin and verapamil in healthy subjects: role of P-glycoprotein inhibition by lovastatin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:285-90.

Choi DH, Shin WG, Choi JS. Drug interaction between oral atorvastatin and verapamil in healthy subjects: effects of atorvastatin on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and norverapamil. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:445-9.

Choi I, Kim SY, Kim H et al. Classification models for CYP450 3A4 inhibitors and non-inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem 2009; 44:2354-60.

Choi JH, Lee YJ, Jang SB, Lee JE, Kim KH, Park K. Influence of the CYP3A5 and MDR1 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in healthy Korean subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 64:185-91.

Choi JS, Burm JP. Effect of pioglitazone on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its major metabolite, norverapamil, in rats. Arch Pharm Res 2008; 31:1200-4.

Choi JS, Choi BC, Kang KW. Effect of resveratrol on the pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous nicardipine in rats: possible role of P-glycoprotein inhibition by resveratrol. Pharmazie 2009; 64:49-52.

Choi JS, Han HK. The effect of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its major metabolite, norverapamil, in rabbits. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004; 56:1537-42.

Choi JS, Han HK. Pharmacokinetic interaction between diltiazem and morin, a flavonoid, in rats. Pharmacol Res 2005; 52:386-91.

Choi JS, Kang KW. Enhanced tamoxifen bioavailability after oral administration of tamoxifen in rats pretreated with naringin. Arch Pharm Res 2008; 31:1631-6.

Choi JS, Li X. The effect of verapamil on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel in rats. Eur J Pharm Sci 2005; 24:95-100.

Choi MH, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. Characterization of testosterone 11 beta-hydroxylation catalyzed by human liver microsomal cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:714-8.

Choi SJ, Ji HY, Lee HY, Lee DH, Lim H, Lee HS. In vitro metabolism of a new H(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitor DBM-819 in liver microsomes using HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr 2001; 15:503-6.

Chong E, Ensom MH. Pharmacogenetics of the proton pump inhibitors: a systematic review. Pharmacotherapy 2003; 23:460-71.

Chou YC, Chung YT, Liu TY et al. The oxidative metabolism of dimemorfan by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. J Pharm Sci 2010; 99:1063-77.

Choudhuri S, Valerio LG Jr. Usefulness of studies on the molecular mechanism of action of herbals/botanicals: The case of St. John’s wort. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2005; 19:1-11.

Chougnet A, Grinkova Y, Ricard D, Sligar S, Woggon WD. Fluorescent probes for rapid screening of potential drug-drug interactions at the CYP3A4 level. ChemMedChem 2007; 2:717-24.

Chouinard G, Lefko-Singh K, Teboul E. Metabolism of anxiolytics and hypnotics: benzodiazepines, buspirone, zoplicone, and zolpidem. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1999; 19:533-52.

Chow HH, Garland LL, Hsu CH et al. Resveratrol modulates drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in a healthy volunteer study. Cancer Prev Res 2010; 3:1168-75.

Chow HH, Hakim IA, Vining DR et al. Effects of repeated green tea catechin administration on human cytochrome P450 activity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15:2473-6.

Chowbay B, Cumaraswamy S, Cheung YB, Zhou Q, Lee EJ. Genetic polymorphisms in MDR1 and CYP3A4 genes in Asians and the influence of MDR1 haplotypes on cyclosporin disposition in heart transplant recipients. Pharmacogenetics 2003; 13:89-95.

Chowbay B, Zhou S, Lee EJ. An interethnic comparison of polymorphisms of the genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters: experience in Singapore. Drug Metab Rev 2005; 37:327-78.

Christensen H, Asberg A, Holmboe AB, Berg KJ. Coadministration of grapefruit juice increases systemic exposure of diltiazem in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 58:515-20.

Christensen H, Mathiesen L, Postvoll LW, Winther B, Molden E. Different enzyme kinetics of midazolam in recombinant CYP3A4 microsomes from human and insect sources. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2009; 24:261-8.

Christensen M, Andersson K, Dalén P et al. The Karolinska cocktail for phenotyping of five human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 73:517-28.

Chu W, Fyles A, Sellers EM et al. Association between CYP3A4 genotype and risk of endometrial cancer following tamoxifen use. Carcinogenesis 2007; 28:2139-42

Chugh R, Wagner T, Griffith KA et al. Assessment of ifosfamide pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and relation to CYP3A4 activity as measured by the erythromycin breath test in patients with sarcoma. Cancer 2007; 109:2315-22.

Chun YJ, Lee S, Yang SA, Park S, Kim MY. Modulation of CYP3A4 expression by ceramide in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 298:687-92.

Chun YJ, Park S, Yang SA. Activation of Fas receptor modulates cytochrome P450 3A4 expression in human colon carcinoma cells. Toxicol Lett 2003; 146:75-81.

Ciccacci C, Borgiani P, Ceffa S et al. Nevirapine-induced hepatotoxicity and pharmacogenetics: a retrospective study in a population from Mozambique. Pharmacogenomics 2010; 11:23-31.

Ciervo CA, Shi J. Pharmacokinetics of telithromycin: application to dosing in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Curr Med Res Opin 2005; 21:1641-50.

Ciusani E, Zullino DF, Eap CB, Brawand-Amey M, Brocard M, Baumann P. Combination therapy with venlafaxine and carbamazepine in depressive patients not responding to venlafaxine: pharmacokinetic and clinical aspects. J Psychopharmacol 2004; 18:559-66.

Clarke MW, Burnett JR, Croft KD. Vitamin E in human health and disease. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2008; 45:417-50.

Clarke MW, Burnett JR, Wu JH et al. Vitamin E supplementation and hepatic drug metabolism in humans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2009; 54:491-6.

Clarke SJ, Rivory LP. Clinical pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 36:99-114.

Clarke TA, Waskell LA. The metabolism of clopidogrel is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A and is inhibited by atorvastatin. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:53-9.

Clay PG, Adams MM. Pseudo-Parkinson disease secondary to ritonavir-buspirone interaction. Ann Pharmacother 2003; 37:202-5.

Cobos-Trigueros N, Ateka O, Pitart C, Vila J. Macrolides and ketolides. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2009; 27:412-8.

Cockshott ID. Bicalutamide: clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:855-78.

Cofán F, Gutiérrez R, Beardo P, Campistol JM, Oppenheimer F, Alcover J. Interaction between sildenafil and calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplant recipients with erectile dysfunction. Nefrologia 2002; 22:470-6.

Cohen LH, van Leeuwen RE, van Thiel GC, van Pelt JF, Yap SH. Equally potent inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in human hepatocytes have distinguishable effects on different cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2000; 21:353-64.

Coleman MD, Smith SN, Kelly DE, Kelly SL, Seydel JK. Studies on the toxicity of analogues of dapsone in-vitro using rat, human and heterologously expressed metabolizing systems. J Pharm Pharmacol 1996; 48:945-50.

Coleman S, Linderman R, Hodgson E, Rose RL. Comparative metabolism of chloroacetamide herbicides and selected metabolites in human and rat liver microsomes. Environ Health Perspect 2000; 108:1151-7.

Coleman T, Ellis SW, Martin IJ, Lennard MS, Tucker GT. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is N-demethylated by cytochromes P450 2D6, 1A2 and 3A4-implications for susceptibility to Parkinson’s disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 277:685-90.

Coller JK, Christrup LL, Somogyi AA. Role of active metabolites in the use of opioids. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65:121-39.

Coller JK, Krebsfaenger N, Klein K et al. The influence of CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 genotypes on the formation of the potent antioestrogen Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen in human liver. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 54:157-67.

Coller JK, Krebsfaenger N, Klein K et al. Large interindividual variability in the in vitro formation of tamoxifen metabolites related to the development of genotoxicity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:105-11.

Coller JK. Oxidative metabolism of tamoxifen to Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen by cytochrome P450 isoforms: an appraisal of in vitro studies. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2003; 30:845-8.

Coller JK, Somogyi AA, Bochner F. Flunitrazepam oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes: involvement of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:973-86.

Coller JK, Somogyi AA, Bochner F. Comparison of (S)-mephenytoin and proguanil oxidation in vitro: contribution of several CYP isoforms. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:158-67.

Colombo S, Buclin T, Cavassini M et al. Population pharmacokinetics of atazanavir in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50:3801-8.

Congiu M, Mashford ML, Slavin JL, Desmond PV. Coordinate regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporters by nuclear transcription factors in human liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 24:1038-44.

Conus P, Bondolfi G, Eap CB, Macciardi F, Baumann P. Pharmacokinetic fluvoxamine-clomipramine interaction with favorable therapeutic consequences in therapy-resistant depressive patient. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996; 29:108-10.

Cook CS, Berry LM, Kim DH, Burton EG, Hribar JD, Zhang L. Involvement of CYP3A in the metabolism of eplerenone in humans and dogs: differential metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1344-51.

Cooper BW, Cho TM, Thompson PM, Wallace AD. Phthalate induction of CYP3A4 is dependent on glucocorticoid regulation of PXR expression. Toxicol Sci 2008; 103:268-77.

Cooper KJ, Martin PD, Dane AL, Warwick MJ, Raza A, Schneck DW. The effect of erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:51-6.

Cooper KJ, Martin PD, Dane AL, Warwick MJ, Schneck DW, Cantarini MV. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 73:322-9.

Corbera J, Vaño D, Martínez D et al. A medicinal-chemistry-guided approach to selective and druglike sigma 1 ligands. ChemMedChem 2006; 1:140-54.

Corbett AH, Lim ML, Kashuba AD. Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir). Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36:1193-203.

Corona G, Razzoli E, Forti G, Maggi M. The use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors with concomitant medications. J Endocrinol Invest 2008; 31:799-808.

Correia MA, Sadeghi S, Mundo-Paredes E. Cytochrome P450 ubiquitination: branding for the proteolytic slaughter? Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2005; 45:439-64.

Corso C, Parry EM. The application of comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization to the characterization of genotoxicity screening tester strains AHH-1 and MCL-5. Mutagenesis 1999; 14:417-26.

Corti N, Heck A, Rentsch K et al. Effect of ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole: an interaction study in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65:999-1006.

Côté CS, Kor C, Cohen J, Auclair K. Composition and biological activity of traditional and commercial kava extracts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 322:147-52.

Coto E, Tavira B. Pharmacogenetics of calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplantation. Transplantation 2009; 88(3 Suppl):62-7.

Coumoul X, Diry M, Barouki R. PXR-dependent induction of human CYP3A4 gene expression by organochlorine pesticides. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 64:1513-9.

Cousein E, Barthélémy C, Poullain S et al. P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 involvement in risperidone transport using an in vitro Caco-2/TC7 model and an in vivo model. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007; 31:878-86.

Coutts RT, Su P, Baker GB. Involvement of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and other cytochrome P-450 isozymes in N-dealkylation reactions. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1994; 31:177-86.

Cox MC, Low J, Lee J et al. Influence of garlic (Allium sativum) on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:4636-40.

Crespi CL, Fox L, Stocker P, Hu M, Steimel DT. Analysis of drug transport and metabolism in cell monolayer systems that have been modified by cytochrome P4503A4 cDNA-expression. Eur J Pharm Sci 2000; 12:63-8.

Crespi CL, Langenbach R, Penman BW. Human cell lines, derived from AHH-1 TK+/- human lymphoblasts, genetically engineered for expression of cytochromes P450. Toxicology 1993; 82:89-104.

Crespi CL, Penman BW, Hu M. Development of Caco-2 cells expressing high levels of cDNA-derived cytochrome P4503A4. Pharm Res 1996; 13:1635-41.

Crespi CL, Penman BW, Steimel DT, Gelboin HV, Gonzalez FJ. The development of a human cell line stably expressing human CYP3A4: role in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 and comparison to CYP1A2 and CYP2A3. Carcinogenesis 1991; 12:355-9.

Crespi CL, Penman BW. Use of cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 enzymes to study potential drug-drug interactions. Adv Pharmacol 1997; 43:171-88.

Crespo M, Mir M, Marin M, Hurtado S et al. De novo kidney transplant recipients need higher doses of Advagraf compared with Prograf to get therapeutic levels. Transplant Proc 2009; 41:2115-7.

Cresteil T. Onset of xenobiotic metabolism in children: toxicological implications. Food Addit Contam 1998; 15 Suppl:45-51.

Cresteil T, Monsarrat B, Dubois J, Sonnier M, Alvinerie P, Gueritte F. Regioselective metabolism of taxoids by human CYP3A4 and 2C8: structure-activity relationship. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:438-45.

Crettol S, Déglon JJ, Besson J et al. ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 genotypes and phenotypes: influence on methadone plasma levels and response to treatment. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 80:668-81.

Crettol S, Venetz JP, Fontana M, Aubert JD, Pascual M, Eap CB. CYP3A7, CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms, cyclosporine concentration, and dose requirement in transplant recipients. Ther Drug Monit 2008; 30:689-99.

Crewe HK, Ellis SW, Lennard MS, Tucker GT. Variable contribution of cytochromes P450 2D6, 2C9 and 3A4 to the 4-hydroxylation of tamoxifen by human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 53:171-8.

Cribb A, Nuss C, Wang R. Antipeptide antibodies against overlapping sequences differentially inhibit human CYP2D6. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:671-5.

Crivori P, Zamora I, Speed B, Orrenius C, Poggesi I. Model based on GRID-derived descriptors for estimating CYP3A4 enzyme stability of potential drug candidates. J Comput Aided Mol Des 2004; 18:155-66.

Crocenzi FA, Sánchez Pozzi EJ, Pellegrino JM et al. Beneficial effects of silymarin on estrogen-induced cholestasis in the rat: a study in vivo and in isolated hepatocyte couplets. Hepatology 2001; 34:329-39.

Croera C, Ferrario D, Gribaldo L. In vitro toxicity of naphthalene, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone on human CFU-GM from female and male cord blood donors. Toxicol In Vitro 2008; 22:1555-61.

Croom EL, Stevens JC, Hines RN, Wallace AD, Hodgson E. Human hepatic CYP2B6 developmental expression: the impact of age and genotype. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 78:184-90.

Cui X, Thomas A, Gerlach V, White RE, Morrison RA, Cheng KC. Application and interpretation of hPXR screening data: Validation of reporter signal requirements for prediction of clinically relevant CYP3A4 inducers. Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 76:680-9.

Cummins CL, Jacobsen W, Benet LZ. Unmasking the dynamic interplay between intestinal P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 300:1036-45.

Cummins CL, Jacobsen W, Christians U, Benet LZ. CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells as a tool for understanding biochemical absorption barriers: studies with sirolimus and midazolam. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 308:143-55.

Cummins CL, Mangravite LM, Benet LZ. Characterizing the expression of CYP3A4 and efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP1, and MRP2) in CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells after induction with sodium butyrate and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Pharm Res 2001; 18:1102-9.

Curry SC, Watts DJ, Katz KD, Bikin D, Bukaveckas BL. The effect of single-dose tramadol on oxycodone clearance. J Emerg Med 2007; 33:407-11.

Czerwinski M, McLemore TL, Philpot RM et al. Metabolic activation of 4-ipomeanol by complementary DNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450: evidence for species-specific metabolism. Cancer Res 1991; 51:4636-8.

Cziraky MJ, Willey VJ, McKenney JM et al. Statin safety: an assessment using an administrative claims database. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97:61-68.

Dabrowski MJ, Schrag ML, Wienkers LC, Atkins WM. Pyrene. pyrene complexes at the active site of cytochrome P450 3A4: evidence for a multiple substrate binding site. J Am Chem Soc 2002; 124:11866-7.

Dadashzadeh S, Javadian B, Sadeghian S. The effect of gender on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and norverapamil in human. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2006; 27:329-34.

Dahan A, Amidon GL. Grapefruit juice and its constituents augment colchicine intestinal absorption: potential hazardous interaction and the role of p-glycoprotein. Pharm Res 2009; 26:883-92.

Dahl ML. Cytochrome p450 phenotyping/genotyping in patients receiving antipsychotics: useful aid to prescribing? Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:453-70.

Dai CL, Liang YJ, Chen LM et al. Sensitization of ABCB1 overexpressing cells to chemotherapeutic agents by FG020326 via binding to ABCB1 and inhibiting its function. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 78:355-64.

Dai CL, Xiong HY, Tang LF et al. Tetrandrine achieved plasma concentrations capable of reversing MDR in vitro and had no apparent effect on doxorubicin pharmacokinetics in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2007; 60:741-50.

Dai D, Tang J, Rose R et al. Identification of variants of CYP3A4 and characterization of their abilities to metabolize testosterone and chlorpyrifos. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 299:825-31.

Dai J, Zhang F, Zheng J. Retrorsine, but not monocrotaline, is a mechanism-based inactivator of P450 3A4. Chem Biol Interact 2010; 183:49-56.

Dai Y, Hebert MF, Isoherranen N et al. Effect of CYP3A5 polymorphism on tacrolimus metabolic clearance in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:836-47.

Dai Y, Iwanaga K, Lin YS et al. In vitro metabolism of cyclosporine A by human kidney CYP3A5. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 68:1889-902.

Dally H, Bartsch H, Jäger B et al. Genotype relationships in the CYP3A locus in Caucasians. Cancer Lett 2004; 207:95-9.

Dally H, Edler L, Jäger B et al. The CYP3A4*1B allele increases risk for small cell lung cancer: effect of gender and smoking dose. Pharmacogenetics 2003; 13:607-18.

Daly AK. Pharmacogenetics of the cytochromes P450. Curr Top Med Chem 2004; 4:1733-44.

Daly AK. Significance of the minor cytochrome P450 3A isoforms. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45:13-31.

Daly AK, Aithal GP. Genetic regulation of warfarin metabolism and response. Semin Vasc Med 2003; 3:231-8.

Damkier P, Brøsen K. Quinidine as a probe for CYP3A4 activity: intrasubject variability and lack of correlation with probe-based assays for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:199-209.

Damkier P, Hansen LL, Brosen K. Effect of diclofenac, disulfiram, itraconazole, grapefruit juice and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of quinidine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:829-38.

Damkier P, Hansen LL, Brøsen K. Rifampicin treatment greatly increases the apparent oral clearance of quinidine. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 85:257-62.

Daniel W. Metabolism of psychotropic drugs: pharmacological and clinical relevance. Pol J Pharmacol 1995; 47:367-79.

Dannenberg LO, Edenberg HJ. Epigenetics of gene expression in human hepatoma cells: expression profiling the response to inhibition of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. BMC Genomics 2006; 7:181.

Dapkunas J, Sazonovas A, Japertas P. Probabilistic prediction of the human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 metabolism sites. Chem Biodivers 2009; 6:2101-6.

D’Arrigo C, Migliardi G, Santoro V et al. Effect of fluvoxamine on plasma risperidone concentrations in patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacol Res 2005; 52:497-501.

Darwish M, Kirby M, Robertson P Jr, Hellriegel ET. Interaction profile of armodafinil with medications metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2, 3A4 and 2C19 in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacokinet 2008; 47:61-74.

Das A, Zhao J, Schatz GC, Sligar SG, van Duyne RP. Screening of type I and II drug binding to human cytochrome P450-3A4 in nanodiscs by localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Anal Chem 2009; 81:3754-9.

Das BC, Madhukumar AV, Anguiano J et al. Synthesis of novel ketoconazole derivatives as inhibitors of the human Pregnane X Receptor (PXR; NR1I2; also termed SXR, PAR). Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:3974-7.

Das PC, Cao Y, Cherrington N, Hodgson E, Rose RL. Fipronil induces CYP isoforms and cytotoxicity in human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 2006; 164:200-14.

Das PC, Cao Y, Roset RL, Cherrington N, Hodgson E. Enzyme induction and cytotoxicity in human hepatocytes by chlorpyrifos and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2008; 23:237-60.

Das PC, Streit TM, Cao Y et al. Pyrethroids: cytotoxicity and induction of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2008; 23:211-36.

Davidson MH. Treatment of the elderly with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors: focus on drug interactions. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2001; 6:219-29.

Davies BJ, Coller JK, Somogyi AA, Milne RW, Sallustio BC. CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 catalyze the primary oxidative metabolism of perhexiline enantiomers by human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:128-38.

Davies SJ, Eayrs S, Pratt P, Lennard MS. Potential for drug interactions involving cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4 on general adult psychiatric and functional elderly psychiatric wards. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:464-72.

Davies SJ, Lennard MS, Ghahramani P, Pratt P, Robertson A, Potokar J. PRN prescribing in psychiatric inpatients: potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions. J Psychopharmacol 2007; 21:153-60.

Davis MP. Buprenorphine in cancer pain. Support Care Cancer 2005; 13:878-87.

Davis MP. Does trazodone have a role in palliating symptoms? Support Care Cancer 2007; 15:221-4.

Davydov DR, Baas BJ, Sligar SG, Halpert JR. Allosteric mechanisms in cytochrome P450 3A4 studied by high-pressure spectroscopy: pivotal role of substrate-induced changes in the accessibility and degree of hydration of the heme pocket. Biochemistry 2007; 46:7852-64.

Davydov DR, Davydova NY, Tsalkova TN, Halpert JR. Effect of glutathione on homo- and heterotropic cooperativity in cytochrome P450 3A4. Arch Biochem Biophys 2008; 471:134-45.

Davydov DR, Fernando H, Baas BJ, Sligar SG, Halpert JR. Kinetics of dithionite-dependent reduction of cytochrome P450 3A4: heterogeneity of the enzyme caused by its oligomerization. Biochemistry 2005; 44:13902-13.

Davydov DR, Halpert JR, Renaud JP, Hui Bon Hoa G. Conformational heterogeneity of cytochrome P450 3A4 revealed by high pressure spectroscopy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; 312:121-30.

Davydov DR, Sineva EV, Sistla S et al. Electron transfer in the complex of membrane-bound human cytochrome P450 3A4 with the flavin domain of P450BM-3: The effect of oligomerization of the heme protein and intermittent modulation of the spin equilibrium. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009; 1797:378-390.

de Berardinis V, Moulis C, Maurice M et al. Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase is the target of germander-induced autoantibodies on the surface of human hepatocytes. Mol Pharmacol 2000; 58:542-51.

de Bruijn P, Kehrer DF, Verweij J, Sparreboom A. Liquid chromatographic determination of ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2001; 753:395-400.

de Castro WV, Mertens-Talcott S, Rubner A, Butterweck V, Derendorf H. Variation of flavonoids and furanocoumarins in grapefruit juices: a potential source of variability in grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54:249-55.

de Clerck F, Somers Y, Mannaert E, Greenspan A, Eerdekens M. In vitro effects of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone on human platelet function, plasma coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Clin Ther 2004; 26:1261-73.

de Dios A, Shih C, López de Uralde B et al. Design of potent and selective 2-aminobenzimidazole-based p38alpha MAP kinase inhibitors with excellent in vivo efficacy. J Med Chem 2005; 48:2270-3.

de Groene EM, Hassing IG, Blom MJ, Seinen W, Fink-Gremmels J, Horbach GJ. Development of human cytochrome P450-expressing cell lines: application in mutagenicity testing of ochratoxin A. Cancer Res 1996; 56:299-304.

de Groene EM, Nijmeijer SM, Horbach GJ, Witkamp RF. Tiamulin inhibits human CYP3A4 activity in an NIH/3T3 cell line stably expressing CYP3A4 cDNA. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 50:771-3.

de Groene EM, Seinen W, Horbach GJ. A NIH/3T3 cell line stably expressing human cytochrome P450-3A4 used in combination with a lacZ’ shuttle vector to study mutagenicity. Eur J Pharmacol 1995; 293:47-53.

de Jager R, Cheverton P, Tamanoi K et al. DX-8951f: summary of phase I clinical trials. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 922:260-73.

de Leon J, Wynn G, Sandson NB. The pharmacokinetics of paliperidone versus risperidone. Psychosomatics 2010; 51:80-8.

de Mey C, Althaus M, Ezan E, Retzow A. Erythromycin increases plasma concentrations of alpha-dihydroergocryptine in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:142-8.

de Velde F, Alffenaar JW, Wessels AM, Greijdanus B, Uges DR. Simultaneous determination of clarithromycin, rifampicin and their main metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2009; 877:1771-7.

de Wildt SN, Berns MJ, van den Anker JN. 13C-erythromycin breath test as a noninvasive measure of CYP3A activity in newborn infants: a pilot study. Ther Drug Monit 2007; 29:225-30.

de Wildt SN, Kearns GL, Hop WC et al. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of intravenous midazolam in preterm infants. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:525-31.

de Wildt SN, Kearns GL, Hop WC, Murry DJ, Abdel-Rahman SM, van den Anker JN. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oral midazolam in preterm infants. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53:390-2.

de Wildt SN, Kearns GL, Leeder JS, van den Anker JN. Cytochrome P450 3A: ontogeny and drug disposition. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 37:485-505.

de Wildt SN, Kearns GL, Murry DJ, Koren G, van den Anker JN. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:165-70.

Dean BJ, Chang S, Silva Elipe MV et al. Metabolism of MK-0524, a prostaglandin D2 receptor 1 antagonist, in microsomes and hepatocytes from preclinical species and humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:283-92.

Debruyne D, Coquerel A. Pharmacokinetics of antifungal agents in onychomycoses. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:441-72.

Decker CJ, Laitinen LM, Bridson GW, Raybuck SA, Tung RD, Chaturvedi PR. Metabolism of amprenavir in liver microsomes: role of CYP3A4 inhibition for drug interactions. J Pharm Sci 1998; 87:803-7.

Declerck E, de Loof H, de Meyer GR. Statins under fire: justified or not? J Pharm Belg 2009:119-30.

Deeni YY, Paine MJ, Ayrton AD, Clarke SE, Chenery R, Wolf CR. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of a human cytochrome P450 CYP2D6-NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase fusion protein. Arch Biochem Biophys 2001; 396:16-24.

Degnan AP, Chaturvedula PV, Conway CM et al. Discovery of (R)-4-(8-fluoro-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-N-(3-(7-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)-1-oxo-1-(4-(piperidin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl)propan-2-yl)piperidine-1-carboxamide (BMS-694153): a potent antagonist of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor for migraine with rapid and efficient intranasal exposure. J Med Chem 2008; 51:4858-61.

Dehal SS, Kupfer D. Cytochrome P-450 3A and 2D6 catalyze ortho hydroxylation of 4-hydroxytamoxifen and 3-hydroxytamoxifen (droloxifene) yielding tamoxifen catechol: involvement of catechols in covalent binding to hepatic proteins. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:681-8.

DeKeyser JG, Stagliano MC, Auerbach SS, Prabhu KS, Jones AD, Omiecinski CJ. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is a highly potent agonist for the human constitutive androstane receptor splice variant CAR2. Mol Pharmacol 2009; 75:1005-13.

D’Elia P, de Matteis F, Dragoni S, Shah A, Sgaragli G, Valoti M. DP7, a novel dihydropyridine multidrug resistance reverter, shows only weak inhibitory activity on human CYP3A enzyme(s). Eur J Pharmacol 2009; 614:7-13.

DeLoia JA, Zamboni WC, Jones JM, Strychor S, Kelley JL, Gallion HH. Expression and activity of taxane-metabolizing enzymes in ovarian tumors. Gynecol Oncol 2008; 108:355-60.

DeMichele A, Aplenc R, Botbyl J et al. Drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms predict clinical outcome in a node-positive breast cancer cohort. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:5552-9. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:5675-7. Retraction in: J Clin Oncol 2006; 24:3315.

Deng LJ, Wang F, Li HD. Effect of gemfibrozil on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:831-6.

Denisov IG, Baas BJ, Grinkova YV, Sligar SG. Cooperativity in cytochrome P450 3A4: linkages in substrate binding, spin state, uncoupling, and product formation. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:7066-76.

Denisov IG, Grinkova YV, Baas BJ, Sligar SG. The ferrous-dioxygen intermediate in human cytochrome P450 3A4. Substrate dependence of formation and decay kinetics. J Biol Chem 2006; 281:23313-8.

Denisov IG, Grinkova YV, McLean MA, Sligar SG. The one-electron autoxidation of human cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:26865-73.

Dennison JB, Jones DR, Renbarger JL, Hall SD. Effect of CYP3A5 expression on vincristine metabolism with human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 321:553-63.

Dennison JB, Kulanthaivel P, Barbuch RJ, Renbarger JL, Ehlhardt WJ, Hall SD. Selective metabolism of vincristine in vitro by CYP3A5. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1317-27.

Dennison JB, Mohutsky MA, Barbuch RJ, Wrighton SA, Hall SD. Apparent high CYP3A5 expression is required for significant metabolism of vincristine by human cryopreserved hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008; 327:248-57.

Deo AK, Bandiera SM. Identification of human hepatic cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the biotransformation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1983-91.

Deo AK, Bandiera SM. 3-ketocholanoic acid is the major in vitro human hepatic microsomal metabolite of lithocholic acid. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1938-47.

Deremer DL, Ustun C, Natarajan K. Nilotinib: a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clin Ther 2008; 30:1956-75.

Derks M, Fowler S, Kuhlmann O. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of dalcetrapib on a panel of CYP substrates. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25:891-902.

Derks M, Fowler S, Kuhlmann O. A single-center, open-label, one-sequence study of dalcetrapib coadministered with ketoconazole, and an in vitro study of the S-methyl metabolite of dalcetrapib. Clin Ther 2009; 31:586-99.

Desai AA, Innocenti F, Janisch L et al. A phase I trial of pharmacokinetic modulation of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) with ketoconazole in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2004; 54:377-84.

Desai PB, Duan JZ, Zhu YW, Kouzi S. Human liver microsomal metabolism of paclitaxel and drug interactions. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1998; 23:417-24.

Desai PB, Nallani SC, Sane RS et al. Induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 in primary human hepatocytes and activation of the human pregnane X receptor by tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:608-12.

Desta Z, Kerbusch T, Soukhova N, Richard E, Ko JW, Flockhart DA. Identification and characterization of human cytochrome P450 isoforms interacting with pimozide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 285:428-37.

Desta Z, Soukhova N, Mahal SK, Flockhart DA. Interaction of cisapride with the human cytochrome P450 system: metabolism and inhibition studies. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:789-800.

Desta Z, Soukhova N, Morocho AM, Flockhart DA. Stereoselective metabolism of cisapride and enantiomer-enantiomer interaction in human cytochrome P450 enzymes: major role of CYP3A. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 298:508-20.

Desta Z, Ward BA, Soukhova NV, Flockhart DA. Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D6. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 310:1062-75.

DeVane CL, Donovan JL, Liston HL et al. Comparative CYP3A4 inhibitory effects of venlafaxine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and nefazodone in healthy volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004; 24:4-10.

DeVane CL, Gill HS. Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluvoxamine: applications to dosage regimen design. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58 Suppl 5:7-14.

DeVane CL, Nemeroff CB. Clinical pharmacokinetics of quetiapine: an atypical antipsychotic. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:509-22.

Devold HM, Molden E, Skurtveit S, Furu K. Co-medication of statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors before and after introduction of new reimbursement policy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 67:234-41.

Dhaini HR, Thomas DG, Giordano TJ et al. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4/5 expression as a biomarker of outcome in osteosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21:2481-5.

Dhir RN, Dworakowski W, Thangavel C, Shapiro BH. Sexually dimorphic regulation of hepatic isoforms of human cytochrome p450 by growth hormone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 316:87-94.

Di Consiglio E, Meneguz A, Testai E. Organophosphorothionate pesticides inhibit the bioactivation of imipramine by human hepatic cytochrome P450s. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005; 205:237-46.

Di L, Kerns EH, Li SQ, Carter GT. Comparison of cytochrome P450 inhibition assays for drug discovery using human liver microsomes with LC-MS, rhCYP450 isozymes with fluorescence, and double cocktail with LC-MS. Int J Pharm 2007; 335:1-11.

Di Marco A, Marcucci I, Verdirame M et al. Development and validation of a high-throughput radiometric CYP3A4/5 inhibition assay using tritiated testosterone. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:349-58.

Di Nardo G, Fantuzzi A, Sideri A et al. Wild-type CYP102A1 as a biocatalyst: turnover of drugs usually metabolised by human liver enzymes. J Biol Inorg Chem 2007; 12:313-23.

Di Paolo A, Bocci G, Danesi R, del Tacca M. Clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2006; 1:311-23.

Di YM, Li CG, Xue CC, Zhou SF. Clinical drugs that interact with St. John’s wort and implication in drug development. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14:1723-42.

Dias V, Ribeiro V. The expression of the solute carriers NTCP and OCT-1 is regulated by cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2007; 21:445-50.

Diaz DS, Kozar MP, Smith KS et al. Role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in the conversion of phenoxypropoxybiguanide analogs in human liver microsomes to potent antimalarial dihydrotriazines. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:380-5.

Diaz GJ, Squires EJ. Metabolism of 3-methylindole by porcine liver microsomes: responsible cytochrome P450 enzymes. Toxicol Sci 2000; 55:284-92.

Diczfalusy U, Kanebratt KP, Bredberg E, Andersson TB, Böttiger Y, Bertilsson L. 4beta-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker for CYP3A4/5 activity. Stability and half-life of elimination after induction with rifampicin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 67:38-43.

Diczfalusy U, Miura J, Roh HK et al. 4Beta-hydroxycholesterol is a new endogenous CYP3A marker: relationship to CYP3A5 genotype, quinine 3-hydroxylation and sex in Koreans, Swedes and Tanzanians. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:201-8.

Dierks EA, Stams KR, Lim HK, Cornelius G, Zhang H, Ball SE. A method for the simultaneous evaluation of the activities of seven major human drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s using an in vitro cocktail of probe substrates and fast gradient liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:23-9.

Dieterle W, Mann J. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ketoconazole and SPP301 in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 44:326-30.

Dilger K, Greiner B, Fromm MF, Hofmann U, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M. Consequences of rifampicin treatment on propafenone disposition in extensive and poor metabolizers of CYP2D6. Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9:551-9.

Dilmaghanian S, Gerber JG, Filler SG, Sánchez A, Gal J. Enantioselectivity of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by ketoconazole: Testosterone and methadone as substrates. Chirality 2004; 16:79-85.

Dimaraki EV, Jaffe CA. Troglitazone induces CYP3A4 activity leading to falsely abnormal dexamethasone suppression test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88:3113-6.

Dimitroulakos J, Lorimer IA, Goss G. Strategies to enhance epidermal growth factor inhibition: targeting the mevalonate pathway. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:4426-31.

Ding S, Yao D, Burchell B, Wolf CR, Friedberg T. High levels of recombinant CYP3A4 expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells are modulated by coexpressed human P450 reductase and hemin supplementation. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 348:403-10.

Ding X, Kaminsky LS. Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2003; 43:149-73.

Ding X, Lichti K, Staudinger JL. The mycoestrogen zearalenone induces CYP3A through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Toxicol Sci 2006; 91:448-55.

Dingemanse J, Schaarschmidt D, van Giersbergen PL. Investigation of the mutual pharmacokinetic interactions between bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, and simvastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:293-301.

Dingemanse J, van Giersbergen PL. Influence of severe renal dysfunction on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 40:310-6.

Dingemanse J, van Giersbergen PL. Clinical pharmacology of bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:1089-115.

Dirks NL, Huth B, Yates CR, Meibohm B. Pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressants: a perspective on ethnic differences. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 42:701-18.

DiTusa L, Luzier AB. Potential interaction between troglitazone and atorvastatin. J Clin Pharm Ther 2000; 25:279-82.

Dixit V, Hariparsad N, Li F, Desai P, Thummel KE, Unadkat JD. Cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters induced by anti-human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors in human hepatocytes: implications for predicting clinical drug interactions. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1853-9.

Dixon MB, Lien YH. Tolvaptan and its potential in the treatment of hyponatremia. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2008; 4:1149-55.

Djuv A, Nilsen OG. Aloe vera juice: IC(50) and dual mechanistic inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Phytother Res 2011. doi:10. 1002/ptr. 3564.

Dobesh PP. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel, a thienopyridine P2Y12 inhibitor. Pharmacotherapy 2009; 29:1089-102.

Dodd S, Boulton DW, Burrows GD, DeVane CL, Norman TR. In vitro metabolism of mirtazapine enantiomers by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001; 16:541-4.

Dodhia VR, Fantuzzi A, Gilardi G. Engineering human cytochrome P450 enzymes into catalytically self-sufficient chimeras using molecular Lego. J Biol Inorg Chem 2006; 11:903-16.

Doehmer J. V79 Chinese hamster cells genetically engineered for cytochrome P450 and their use in mutagenicity and metabolism studies. Toxicology 1993; 82:105-18.

Doehmer J, Schmalix WA, Greim H. Genetically engineered in vitro systems for biotransformation studies. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1994; 16:513-8.

Doehmer J, Tewes B, Klein KU, Gritzko K, Muschick H, Mengs U. Assessment of drug-drug interaction for silymarin. Toxicol In Vitro 2008; 22:610-7.

Doi AM, Patterson PE, Gallagher EP. Variability in aflatoxin B(1)-macromolecular binding and relationship to biotransformation enzyme expression in human prenatal and adult liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002; 181:48-59.

Domanski TL, Finta C, Halpert JR, Zaphiropoulos PG. cDNA cloning and initial characterization of CYP3A43, a novel human cytochrome P450. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 59:386-92.

Domanski TL, He YA, Khan KK, Roussel F, Wang Q, Halpert JR. Phenylalanine and tryptophan scanning mutagenesis of CYP3A4 substrate recognition site residues and effect on substrate oxidation and cooperativity. Biochemistry 2001; 40:10150-60.

Donato MT, Gómez-Lechón MJ, Jover R, Nakamura T, Castell JV. Human hepatocyte growth factor down-regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 isozymes in human hepatocytes in primary culture. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 284:760-7.

Donato MT, Jiménez N, Serralta A, Mir J, Castell JV, Gómez-Lechón MJ. Effects of steatosis on drug-metabolizing capability of primary human hepatocytes. Toxicol In Vitro 2007; 21:271-6.

Donato MT, Lahoz A, Jiménez N et al. Potential impact of steatosis on cytochrome P450 enzymes of human hepatocytes isolated from fatty liver grafts. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1556-62.

Dong HY, Shao JW, Chen JF, Wang T, Lin FP, Guo YH. Transcriptional regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by four kinds of traditional Chinese medicines. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2008; 33:1014-7, 1089.

Dong JT. Prevalent mutations in prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem 2006; 97:433-47.

Donovan JL, Chavin KD, Devane CL et al. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract does not alter cytochrome p450 3A4 or 2D6 activity in healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:906-8.

Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD et al. Multiple night-time doses of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) had minimal effects on CYP3A4 activity and no effect on CYP2D6 activity in healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1333-6.

Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Markowitz JS. Siberian ginseng (Eleutheroccus senticosus) effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:519-22.

Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Lewis JG et al. Effects of St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. ) extract on plasma androgen concentrations in healthy men and women: a pilot study. Phytother Res 2005; 19:901-6.

Doostdar H, Burke MD, Mayer RT. Bioflavonoids: selective substrates and inhibitors for cytochrome P450 CYP1A and CYP1B1. Toxicology 2000; 144:31-8.

Dorababu M, Nishimura A, Prabha T et al. Effect of cyclosporine on drug transport and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Biomed Pharmacother 2009; 63:697-702.

Döring F, Rimbach G, Lodge JK. In silico search for single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes important in vitamin E homeostasis. IUBMB Life 2004; 56:615-20.

Dorne JL, Walton K, Renwick AG. Human variability in CYP3A4 metabolism and CYP3A4-related uncertainty factors for risk assessment. Food Chem Toxicol 2003; 41:201-24.

Dorne JL, Walton K, Renwick AG. Human variability in xenobiotic metabolism and pathway-related uncertainty factors for chemical risk assessment: a review. Food Chem Toxicol 2005; 43:203-16.

Dorne JL. Impact of inter-individual differences in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics on safety evaluation. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2004; 18:609-20.

Doroshyenko O, Fuhr U. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of solifenacin. Clin Pharmacokinet 2009; 48:281-302.

Doshi U, Li AP. Luciferin IPA-based higher throughput human hepatocyte screening assays for CYP3A4 inhibition and induction. J Biomol Screen 2011; 16:903-9.

Dowless MS, Barbee JL, Borchert KM, Bocchinfuso WP, Houck KA. Cyclic AMP-independent activation of CYP3A4 gene expression by forskolin. Eur J Pharmacol 2005; 512:9-13.

Downs JR, Clearfield M, Tyroler HA et al. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TEXCAPS): additional perspectives on tolerability of long-term treatment with lovastatin. Am J Cardiol 2001; 87:1074-9.

Drahushuk AT, McGarrigle BP, Larsen KE, Stegeman JJ, Olson JR. Detection of CYP1A1 protein in human liver and induction by TCDD in precision-cut liver slices incubated in dynamic organ culture. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19:1361-8.

Dreiseitel A, Schreier P, Oehme A, Locher S, Hajak G, Sand PG. Anthocyanins and their metabolites are weak inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52:1428-33.

Dresser GK, Bailey DG. A basic conceptual and practical overview of interactions with highly prescribed drugs. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 9:191-8.

Dresser GK, Bailey DG. The effects of fruit juices on drug disposition: a new model for drug interactions. Eur J Clin Invest 2003; 33 Suppl 2:10-6.

Dresser GK, Spence JD, Bailey DG. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic consequences and clinical relevance of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 38:41-57.

Dresser GK, Wacher V, Wong S, Wong HT, Bailey DG. Evaluation of peppermint oil and ascorbyl palmitate as inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4 activity in vitro and in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:247-55.

Drocourt L, Ourlin JC, Pascussi JM, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Expression of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 is regulated by the vitamin D receptor pathway in primary human hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:25125-32.

Drocourt L, Pascussi JM, Assenat E, Fabre JM, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Calcium channel modulators of the dihydropyridine family are human pregnane X receptor activators and inducers of CYP3A, CYP2B, and CYP2C in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1325-31.

Drolet B, Rousseau G, Daleau P, Cardinal R, Simard C, Turgeon J. Pimozide (Orap) prolongs cardiac repolarization by blocking the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current in native cardiac myocytes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2001; 6:255-60.

D’Souza DL, Dimmitt DC, Robbins DK, Nezamis J, Simms L, Koch KM. Effect of alosetron on the pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41:455-8.

D’Souza DL, Levasseur LM, Nezamis J, Robbins DK, Simms L, Koch KM. Effect of alosetron on the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41:452-4.

Du J, Xing Q, Xu L et al. Systematic screening for polymorphisms in the CYP3A4 gene in the Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics 2006; 7:831-41.

Du J, Xu Y, Duan S et al. A case-control association study between the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009; 33:1200-4.

Du J, Zhang A, Wang L et al. Relationship between response to risperidone, plasma concentrations of risperidone and CYP3A4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients. J Psychopharmacol 2010; 24:1115-20.

Dubey RK, Gillespie DG, Zacharia LC, Barchiesi F, Imthurn B, Jackson EK. CYP450- and COMT-derived estradiol metabolites inhibit activity of human coronary artery SMCs. Hypertension 2003; 41:807-13.

Dubey S, Hutson P, Alberti D et al. Phase I study of docetaxel and topotecan in patients with advanced malignancies. J Oncol Pharm Pract 2005; 11:131-8.

Ducharme MP, Bernstein ML, Granvil CP, Gehrcke B, Wainer IW. Phenytoin-induced alteration in the N-dechloroethylation of ifosfamide stereoisomers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1997; 40:531-3.

Ducharme MP, Provenzano R, Dehoorne-Smith M, Edwards DJ. Trough concentrations of cyclosporine in blood following administration with grapefruit juice. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 36:457-9.

Dufour C, Svahn J, Bacigalupo A et al. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1 and the risk of acquired idiopathic aplastic anemia in Caucasian patients. Haematologica 2005; 90:1027-31.

Duisken M, Sandner F, Blömeke B, Hollender J. Metabolism of 1,8-cineole by human cytochrome P450 enzymes: identification of a new hydroxylated metabolite. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005; 1722:304-11.

Dumontet C, Landi S, Reiman T et al. Genetic polymorphisms associated with outcome in multiple myeloma patients receiving high-dose melphalan. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45:1316-24.

Duniec-Dmuchowski Z, Ellis E, Strom SC, Kocarek TA. Regulation of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 expression by liver X receptor agonists. Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 74:1535-40.

Duniec-Dmuchowski Z, Fang HL, Strom SC, Ellis E, Runge-Morris M, Kocarek TA. Human pregnane X receptor activation and CYP3A4/CYP2B6 induction by 2,3-oxidosqualene:lanosterol cyclase inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:900-8.

Durand JP, Gourmel B, Mir O, Goldwasser F. Antiemetic neurokinin-1 antagonist aprepitant and ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy. Ann Oncol 2007; 18:808-9.

Duret C, Daujat-Chavanieu M, Pascussi JM et al. Ketoconazole and miconazole are antagonists of the human glucocorticoid receptor: consequences on the expression and function of the constitutive androstane receptor and the pregnane X receptor. Mol Pharmacol 2006; 70:329-39.

Dürr D, Stieger B, Kullak-Ublick GA et al. St John’s Wort induces intestinal P-glycoprotein/MDR1 and intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:598-604.

Dvorák Z, Modriansky M, Pichard-Garcia L et al. Colchicine down-regulates cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4 in human hepatocytes by affecting their glucocorticoid receptor-mediated regulation. Mol Pharmacol 2003; 64:160-9.

Dvorák Z, Ulrichová J, Modrianský M, Maurel P. Effect of colchicine and its derivatives on the expression of selected isoforms of cytochrome P450 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Fac Med 2000; 143:47-50.

Dvorak Z, Ulrichova J, Pichard-Garcia L, Modriansky M, Maurel P. Comparative effect of colchicine and colchiceine on cytotoxicity and CYP gene expression in primary human hepatocytes. Toxicol In Vitro 2002; 16:219-27.

Dvořák Z, Vrzal R, Starha P, Klanicová A, Trávníček Z. Effects of dinuclear copper(II) complexes with 6-(benzylamino)purine derivatives on AhR and PXR dependent expression of cytochromes P450 CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 genes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Toxicol In Vitro 2010; 24:425-9.

Eades SK, Boineau FG, Christensen ML. Increased tacrolimus levels in a pediatric renal transplant patient attributed to chronic diarrhea. Pediatr Transplant 2000; 4:63-6.

Eagling VA, Back DJ, Barry MG. Differential inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoforms by the protease inhibitors, ritonavir, saquinavir and indinavir. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:190-4.

Eagling VA, Profit L, Back DJ. Inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir by grapefruit juice components. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:543-52.

Eagling VA, Tjia JF, Back DJ. Differential selectivity of cytochrome P450 inhibitors against probe substrates in human and rat liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 45:107-14.

Eagling VA, Wiltshire H, Whitcombe IW, Back DJ. CYP3A4-mediated hepatic metabolism of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir in vitro. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:1-17.

Eap CB, Bender S, Gastpar M et al. Steady state plasma levels of the enantiomers of trimipramine and of its metabolites in CYP2D6-, CYP2C19- and CYP3A4/5-phenotyped patients. Ther Drug Monit 2000; 22:209-14.

Eap CB, Bochud M, Elston RC et al. CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genes influence blood pressure and response to treatment, and their effect is modified by salt. Hypertension 2007; 49:1007-14.

Eap CB, Buclin T, Baumann P. Interindividual variability of the clinical pharmacokinetics of methadone: implications for the treatment of opioid dependence. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:1153-93.

Eap CB, Buclin T, Hustert E et al. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam in CYP3A4- and CYP3A5-genotyped subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 60:231-6.

Eap CB, Fellay J, Buclin T et al. CYP3A activity measured by the midazolam test is not related to 3435 C >T polymorphism in the multiple drug resistance transporter gene. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14:255-60.

Eap CB, Yasui N, Kaneko S et al. Effects of carbamazepine coadministration on plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of mianserin and of its metabolites. Ther Drug Monit 1999; 21:166-70.

Easterbrook J, Fackett D, Li AP. A comparison of aroclor 1254-induced and uninduced rat liver microsomes to human liver microsomes in phenytoin O-deethylation, coumarin 7-hydroxylation, tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation, S-mephenytoin 4’-hydroxylation, chloroxazone 6-hydroxylation and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. Chem Biol Interact 2001; 134:243-9.

Easterbrook J, Lu C, Sakai Y, Li AP. Effects of organic solvents on the activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms, UDP-dependent glucuronyl transferase, and phenol sulfotransferase in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:141-4.

Eaton DL. Biotransformation enzyme polymorphism and pesticide susceptibility. Neurotoxicology 2000; 21:101-11.

Ebdrup S, Refsgaard HH, Fledelius C, Jacobsen P. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship for a novel class of potent and selective carbamate-based inhibitors of hormone selective lipase with acute in vivo antilipolytic effects. J Med Chem 2007; 50:5449-56.

Echizen H, Tanizaki M, Tatsuno J et al. Identification of CYP3A4 as the enzyme involved in the mono-N-dealkylation of disopyramide enantiomers in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:937-44.

Edsbäcker S, Andersson T. Pharmacokinetics of budesonide (Entocort EC) capsules for Crohn’s disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:803-21.

Edwards DJ, Fitzsimmons ME, Schuetz EG et al. 6’,7’-Dihydroxybergamottin in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice: effects on cyclosporine disposition, enterocyte CYP3A4, and P-glycoprotein. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 65:237-44.

Edwards RJ, Adams DA, Watts PS, Davies DS, Boobis AR. Development of a comprehensive panel of antibodies against the major xenobiotic metabolising forms of cytochrome P450 in humans. Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 56:377-87.

Edwards RJ, Price RJ, Watts PS et al. Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes in cultured precision-cut human liver slices. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:282-8.

Edwards RJ, Singleton AM, Murray BP, Davies DS, Boobis AR. Short synthetic peptides exploited for reliable and specific targeting of antibodies to the C-termini of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49:39-47.

Egashira K, Ohtani H, Itoh S et al. Inhibitory effects of pomelo on the metabolism of tacrolimus and the activities of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:828-33.

Egnell AC, Houston B, Boyer S. In vivo CYP3A4 heteroactivation is a possible mechanism for the drug interaction between felbamate and carbamazepine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 305:1251-62.

Egnell AC, Houston JB, Boyer CS. Predictive models of CYP3A4 Heteroactivation: in vitro-in vivo scaling and pharmacophore modeling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312:926-37.

Egorin MJ, Rosen DM, Wolff JH, Callery PS, Musser SM, Eiseman JL. Metabolism of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (NSC 330507) by murine and human hepatic preparations. Cancer Res 1998; 58:2385-96.

Ehnert S, Nussler AK, Lehmann A, Dooley S. Blood monocyte-derived neohepatocytes as in vitro test system for drug metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1922-9.

Ehret GB, Desmeules JA, Broers B. Methadone-associated long QT syndrome: improving pharmacotherapy for dependence on illegal opioids and lessons learned for pharmacology. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2007; 6:289-303.

Eiden C, Palenzuela G, Hillaire-Buys D et al. Posaconazole-increased vincristine neurotoxicity in a child: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2009; 31:292-5.

Eiermann B, Engel G, Johansson I, Zanger UM, Bertilsson L. The involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of clozapine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:439-46.

Eis PS, Garcia-Blanco MA. Quantification of microRNAs, splicing isoforms, and homologous mRNAs with the invader assay. Methods Mol Biol 2008; 488:279-318.

Eiselt R, Domanski TL, Zibat A et al. Identification and functional characterization of eight CYP3A4 protein variants. Pharmacogenetics 2001; 11:447-58.

Ejsing TB, Pedersen AD, Linnet K. P-glycoprotein interaction with risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone studied in vitro, in knock-out mice and in drug-drug interaction experiments. Hum Psychopharmacol 2005; 20:493-500.

Ek M, Söderdahl T, Küppers-Munther B et al. Expression of drug metabolizing enzymes in hepatocyte-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 74:496-503.

Ekhart C, Doodeman VD, Rodenhuis S, Smits PH, Beijnen JH, Huitema AD. Influence of polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1, GSTP1, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1) on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:515-23.

Ekhart C, Doodeman VD, Rodenhuis S, Smits PH, Beijnen JH, Huitema AD. Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes (GST, CYP2B6 and CYP3A) affect the pharmacokinetics of thiotepa and tepa. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 67:50-60.

Ekhart C, Rodenhuis S, Smits PH, Beijnen JH, Huitema AD. Relations between polymorphisms in drug-metabolising enzymes and toxicity of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:1009-15.

Ekins S, Berbaum J, Harrison RK. Generation and validation of rapid computational filters for cyp2d6 and cyp3a4. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1077-80.

Ekins S, Bravi G, Binkley S et al. Three- and four-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship analyses of cytochrome P-450 3A4 inhibitors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 290:429-38.

Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA. Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 291:424-33.

Ekins S, Bugrim A, Brovold L et al. Algorithms for network analysis in systems-ADME/Tox using the MetaCore and MetaDrug platforms. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:877-901.

Ekins S, Stresser DM, Williams JA. In vitro and pharmacophore insights into CYP3A enzymes. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2003; 24:161-6.

Ekroos M, Sjögren T. Structural basis for ligand promiscuity in cytochrome P450 3A4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103:13682-7.

Ekström G, Gunnarsson UB. Ropivacaine, a new amide-type local anesthetic agent, is metabolized by cytochromes P450 1A and 3A in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:955-61.

El Desoky ES, Mohamed HO, Farghaly WM, Hamed SA, Hedaya MA, Siest JP. Study of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio in spot urine sample as a biomarker of 3A4 enzyme activity in healthy and epileptic subjects of Egyptian population. Pharmacol Res 2005; 51:575-80.

El Mouelhi M, Worley DJ, Kuzmak B, Destefano AJ, Thompson GA. Influence of azimilide on CYP2C19-mediated metabolism. J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 44:373-8.

El Mouelhi M, Worley DJ, Kuzmak B, Destefano AJ, Thompson GA. Influence of ketoconazole on azimilide pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 58:641-7.

Eldesoky ES, Kamel SI, Farghaly AM, Bakheet MY, Hedaya MA, Siest JP. Study of the Urinary Ratio of 6 beta-Hydroxycortisol/Cortisol as a Biomarker of CYP3A4 Activity in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases. Biomark Insights 2007; 1:157-64.

Eleftheriou G, Bacis G, Fiocchi R, Sebastiano R. Colchicine-induced toxicity in a heart transplant patient with chronic renal failure. Clin Toxicol 2008; 46:827-30.

Elewski B, Tavakkol A. Safety and tolerability of oral antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal nail disease: a proven reality. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2005; 1:299-306.

Elipe MV, Huskey SE, Zhu B. Application of LC-NMR for the study of the volatile metabolite of MK-0869, a substance P receptor antagonist. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2003; 30:1431-40.

Elizondo G, Medina-Díaz IM. Induction of CYP3A4 by 1alpha,25-dyhydroxyvitamin D3 in HepG2 cells. Life Sci 2003; 73:141-9.

Elkader A, Sproule B. Buprenorphine: clinical pharmacokinetics in the treatment of opioid dependence. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:661-80.

Elkahwaji J, Robin MA, Berson A et al. Decrease in hepatic cytochrome P450 after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Biochem Pharmacol 1999; 57:951-4.

Elkayam T, Amitay-Shaprut S, Dvir-Ginzberg M, Harel T, Cohen S. Enhancing the drug metabolism activities of C3A-a human hepatocyte cell line-by tissue engineering within alginate scaffolds. Tissue Eng 2006; 12:1357-68.

El-Lakkany NM, Seif el-Din SH, Badawy AA, Ebeid FA. Effect of artemether alone and in combination with grapefruit juice on hepatic drug-metabolising enzymes and biochemical aspects in experimental Schistosoma mansoni. Int J Parasitol 2004; 34:1405-12.

Ellingrod VL, Perry PJ. Nefazodone: a new antidepressant. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1995; 52:2799-812.

El-Sankary W, Bombail V, Gibson GG, Plant N. Glucocorticoid-mediated induction of CYP3A4 is decreased by disruption of a protein: DNA interaction distinct from the pregnane X receptor response element. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1029-34.

El-Sankary W, Gibson GG, Ayrton A, Plant N. Use of a reporter gene assay to predict and rank the potency and efficacy of CYP3A4 inducers. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1499-504.

El-Sankary W, Plant NJ, Gibson GG, Moore DJ. Regulation of the CYP3A4 gene by hydrocortisone and xenobiotics: role of the glucocorticoid and pregnane X receptors. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:493-6.

Emi M, Keicho N, Tokunaga K et al. Association of diffuse panbronchiolitis with microsatellite polymorphism of the human interleukin 8 (IL-8) gene. J Hum Genet 1999; 44:169-72.

Emmelkamp JM, Rockstroh JK. CCR5 antagonists: comparison of efficacy, side effects, pharmacokinetics and interactions-review of the literature. Eur J Med Res 2007; 12:409-17.

Emmenegger U, Shaked Y, Man S et al. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of chronic low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide therapy in mice. Mol Cancer Ther 2007; 6:2280-9.

Emoto C, Iwasaki K. Enzymatic characteristics of CYP3A5 and CYP3A4: a comparison of in vitro kinetic and drug-drug interaction patterns. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:219-33.

Emoto C, Iwasaki K. Relative roles of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5 in midazolam 1’-hydroxylation. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:592-603.

Emoto C, Iwasaki K. Approach to predict the contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes to drug metabolism in the early drug-discovery stage: the effect of the expression of cytochrome b(5) with recombinant P450 enzymes. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:986-99.

Emoto C, Murase S, Sawada Y, Jones BC, Iwasaki K. In vitro inhibitory effect of 1-aminobenzotriazole on drug oxidations catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 enzymes: a comparison with SKF-525A and ketoconazole. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 18:287-95.

Emoto C, Murayama N, Yamazaki H. Effects of enzyme sources on midazolam 1’-hydroxylation activity catalyzed by recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 in combination with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Drug Metab Lett 2008; 2:190-2.

Emoto C, Nishida H, Hirai H, Iwasaki K. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 catalyse the conversion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist CJ-036878 to two novel dimers. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:1408-20.

Emoto C, Yamato Y, Sato Y et al. Non-invasive method to detect induction of CYP3A4 in chimeric mice with a humanized liver. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:239-48.

Endo T, Ban M, Hirata K, Yamamoto A, Hara Y, Momose Y. Involvement of CYP2A6 in the formation of a novel metabolite, 3-hydroxypilocarpine, from pilocarpine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:476-83.

Endringer DC, Guimarães KG, Kondratyuk TP, Pezzuto JM, Braga FC. Selective inhibition of aromatase by a dihydroisocoumarin from Xyris pterygoblephara. J Nat Prod 2008; 71:1082-4.

Engdal S, Nilsen OG. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients. Phytother Res 2009; 23:906-12.

Engel G, Hofmann U, Heidemann H, Cosme J, Eichelbaum M. Antipyrine as a probe for human oxidative drug metabolism: identification of the cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyzing 4-hydroxyantipyrine, 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine, and norantipyrine formation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 59:613-23.

Engels FK, Mathot RA, Loos WJ, van Schaik RH, Verweij J. Influence of high-dose ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Cancer Biol Ther 2006; 5:833-9.

Engels FK, Ten Tije AJ, Baker SD et al. Effect of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:448-54.

Engman H, Tannergren C, Artursson P, Lennernäs H. Enantioselective transport and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of R/S-verapamil in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Eur J Pharm Sci 2003; 19:57-65.

Engman HA, Lennernäs H, Taipalensuu J, Otter C, Leidvik B, Artursson P. CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and MDR1 in human small and large intestinal cell lines suitable for drug transport studies. J Pharm Sci 2001; 90:1736-51.

Ereshefsky L, Dugan D. Review of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics, and drug interaction potential of antidepressants: focus on venlafaxine. Depress Anxiety 2000; 12 Suppl 1:30-44.

Erickson DA, Mather G, Trager WF, Levy RH, Keirns JJ. Characterization of the in vitro biotransformation of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine by human hepatic cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1488-95.

Erlotinib: new drug. Non small-cell lung cancer: like gefitinib, no established advantage. Prescrire Int 2006; 15:86-9.

Ernest CS 2nd, Hall SD, Jones DR. Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A by HIV protease inhibitors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312:583-91.

Eseverri J. Projection of new antihistamines. Allergol Immunopathol 2000; 28:143-52.

Esteban LM, Fong C, Amr D et al. Promoter-, cell-, and ligand-specific transactivation responses of the VDRB1 isoform. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 334:9-15.

Etheridge AS, Black SR, Patel PR, So J, Mathews JM. An in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition and P-glycoprotein interaction with goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng extracts and their constituents. Planta Med 2007; 73:731-41.

Evans AM. Influence of dietary components on the gastrointestinal metabolism and transport of drugs. Ther Drug Monit 2000; 22:131-6.

Evans DC, O’Connor D, Lake BG, Evers R, Allen C, Hargreaves R. Eletriptan metabolism by human hepatic CYP450 enzymes and transport by human P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:861-9.

Evans JP, Kandel S, Ortiz de Montellano PR. Isocyanides inhibit human heme oxygenases at the verdoheme stage. Biochemistry 2009; 8:8920-8.

Evans JP, Xu F, Sirisawad M, Miller R, Naumovski L, de Montellano PR. Motexafin gadolinium-induced cell death correlates with heme oxygenase-1 expression and inhibition of P450 reductase-dependent activities. Mol Pharmacol 2007; 71:193-200.

Ewesuedo RB, Dolan ME. Pharmacokinetics of oral O6-benzylguanine and evidence of interaction with oral ketoconazole in the rat. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2000; 46:150-5.

Fabiani E, D’Alò F, Scardocci A et al. Polymorphisms of detoxification and DNA repair enzymes in myelodyplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 2009; 33:1068-71.

Fabre G, Julian B, Saint-Aubert B, Joyeux H, Berger Y. Evidence for CYP3A-mediated N-deethylation of amiodarone in human liver microsomal fractions. Drug Metab Dispos 1993; 21:978-85.

Facciolà G, Avenoso A, Scordo MG et al. Small effects of valproic acid on the plasma concentrations of clozapine and its major metabolites in patients with schizophrenic or affective disorders. Ther Drug Monit 1999; 21:341-5.

Faeste CK, Ivanova L, Uhlig S. In vitro metabolism of the mycotoxin enniatin B in different species and CYP P450 reaction phenotyping. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39:1768-76.

Fagerholm U. Prediction of human pharmacokinetics-gut-wall metabolism. J Pharm Pharmacol 2007; 59:1335-43.

Fahmi OA, Boldt S, Kish M, Obach RS, Tremaine LM. Prediction of drug-drug interactions from in vitro induction data: application of the relative induction score approach using cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1971-4.

Fahmi OA, Hurst S, Plowchalk D et al. Comparison of different algorithms for predicting clinical drug-drug interactions, based on the use of CYP3A4 in vitro data: predictions of compounds as precipitants of interaction. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1658-66.

Fahmi OA, Maurer TS, Kish M, Cardenas E, Boldt S, Nettleton D. A combined model for predicting CYP3A4 clinical net drug-drug interaction based on CYP3A4 inhibition, inactivation, and induction determined in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1698-708.

Fakhoury M, Lecordier J, Medard Y, Peuchmaur M, Jacqz-Agrain E. Impact of inflammation on the duodenal mRNA expression of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in children with Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006; 12:745-9.

Fakhoury M, Litalien C, Medard Y et al. Localization and mRNA expression of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in human duodenum as a function of age. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1603-7.

Falzoi M, Mossa A, Congeddu E, Saba L, Pani L. Multiplex genotyping of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 SNPs using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Pharmacogenomics 2010; 11:559-71.

Fan J, Liu S, Du Y, Morrison J, Shipman R, Pang KS. Up-regulation of transporters and enzymes by the vitamin D receptor ligands, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D analogs, in the Caco-2 cell monolayer. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009; 330:389-402.

Fan L, Wang G, Wang LS et al. Herbal medicine yin zhi huang induces CYP3A4-mediated sulfoxidation and CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2007; 28:1685-92.

Fang AF, Damle BD, LaBadie RR, Crownover PH, Hewlett D Jr, Glue PW. Significant decrease in nelfinavir systemic exposure after omeprazole coadministration in healthy subjects. Pharmacotherapy 2008; 28:42-50.

Fang HL, Strom SC, Ellis E et al. Positive and negative regulation of human hepatic hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) gene transcription by rifampicin: roles of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha and pregnane X receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 323:586-98.

Fang HM, Xu JM, Mei Q et al. Involvement of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein in first-pass intestinal extraction of omeprazole in rabbits. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2009; 30:1566-72.

Fang J, Baker GB, Silverstone PH, Coutts RT. Involvement of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 in the metabolism of haloperidol. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1997; 17:227-33.

Fang J, Bourin M, Baker GB. Metabolism of risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone by human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1999; 359:147-51.

Fang J, Coutts RT, McKenna KF, Baker GB. Elucidation of individual cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of clozapine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1998; 358:592-9.

Fang J, McKay G, Song J, Remillrd A, Li X, Midha K. In vitro characterization of the metabolism of haloperidol using recombinant cytochrome p450 enzymes and human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1638-43.

Fang ZZ, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Huo H, Liang SC, Yang L. Time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 by noscapine potentially explains clinical noscapine-warfarin interaction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 69:193-9.

Fanta S, Jönsson S, Backman JT, Karlsson MO, Hoppu K. Developmental pharmacokinetics of ciclosporin-a population pharmacokinetic study in paediatric renal transplant candidates. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 64:772-84.

Fanta S, Niemi M, Jönsson S et al. Pharmacogenetics of cyclosporine in children suggests an age-dependent influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:77-90.

Faouzi S, Medzihradszky KF, Hefner C, Maher JJ, Correia MA. Characterization of the physiological turnover of native and inactivated cytochromes P450 3A in cultured rat hepatocytes: a role for the cytosolic AAA ATPase p97? Biochemistry 2007; 46:7793-803.

Farid NA, Jakubowski JA, Payne CD et al. Effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel in healthy male subjects. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25:1821-9.

Farid NA, Payne CD, Small DS et al. Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81:735-41.

Farinola N, Piller NB. CYP2A6 polymorphisms: is there a role for pharmacogenomics in preventing coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity in lymphedema patients? Pharmacogenomics 2007; 8:151-8.

Farlow MR. Clinical pharmacokinetics of galantamine. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:1383-92.

Farmer JA, Torre-Amione G. Comparative tolerability of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Drug Saf 2000; 23:197-213.

Fatih N, Camberlein E, Island ML et al. Natural and synthetic STAT3 inhibitors reduce hepcidin expression in differentiated mouse hepatocytes expressing the active phosphorylated STAT3 form. J Mol Med 2010; 88:477-86.

Fattinger K, Meier-Abt A. Interactions of phytotherapeutic drugs, foods and drinks with medicines. Ther Umsch 2002; 59:292-300.

Faucette SR, Hawke RL, Shord SS, Lecluyse EL, Lindley CM. Evaluation of the contribution of cytochrome P450 3A4 to human liver microsomal bupropion hydroxylation. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1123-9.

Faucette SR, Sueyoshi T, Smith CM, Negishi M, Lecluyse EL, Wang H. Differential regulation of hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes by constitutive androstane receptor but not pregnane X receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 317:1200-9.

Faucette SR, Wang H, Hamilton GA et al. Regulation of CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes by prototypical inducers. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:348-58.

Faucette SR, Zhang TC, Moore R et al. Relative activation of human pregnane X receptor versus constitutive androstane receptor defines distinct classes of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 inducers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 320:72-80.

Favre C, Monti JA, Scapini C, Pellegrino J, Carnovale CE, Carrillo MC. Putrescine decreases cytochrome P450 3A4 levels during liver regeneration in the rat. J Hepatol 1998; 28:700-8.

Fayer JL, Zannikos PN, Stevens JC, Luo Y, Sidhu R, Kirkesseli S. Lack of correlation between in vitro inhibition of CYP3A-mediated metabolism by a PPAR-gamma agonist and its effect on the clinical pharmacokinetics of midazolam, an in vivo probe of CYP3A activity. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41:305-16.

Fayz S, Inaba T. Zidovudine azido-reductase in human liver microsomes: activation by ethacrynic acid, dipyridamole, and indomethacin and inhibition by human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998; 42:1654-8.

Feher G, Feher A, Pusch G, Lupkovics G, Szapary L, Papp E. The genetics of antiplatelet drug resistance. Clin Genet 2009; 75:1-18.

Feidt DM, Klein K, Nüssler A, Zanger UM. RNA-interference approach to study functions of NADPH: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase in human hepatocytes. Chem Biodivers 2009; 6:2084-91.

Feierman DE. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on fentanyl metabolism in vitro. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000; 44:560-3.

Feierman DE, Lasker JM. Metabolism of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid analgesic, by human liver microsomes. Role of CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:932-9.

Feierman DE, Melinkov Z, Nanji AA. Induction of CYP3A by ethanol in multiple in vitro and in vivo models. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2003; 27:981-8.

Feierman DE, Melnikov Z, Zhang J. The paradoxical effect of acetaminophen on CYP3A4 activity and content in transfected HepG2 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 2002; 398:109-17.

Feldweg AM, Leddy JP. Drug Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Corticosteroid Therapy A Brief Review with An Illustrative Case. J Clin Rheumatol 1999; 5:143-150.

Felix CA, Walker AH, Lange BJ et al. Association of CYP3A4 genotype with treatment-related leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95:13176-81.

Fellay J, Marzolini C, Meaden ER et al. Response to antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected individuals with allelic variants of the multidrug resistance transporter 1: a pharmacogenetics study. Lancet 2002; 359:30-6.

Felmlee MA, Lon HK, Gonzalez FJ, Yu AM. Cytochrome P450 expression and regulation in CYP3A4/CYP2D6 double transgenic humanized mice. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:435-41.

Feng C, Yamashita F, Hashida M. Automated extraction of information from the literature on chemical-CYP3A4 interactions. J Chem Inf Model 2007; 47:2449-55.

Feng Y, Cameron MD, Frackowiak B et al. Structure-activity relationships, and drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties for indazole piperazine and indazole piperidine inhibitors of ROCK-II. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007; 17:2355-60.

Fernando H, Davydov DR, Chin CC, Halpert JR. Role of subunit interactions in P450 oligomers in the loss of homotropic cooperativity in the cytochrome P450 3A4 mutant L211F/D214E/F304W. Arch Biochem Biophys 2007; 460:129-40.

Fernando H, Halpert JR, Davydov DR. Resolution of multiple substrate binding sites in cytochrome P450 3A4: the stoichiometry of the enzyme-substrate complexes probed by FRET and Job’s titration. Biochemistry 2006; 45:4199-209.

Fernando H, Halpert JR, Davydov DR. Kinetics of electron transfer in the complex of cytochrome P450 3A4 with the flavin domain of cytochrome P450BM-3 as evidence of functional heterogeneity of the heme protein. Arch Biochem Biophys 2008; 471:20-31.

Ferrari A, Coccia CP, Bertolini A, Sternieri E. Methadone-metabolism, pharmacokinetics and interactions. Pharmacol Res 2004; 50:551-9.

Ferreira PE, Veiga MI, Cavaco I et al. Polymorphism of antimalaria drug metabolizing, nuclear receptor, and drug transport genes among malaria patients in Zanzibar, East Africa. Ther Drug Monit 2008; 30:10-5.

Ferreri F, Agbokou C, Gauthier S. Cardiovascular effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease. Rev Neurol 2007; 163:968-74.

Ferrini JB, Pichard L, Domergue J, Maurel P. Long-term primary cultures of adult human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 1997; 107:31-45.

Fichtenbaum CJ, Gerber JG. Interactions between antiretroviral drugs and drugs used for the therapy of the metabolic complications encountered during HIV infection. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:1195-211.

Fiegenbaum M, da Silveira FR, van der Sand CR et al. The role of common variants of ABCB1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes in lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of simvastatin treatment. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78:551-8.

Figgitt DP, McClellan KJ. Fluvoxamine. An updated review of its use in the management of adults with anxiety disorders. Drugs 2000; 60:925-54.

Figueroa JD, Malats N, García-Closas M et al. Bladder cancer risk and genetic variation in AKR1C3 and other metabolizing genes. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29:1955-62.

Finnström N, Ask B, Dahl ML, Gadd M, Rane A. Intra-individual variation and sex differences in gene expression of cytochromes P450 in circulating leukocytes. Pharmacogenomics J 2002; 2:111-6.

Finnström N, Thörn M, Lööf L, Rane A. Independent patterns of cytochrome P450 gene expression in liver and blood in patients with suspected liver disease. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57:403-9.

Finta C, Zaphiropoulos PG. The human cytochrome P450 3A locus. Gene evolution by capture of downstream exons. Gene 2000; 260:13-23.

Finta C, Zaphiropoulos PG. Intergenic mRNA molecules resulting from trans-splicing. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:5882-90.

Firkusny L, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M. In vitro characterization of cytochrome P450 catalysed metabolism of the antiemetic tropisetron. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49:1777-84.

Fischer V, Johanson L, Heitz F et al. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin: effect on human cytochrome P-450 and implications for metabolic drug interactions. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:410-6.

Fischer V, Vickers AE, Heitz F et al. The polymorphic cytochrome P-4502D6 is involved in the metabolism of both 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists, tropisetron and ondansetron. Drug Metab Dispos 1994; 22:269-74.

Fishelovitch D, Hazan C, Hirao H, Wolfson HJ, Nussinov R, Shaik S. QM/MM study of the active species of the human cytochrome P450 3A4, and the influence thereof of the multiple substrate binding. J Phys Chem B 2007; 111:13822-32.

Fishelovitch D, Hazan C, Shaik S, Wolfson HJ, Nussinov R. Structural dynamics of the cooperative binding of organic molecules in the human cytochrome P450 3A4. J Am Chem Soc 2007; 129:1602-11.

Fishelovitch D, Shaik S, Wolfson HJ, Nussinov R. Theoretical characterization of substrate access/exit channels in the human cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme: involvement of phenylalanine residues in the gating mechanism. J Phys Chem B 2009; 113:13018-25.

Fishelovitch D, Shaik S, Wolfson HJ, Nussinov R. How does the reductase help to regulate the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 3A4 using the conserved water channel? J Phys Chem B 2010; 114:5964-70.

Fisher CD, Lickteig AJ, Augustine LM et al. Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme alterations in humans with progressive stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:2087-94.

Fisher JM, Wrighton SA, Watkins PB et al. First-pass midazolam metabolism catalyzed by 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-modified Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 289:1134-42.

Fitch WL, Tran T, Young M, Liu L, Chen Y. Revisiting the metabolism of ketoconazole using accurate mass. Drug Metab Lett 2009; 3:191-8.

Fitzsimmons ME, Collins JM. Selective biotransformation of the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor saquinavir by human small-intestinal cytochrome P4503A4: potential contribution to high first-pass metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:256-66.

Flanagan D. Understanding the grapefruit-drug interaction. Gen Dent 2005; 53:282-6.

Flanagan JN, Young MV, Persons KS et al. Vitamin D metabolism in human prostate cells: implications for prostate cancer chemoprevention by vitamin D. Anticancer Res 2006; 26:2567-72.

Fleishaker JC. Clinical pharmacokinetics of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of patients with depression. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 39:413-27.

Fleishaker JC, Herman BD, Carel BJ, Azie NE. Interaction between ketoconazole and almotriptan in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:423-7.

Fleishaker JC, Pearson LK, Pearson PG, Wienkers LC, Hopkins NK, Peters GR. Hormonal effects on tirilazad clearance in women: assessment of the role of CYP3A. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:260-7.

Fleishaker JC, Pearson PG, Wienkers LC, Pearson LK, Moore TA, Peters GR. Biotransformation of tirilazad in human: 4. effect of finasteride on tirilazad clearance and reduced metabolite formation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 287:591-7.

Fleishaker JC, Sisson TA, Carel BJ, Azie NE. Pharmacokinetic interaction between verapamil and almotriptan in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67:498-503.

Fleury I, Primeau M, Doreau A et al. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the corticosteroid response and the outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Am J Pharmacogenomics 2004; 4:331-41.

Floren LC, Bekersky I, Benet LZ et al. Tacrolimus oral bioavailability doubles with coadministration of ketoconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:41-9.

Flores-Murrieta FJ, Carrasco-Portugal MdelC, Landa C. Comparison of the oral pharmacokinetics of fluconazole and itraconazole in Mexicans. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2008; 51:63-5.

Floyd MD, Gervasini G, Masica AL et al. Genotype-phenotype associations for common CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 variants in the basal and induced metabolism of midazolam in European- and African-American men and women. Pharmacogenetics 2003; 13:595-606.

Fogelman SM, Schmider J, Venkatakrishnan K et al. O- and N-demethylation of venlafaxine in vitro by human liver microsomes and by microsomes from cDNA-transfected cells: effect of metabolic inhibitors and SSRI antidepressants. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999; 20:480-90.

Fontaine SM, Hoyer PB, Halpert JR, Sipes IG. Role of induction of specific hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms in epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1236-42.

Fontana RJ, Lown KS, Paine MF et al. Effects of a chargrilled meat diet on expression of CYP3A, CYP1A, and P-glycoprotein levels in healthy volunteers. Gastroenterology 1999; 117:89-98.

Fontana RJ, Turgeon DK, Woolf TF, Knapp MJ, Foster NL, Watkins PB. The caffeine breath test does not identify patients susceptible to tacrine hepatotoxicity. Hepatology 1996; 23:1429-35.

Foote KM, Mortlock AA, Heron NM et al. Synthesis and SAR of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazolines: selective inhibitors of Aurora B kinase with potent anti-tumor activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:1904-9.

Ford NF. Clopidogrel resistance: pharmacokinetic or pharmacogenetic? J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 49:506-12.

Ford SL, Chen YC, Lou Y et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between fosamprenavir-ritonavir and rifabutin in healthy subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52:534-8.

Foster BC, Kearns N, Arnason JT, Saleem A, Ogrodowczyk C, Desjardins S. Comparative study of hop-containing products on human cytochrome p450-mediated metabolism. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57:5100-5.

Foster DJ, Somogyi AA, Bochner F. Methadone N-demethylation in human liver microsomes: lack of stereoselectivity and involvement of CYP3A4. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47:403-12.

Foster DJ, Somogyi AA, Dyer KR, White JM, Bochner F. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of (R)- and (S)-methadone in methadone maintenance patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 50:427-40.

Foti RS, Dickmann LJ, Davis JA et al. Metabolism and related human risk factors for hepatic damage by usnic acid containing nutritional supplements. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:264-80.

Foti RS, Rock DA, Wienkers LC, Wahlstrom JL. Selection of alternative CYP3A4 probe substrates for clinical drug interaction studies Using in vitro data and in vivo simulation. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:981-7.

Fotsch C, Bartberger MD, Bercot EA et al. Further studies with the 2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4(5H)-one class of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors: reducing pregnane X receptor activity and exploring activity in a monkey pharmacodynamic model. J Med Chem 2008; 51:7953-67.

Fouladi M, Nicholson HS, Zhou T et al. A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: a Children’s Oncology Group study. Cancer 2007; 110:2535-41.

Fowler SM, Riley RJ, Pritchard MP, Sutcliffe MJ, Friedberg T, Wolf CR. Amino acid 305 determines catalytic center accessibility in CYP3A4. Biochemistry 2000; 39:4406-14.

Fowler SM, Taylor JM, Friedberg T, Wolf CR, Riley RJ. CYP3A4 active site volume modification by mutagenesis of leucine 211. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:452-6.

Franco-Salinas G, de la Rosette JJ, Michel MC. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamsulosin in its modified-release and oral controlled absorption system formulations. Clin Pharmacokinet 2010; 49:177-88.

Frank DJ, Denisov IG, Sligar SG. Mixing apples and oranges: Analysis of heterotropic cooperativity in cytochrome P450 3A4. Arch Biochem Biophys 2009; 488:146-52.

Franke RM, Baker SD, Mathijssen RH, Schuetz EG, Sparreboom A. Influence of solute carriers on the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 probes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84:704-9.

Franklin MR, Constance JE. Comparative 1-substituted imidazole inhibition of cytochrome p450 isozyme-selective activities in human and mouse hepatic microsomes. Drug Metab Rev 2007; 39:309-22.

Frassetto LA, Poon S, Tsourounis C, Valera C, Benet LZ. Effects of uptake and efflux transporter inhibition on erythromycin breath test results. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81:828-32.

Frederick KS, Maurer TS, Kalgutkar AS et al. Pharmacokinetics, disposition and lipid-modulating activity of 5-{2-[4-(3,4-difluorophenoxy)-phenyl]-ethylsulfamoyl}-2-methyl-benzoic acid, a potent and subtype-selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist in preclinical species and human. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:766-81.

Fredericks S, Holt DW, MacPhee IA. The pharmacogenetics of immunosuppression for organ transplantation: a route to individualization of drug administration. Am J Pharmacogenomics 2003; 3:291-301.

Freeman C, Spelman K. A critical evaluation of drug interactions with Echinacea spp. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52:789-98.

Frei E, Bieler CA, Arlt VM, Wiessler M, Stiborová M. Covalent binding of the anticancer drug ellipticine to DNA in V79 cells transfected with human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 64:289-95.

Freitas RF, Bauab RL, Montanari CA. Novel application of 2D and 3D-similarity searches to identify substrates among cytochrome P450 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4. J Chem Inf Model 2010; 50:97-109.

Fremont JJ, Wang RW, King CD. Coimmunoprecipitation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms and cytochrome P450 3A4. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67:260-2.

Frere C, Cuisset T, Morange PE et al. Effect of cytochrome p450 polymorphisms on platelet reactivity after treatment with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol 2008; 101:1088-93.

Friedland G, Andrews L, Schreibman T et al. Lack of an effect of atazanavir on steady-state pharmacokinetics of methadone in patients chronically treated for opiate addiction. AIDS 2005; 19:1635-41.

Fritz HG, Holzmayr M, Walter B, Moeritz KU, Lupp A, Bauer R. The effect of mild hypothermia on plasma fentanyl concentration and biotransformation in juvenile pigs. Anesth Analg 2005; 100:996-1002.

Fröhlich E, Kueznik T, Samberger C, Roblegg E, Wrighton C, Pieber TR. Size-dependent effects of nanoparticles on the activity of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2010; 242:326-32.

Fromm MF, Busse D, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M. Differential induction of prehepatic and hepatic metabolism of verapamil by rifampin. Hepatology 1996; 24:796-801.

Fromm MF, Eckhardt K, Li S et al. Loss of analgesic effect of morphine due to coadministration of rifampin. Pain 1997; 72:261-7.

Frye RF, Fitzgerald SM, Lagattuta TF, Hruska MW, Egorin MJ. Effect of St John’s wort on imatinib mesylate pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:323-9.

Frye RF, Tammara B, Cowart TD, Bramer SL. Effect of disulfiram-mediated CYP2E1 inhibition on the disposition of vesnarinone. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:1177-83.

Fuhr U. Drug interactions with grapefruit juice. Extent, probable mechanism and clinical relevance. Drug Saf 1998; 18:251-72.

Fuhr U, Beckmann-Knopp S, Jetter A, Lück H, Mengs U. The effect of silymarin on oral nifedipine pharmacokinetics. Planta Med 2007; 73:1429-35.

Fuhr U, Jetter A. Rabeprazole: pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Pharmazie 2002; 57:595-601.

Fuhr U, Jetter A, Kirchheiner J. Appropriate phenotyping procedures for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in humans and their simultaneous use in the “cocktail” approach. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81:270-83.

Fujimaki Y, Arai N, Nakazawa T, Fujimaki M. Nefiracetam metabolism by human liver microsomes: role of cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 1A2 in 5-hydroxynefiracetam formation. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001; 53:795-804.

Fujimaki Y, Hakusui H, Yamazoe Y. Nefiracetam hydroxylation by rat liver microsomes and expressed human cytochrome P450s. Xenobiotica 1996; 26:821-30.

Fujimura T, Takahashi S, Urano T et al. Expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and its clinical significance in human prostate cancer. Urology 2009; 74:391-7.

Fujino H, Saito T, Tsunenari Y, Kojima J. Interaction between several medicines and statins. Arzneimittelforschung 2003; 53:145-53.

Fujino H, Saito T, Tsunenari Y, Kojima J, Sakaeda T. Metabolic properties of the acid and lactone forms of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:961-71.

Fujino H, Yamada I, Shimada S, Hirano M, Tsunenari Y, Kojima J. Interaction between fibrates and statins-metabolic interactions with gemfibrozil. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2003; 19:161-76.

Fujino H, Yamada I, Shimada S, Nagao T, Yoneda M. Metabolic fate of pitavastatin (NK-104), a new inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Effects on drug-metabolizing systems in rats and humans. Arzneimittelforschung 2002; 52:745-53.

Fujino H, Yamada I, Shimada S, Yoneda M, Kojima J. Metabolic fate of pitavastatin, a new inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase: human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes involved in lactonization. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:27-41.

Fujita K. Food-drug interactions via human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2004; 20:195-217.

Fujita K, Ando Y, Narabayashi M et al. Gefitinib (Iressa) inhibits the CYP3A4-mediated formation of 7-ethyl-10-(4-amino-1-piperidino)carbonyloxycamptothecin but activates that of 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin from irinotecan. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1785-90.

Fujita K, Kamataki T. Screening of organosulfur compounds as inhibitors of human CYP2A6. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:983-9.

Fujita K, Kamataki T. Predicting the mutagenicity of tobacco-related N-nitrosamines in humans using 11 strains of Salmonella typhimurium YG7108, each coexpressing a form of human cytochrome P450 along with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Environ Mol Mutagen 2001; 38:339-46.

Fujita K, Kamataki T. Role of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the metabolic activation of N-alkylnitrosamines: application of genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium YG7108 expressing each form of CYP together with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Mutat Res 2001; 483:35-41.

Fujita K, Nakayama K, Yamazaki Y et al. Construction of Salmonella typhimurium YG7108 strains, each coexpressing a form of human cytochrome P450 with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Environ Mol Mutagen 2001; 38:329-38.

Fujita T, Kawase A, Niwa T et al. Comparative evaluation of 12 immature citrus fruit extracts for the inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoform activities. Biol Pharm Bull 2008; 31:925-30.

Fujitaka K, Oguri T, Isobe T, Fujiwara Y, Kohno N. Induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 by docetaxel in peripheral mononuclear cells and its expression in lung cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001; 48:42-6.

Fukasawa T, Suzuki A, Otani K. Effects of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of benzodiazepines. J Clin Pharm Ther 2007; 32:333-41.

Fukazawa T, Yajima K, Miyamoto Y. Evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential of beraprost sodium mediated by P450 in vitro. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008; 128:1459-65.

Fukuda K, Guo L, Ohashi N, Yoshikawa M, Yamazoe Y. Amounts and variation in grapefruit juice of the main components causing grapefruit-drug interaction. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2000; 741:195-203.

Fukuda K, Ohta T, Oshima Y, Ohashi N, Yoshikawa M, Yamazoe Y. Specific CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit juice: furocoumarin dimers as components of drug interaction. Pharmacogenetics 1997; 7:391-6.

Fukuda T, Onishi S, Fukuen S et al. CYP3A5 genotype did not impact on nifedipine disposition in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenomics J 2004; 4:34-9.

Fukudo M, Yano I, Masuda S et al. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic analysis of tacrolimus in pediatric living-donor liver transplant recipients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 80:331-45.

Fukudo M, Yano I, Yoshimura A et al. Impact of MDR1 and CYP3A5 on the oral clearance of tacrolimus and tacrolimus-related renal dysfunction in adult living-donor liver transplant patients. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:413-23.

Fukuen S, Fukuda T, Matsuda H et al. Identification of the novel splicing variants for the hPXR in human livers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 298:433-8.

Fukumori S, Murata T, Taguchi M, Hashimoto Y. Rapid and drastic induction of CYP3A4 mRNA expression via vitamin D receptor in human intestinal LS180 cells. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:377-81.

Fukushima-Uesaka H, Saito Y, Watanabe H et al. Haplotypes of CYP3A4 and their close linkage with CYP3A5 haplotypes in a Japanese population. Hum Mutat 2004; 23:100.

Fulco PP, Hynicka L, Rackley D. Raltegravir-based HAART regimen in a patient with large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Pharmacother 2010; 44:377-82.

Fulco PP, Zingone MM, Higginson RT. Possible antiretroviral therapy-warfarin drug interaction. Pharmacotherapy 2008; 28:945-9.

Funck-Brentano C, Becquemont L, Lenevu A, Roux A, Jaillon P, Beaune P. Inhibition by omeprazole of proguanil metabolism: mechanism of the interaction in vitro and prediction of in vivo results from the in vitro experiments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 280:730-8.

Funck-Brentano C, Boëlle PY, Verstuyft C, Bornert C, Becquemont L, Poirier JM. Measurement of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in vivo with dextromethorphan: sources of variability and predictors of adverse effects in 419 healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:821-9.

Fung HB, Kirschenbaum HL, Hameed R. Amprenavir: a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor. Clin Ther 2000; 22:549-72.

Furster C, Wikvall K. Identification of CYP3A4 as the major enzyme responsible for 25-hydroxylation of 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol in human liver microsomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1437:46-52.

Furukawa M, Okubo T, Ogino M et al. Adenovirus vector-mediated reporter system for in vivo analyses of human CYP3A4 gene activation. J Biochem 2002; 131:71-8.

Furukori H. Involvement of cytochromeP4503A4 in the metabolism of haloperidol and bromperidol. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 1998; 18:9-14.

Furukori H, Kondo T, Yasui N et al. Effects of itraconazole on the steady-state plasma concentrations of bromperidol and reduced bromperidol in schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology 1999; 145:189-92.

Furukori H, Otani K, Yasui N et al. Effect of carbamazepine on the single oral dose pharmacokinetics of alprazolam. Neuropsychopharmacology 1998; 18:364-9.

Furumiya K, Mizutani T. Inhibition of human CYP3A4, UGT1A6, and P-glycoprotein with halogenated xanthene food dyes and prevention by superoxide dismutase. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2008; 71:1307-13.

Furuta S, Akagawa N, Kamada E et al. Involvement of CYP2C9 and UGT2B7 in the metabolism of zaltoprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and its lack of clinically significant CYP inhibition potential. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 54:295-303.

Furuta S, Kamada E, Omata T et al. Drug-drug interactions of Z-338, a novel gastroprokinetic agent, with terfenadine, comparison with cisapride, and involvement of UGT1A9 and 1A8 in the human metabolism of Z-338. Eur J Pharmacol 2004; 497:223-31.

Furuta T, Ohashi K, Kobayashi K et al. Effects of clarithromycin on the metabolism of omeprazole in relation to CYP2C19 genotype status in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:265-74.

Galetin A, Brown C, Hallifax D, Ito K, Houston JB. Utility of recombinant enzyme kinetics in prediction of human clearance: impact of variability, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19 on CYP3A4 probe substrates. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1411-20.

Galetin A, Burt H, Gibbons L, Houston JB. Prediction of time-dependent CYP3A4 drug-drug interactions: impact of enzyme degradation, parallel elimination pathways, and intestinal inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:166-75.

Galetin A, Clarke SE, Houston JB. Quinidine and haloperidol as modifiers of CYP3A4 activity: multisite kinetic model approach. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1512-22.

Galetin A, Clarke SE, Houston JB. Multisite kinetic analysis of interactions between prototypical CYP3A4 subgroup substrates: midazolam, testosterone, and nifedipine. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1108-16.

Galetin A, Gertz M, Houston JB. Potential role of intestinal first-pass metabolism in the prediction of drug-drug interactions. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2008; 4:909-22.

Galetin A, Hinton LK, Burt H, Obach RS, Houston JB. Maximal inhibition of intestinal first-pass metabolism as a pragmatic indicator of intestinal contribution to the drug-drug interactions for CYP3A4 cleared drugs. Curr Drug Metab 2007; 8:685-93.

Galetin A, Houston JB. Intestinal and hepatic metabolic activity of five cytochrome P450 enzymes: impact on prediction of first-pass metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 318:1220-9.

Galetin A, Ito K, Hallifax D, Houston JB. CYP3A4 substrate selection and substitution in the prediction of potential drug-drug interactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 314:180-90.

Gallagher EP, Kunze KL, Stapleton PL, Eaton DL. The kinetics of aflatoxin B1 oxidation by human cDNA-expressed and human liver microsomal cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1996; 141:595-606.

Gallagher EP, Wienkers LC, Stapleton PL, Kunze KL, Eaton DL. Role of human microsomal and human complementary DNA-expressed cytochromes P4501A2 and P4503A4 in the bioactivation of aflatoxin B1. Cancer Res 1994; 54:101-8.

Gallemann D, Wimmer E, Hoefer CC et al. In vitro characterization of sarizotan metabolism: hepatic clearance, identification and characterization of metabolites, drug metabolizing enzymes identification and evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:905-16.

Galteau MM, Shamsa F. Urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol: a validated test for evaluating drug induction or drug inhibition mediated through CYP3A in humans and in animals. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:713-33.

Gambillara E, Laffitte E, Widmer N et al. Severe pustular eruption associated with imatinib and voriconazole in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia. Dermatology 2005; 211:363-5.

Gamble JT, Nakatsu K, Marks GS. Comparison of the formation of N-alkylprotoporphyrin IX after interaction of porphyrinogenic xenobiotics with single cDNA-expressed human P450 enzymes in microsomes prepared from baculovirus-infected insect cells and human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:202-5.

Gan J, Liu-Kreyche P, Humphreys WG. In vitro assessment of cytochrome P450 inhibition and induction potential of tanespimycin and its major metabolite, 17-amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2011. doi:10. 1007/s00280-011-1672-2.

Gan J, Qu Q, He B, Shyu WC, Rodrigues AD, He K. Troglitazone thiol adduct formation in human liver microsomes: enzyme kinetics and reaction phenotyping. Drug Metab Lett 2008; 2:184-9.

Gan LS, Moseley MA, Khosla B et al. CYP3A-like cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and polarized efflux of cyclosporin A in Caco-2 cells. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:344-9.

Gandara DR, Kawaguchi T, Crowley J et al. Japanese-US common-arm analysis of paclitaxel plus carboplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a model for assessing population-related pharmacogenomics. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27:3540-6.

Ganesan S, Sahu R, Walker LA, Tekwani BL. Cytochrome P450-dependent toxicity of dapsone in human erythrocytes. J Appl Toxicol 2010; 30:271-5.

Ganesan S, Tekwani BL, Sahu R, Tripathi LM, Walker LA. Cytochrome P(450)-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 241:14-22.

Gantenbein M, Attolini L, Bruguerolle B et al. Oxidative metabolism of bupivacaine into pipecolylxylidine in humans is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:383-5.

Ganzera M, Schneider P, Stuppner H. Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. ) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Life Sci 2006; 78:856-61.

Gao F, Johnson DL, Ekins S et al. Optimizing higher throughput methods to assess drug-drug interactions for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, rCYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in vitro using a single point IC(50). J Biomol Screen 2002; 7:373-82.

Gao N, Nester RA, Sarkar MA. 4-Hydroxy estradiol but not 2-hydroxy estradiol induces expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/FRAP pathway in OVCAR-3 and A2780-CP70 human ovarian carcinoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004; 196:124-35.

Gao W, Wu Z, Bohl CE, Yang J, Miller DD, Dalton JT. Characterization of the in vitro metabolism of selective androgen receptor modulator using human, rat, and dog liver enzyme preparations. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:243-53.

Gao Y, Zhang LR, Fu Q. CYP3A4*1G polymorphism is associated with lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin but not of simvastatin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:877-82.

Gao YD, Olson SH, Balkovec JM et al. Attenuating pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation: a molecular modelling approach. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:124-38.

Garcia M, Rager J, Wang Q et al. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes as alternative in vitro model for cytochrome p450 induction studies. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2003; 39:283-7.

García-Martín E, Martínez C, Pizarro RM et al. CYP3A4 variant alleles in white individuals with low CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:196-204.

García-Martín E, Pizarro RM, Martínez C et al. Acquired resistance to the anticancer drug paclitaxel is associated with induction of cytochrome P450 2C8. Pharmacogenomics 2006; 7:575-85.

Gardner ER, Burger H, van Schaik RH et al. Association of enzyme and transporter genotypes with the pharmacokinetics of imatinib. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 80:192-201.

Garey KW, Peloquin CA, Godo PG, Nafziger AN, Amsden GW. Lack of effect of zafirlukast on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43:1152-5.

Garg SK, Kumar N, Bhargava VK, Prabhakar SK. Effect of grapefruit juice on carbamazepine bioavailability in patients with epilepsy. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:286-8.

Garsa AA, McLeod HL, Marsh S. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genotyping by Pyrosequencing. BMC Med Genet 2005; 6:19.

Gashaw I, Kirchheiner J, Goldammer M et al. Cytochrome p450 3A4 messenger ribonucleic acid induction by rifampin in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: correlation with alprazolam pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 74:448-57.

Gasnier C, Benachour N, Clair E et al. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines. J Occup Med Toxicol 2010; 5:29.

Gass RJ, Gal J, Fogle PW, Detmar-Hanna D, Gerber JG. Neither dapsone hydroxylation nor cortisol 6beta-hydroxylation detects the inhibition of CYP3A4 by HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:741-7.

Gaudineau C, Auclair K. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 317:950-6.

Gaudineau C, Beckerman R, Welbourn S, Auclair K. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by multiple constituents of the Ginkgo biloba extract. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 318:1072-8.

Gawronska-Szklarz B, Zarzycki M, Musial HD, Pudlo A, Loniewski I, Drozdzik M. Lidocaine pharmacokinetics in postmenopausal women on hormone therapy. Menopause 2006; 13:793-8.

Gebeyehu E, Engidawork E, Bijnsdorp A, Aminy A, Diczfalusy U, Aklillu E. Sex and CYP3A5 genotype influence total CYP3A activity: high CYP3A activity and a unique distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles in Ethiopians. Pharmacogenomics J 2011; 11:130-7.

Gefitinib: new preparation. Non small-cell lung cancer: stricter assessment needed. Prescrire Int 2004; 13:168-70.

Geick A, Eichelbaum M, Burk O. Nuclear receptor response elements mediate induction of intestinal MDR1 by rifampin. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:14581-7.

Geisler T, Zürn C, Paterok M et al. Statins do not adversely affect post-interventional residual platelet aggregation and outcomes in patients undergoing coronary stenting treated by dual antiplatelet therapy. Eur Heart J 2008; 29:1635-43.

Gélisse P, Hillaire-Buys D, Halaili E et al. Carbamazepine and clarithromycin: a clinically relevant drug interaction. Rev Neurol 2007; 163:1096-9.

Gellner K, Eiselt R, Hustert E et al. Genomic organization of the human CYP3A locus: identification of a new, inducible CYP3A gene. Pharmacogenetics 2001; 11:111-21.

Genser D. Food and drug interaction: consequences for the nutrition/health status. Ann Nutr Metab 2008; 52 Suppl 1:29-32.

Gentile DM, Tomlinson ES, Maggs JL, Park BK, Back DJ. Dexamethasone metabolism by human liver in vitro. Metabolite identification and inhibition of 6-hydroxylation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 277:105-12.

Gentile DM, Verhoeven CH, Shimada T, Back DJ. The role of CYP2C in the in vitro bioactivation of the contraceptive steroid desogestrel. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 287:975-82.

Gentile G, Missori S, Borro M, Sebastianelli A, Simmaco M, Martelletti P. Frequencies of genetic polymorphisms related to triptans metabolism in chronic migraine. J Headache Pain 2010; 11:151-6.

George J, Goodwin B, Liddle C, Tapner M, Farrell GC. Time-dependent expression of cytochrome P450 genes in primary cultures of well-differentiated human hepatocytes. J Lab Clin Med 1997; 129:638-48.

George J, Liddle C, Murray M, Byth K, Farrell GC. Pre-translational regulation of cytochrome P450 genes is responsible for disease-specific changes of individual P450 enzymes among patients with cirrhosis. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49:873-81.

Gerbal-Chaloin S, Pascussi JM, Pichard-Garcia L et al. Induction of CYP2C genes in human hepatocytes in primary culture. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:242-51.

Gerbal-Chaloin S, Pichard-Garcia L, Fabre JM et al. Role of CYP3A4 in the regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by omeprazole sulphide. Cell Signal 2006; 18:740-50.

Gerber JG, Rosenkranz SL, Fichtenbaum CJ et al. Effect of efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin: results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5108 Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 39:307-12.

German P, Parikh S, Lawrence J et al. Lopinavir/ritonavir affects pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 51:424-9.

Gerónimo-Pardo M, Cuartero-del-Pozo AB, Jiménez-Vizuete JM, Cortiñas-Sáez M, Peyró-García R. Clarithromycin-nifedipine interaction as possible cause of vasodilatory shock. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:538-42.

Gervasini G, García-Martín E, Ladero JM et al. Genetic variability in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in primary liver, gastric and colorectal cancer patients. BMC Cancer 2007; 7:118.

Gervasini G, Martínez C, Benítez J, Agúndez JA. Effect of neurotransmitters on NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in vitro activity. Drug Metab Lett 2007; 1:172-5.

Gervasini G, Vizcaino S, Carrillo JA, Caballero MJ, Benítez J. The effect of CYP2J2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and the MDR1 polymorphisms and gender on the urinary excretion of the metabolites of the H-receptor antihistamine ebastine: a pilot study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:177-86.

Gervasini G, Vizcaino S, Gasiba C, Carrillo JA, Benítez J. Differences in CYP3A5*3 genotype distribution and combinations with other polymorphisms between Spaniards and Other Caucasian populations. Ther Drug Monit 2005; 27:819-21.

Gerzenshtein L, Patel SM, Scarsi KK, Postelnick MJ, Flaherty JP. Breakthrough Candida infections in patients receiving voriconazole. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:1342-5.

Ghahramani P, Ellis SW, Lennard MS, Ramsay LE, Tucker GT. Cytochromes P450 mediating the N-demethylation of amitriptyline. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43:137-44.

Ghali JK, Koren MJ, Taylor JR et al. Efficacy and safety of oral conivaptan: a V1A/V2 vasopressin receptor antagonist, assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91:2145-52.

Ghirmai S, Azar MR, Cashman JR. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 6-naltrexamine analogs for alcohol cessation. Bioorg Med Chem 2009; 17:6671-81.

Ghobadi C, Gregory A, Crewe HK, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Lennard MS. CYP2D6 is primarily responsible for the metabolism of clomiphene. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2008; 23:101-5.

Ghosal A, Chowdhury SK, Gupta S et al. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of SCH 351125, a CCR5 antagonist. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:405-17.

Ghosal A, Chowdhury SK, Tong W et al. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for the metabolism of lonafarnib (Sarasar). Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:628-35.

Ghosal A, Gupta S, Ramanathan R et al. Metabolism of loratadine and further characterization of its in vitro metabolites. Drug Metab Lett 2009; 3:162-70.

Ghosal A, Hapangama N, Yuan Y et al. Rapid determination of enzyme activities of recombinant human cytochromes P450, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2003; 24:375-84.

Ghosal A, Lu X, Penner N et al. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of SCH 530348 (Vorapaxar), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39:30-8.

Ghosal A, Ramanathan R, Yuan Y et al. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in biotransformation of vicriviroc, a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:2186-95.

Ghosal A, Satoh H, Thomas PE, Bush E, Moore D. Inhibition and kinetics of cytochrome P4503A activity in microsomes from rat, human, and cdna-expressed human cytochrome P450. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:940-7.

Ghosh C, Gonzalez-Martinez J, Hossain M et al. Pattern of P450 expression at the human blood-brain barrier: Roles of epileptic condition and laminar flow. Epilepsia 2010; 51:1408-17.

Giantin M, Carletti M, Capolongo F et al. Effect of breed upon cytochromes P450 and phase II enzyme expression in cattle liver. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:885-93.

Giao PT, de Vries PJ. Pharmacokinetic interactions of antimalarial agents. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:343-73.

Gibbs MA, Baillie MT, Shen DD, Kunze KL, Thummel KE. Persistent inhibition of CYP3A4 by ketoconazole in modified Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res 2000; 17:299-305.

Gibbs MA, Thummel KE, Shen DD, Kunze KL. Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A) in human intestinal and liver microsomes: comparison of Ki values and impact of CYP3A5 expression. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:180-7.

Gibson GG, el-Sankary W, Plant NJ. Receptor-dependent regulation of the CYP3A4 gene. Toxicology 2002; 181-182:199-202.

Gibson GG, Plant NJ, Swales KE, Ayrton A, El-Sankary W. Receptor-dependent transcriptional activation of cytochrome P4503A genes: induction mechanisms, species differences and interindividual variation in man. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:165-206.

Giessmann T, May K, Modess C et al. Carbamazepine regulates intestinal P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein MRP2 and influences disposition of talinolol in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:192-200.

Gilbert AM, Bursavich MG, Lombardi S et al. N-((8-hydroxy-5-substituted-quinolin-7-yl)(phenyl)methyl)-2-phenyloxy/amino-acetamide inhibitors of ADAMTS-5 (Aggrecanase-2). Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:6454-7.

Gilep AA, Guryev OL, Usanov SA, Estabrook RW. An enzymatically active chimeric protein containing the hydrophilic form of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase fused to the membrane-binding domain of cytochrome b5. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 284:937-41.

Gilep AA, Guryev OL, Usanov SA, Estabrook RW. Apo-cytochrome b5 as an indicator of changes in heme accessability: preliminary studies with cytochrome P450 3A4. J Inorg Biochem 2001; 87:237-44.

Gilep AA, Guryev OL, Usanov SA, Estabrook RW. Reconstitution of the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450s using recombinant flavocytochromes containing rat cytochrome b(5) fused to NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase with various membrane-binding segments. Arch Biochem Biophys 2001; 390:215-21.

Gill HJ, Tingle MD, Park BK. N-Hydroxylation of dapsone by multiple enzymes of cytochrome P450: implications for inhibition of haemotoxicity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 40:531-8.

Gillum JG, Israel DS, Polk RE. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with antimicrobial agents. Clin Pharmacokinet 1993; 25:450-82.

Girardin F, Pechère-Bertschi A. Antihypertensive therapy and drug-drug interactions. Rev Med Suisse 2005; 1:2099-100, 2102-4.

Giraud C, Tran A, Rey E, Vincent J, Tréluyer JM, Pons G. In vitro characterization of clobazam metabolism by recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes: importance of CYP2C19. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1279-86.

Giraud C, Treluyer JM, Rey E et al. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect of stiripentol on clobazam metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:608-11.

Girennavar B, Jayaprakasha GK, Jadegoud Y, Nagana Gowda GA, Patil BS. Radical scavenging and cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity of bergaptol and geranylcoumarin from grapefruit. Bioorg Med Chem 2007; 15:3684-91.

Girennavar B, Jayaprakasha GK, Patil BS. Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9 isoenzymes by grapefruit juice and its furocoumarins. J Food Sci 2007; 72:417-21.

Girennavar B, Poulose SM, Jayaprakasha GK, Bhat NG, Patil BS. Furocoumarins from grapefruit juice and their effect on human CYP 3A4 and CYP 1B1 isoenzymes. Bioorg Med Chem 2006; 14:2606-12.

Girish C, Manikandan S. Aprepitant: a substance P antagonist for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Indian J Cancer 2007; 44:25-30.

Giusti B, Gori AM, Marcucci R et al. Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism, but not CYP3A4 IVS10 + 12G/A and P2Y12 T744C polymorphisms, is associated with response variability to dual antiplatelet treatment in high-risk vascular patients. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2007; 17:1057-64.

Gladding P, Webster M, Zeng I et al. The pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel response: an analysis from the PRINC (Plavix Response in Coronary Intervention) trial. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2008; 1:620-7.

Glaeser H, Drescher S, Eichelbaum M, Fromm MF. Influence of rifampicin on the expression and function of human intestinal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 59:199-206.

Glaeser H, Drescher S, Hofmann U et al. Impact of concentration and rate of intraluminal drug delivery on absorption and gut wall metabolism of verapamil in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:230-8.

Glaeser H, Drescher S, van der Kuip H et al. Shed human enterocytes as a tool for the study of expression and function of intestinal drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:131-40.

Glasgow SC, Yu J, Carvalho LP, Shannon WD, Fleshman JW, McLeod HL. Unfavourable expression of pharmacologic markers in mucinous colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 2005; 92:259-64.

Gleeson MP, Davis AM, Chohan KK et al. Generation of in-silico cytochrome P450 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 inhibition QSAR models. J Comput Aided Mol Des 2007; 21:559-73.

Gleiter CH, Mörike KE. Clinical pharmacokinetics of candesartan. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:7-17.

Glover DD, McRobie DJ, Tracy TS. Effects of gestational and overt diabetes on placental cytochromes P450 and glutathione S-transferase. Prim Care Update Ob Gyns 1998; 5:189.

Glue P, Banfield CR, Perhach JL, Mather GG, Racha JK, Levy RH. Pharmacokinetic interactions with felbamate. In vitro-in vivo correlation. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997; 33:214-24.

Gnerre C, Blättler S, Kaufmann MR, Looser R, Meyer UA. Regulation of CYP3A4 by the bile acid receptor FXR: evidence for functional binding sites in the CYP3A4 gene. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14:635-45.

Gnewuch C, Liebisch G, Langmann T et al. Serum bile acid profiling reflects enterohepatic detoxification state and intestinal barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15:3134-41.

Goda R, Nagai D, Akiyama Y et al. Detection of a new N-oxidized metabolite of flutamide, N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]hydroxylamine, in human liver microsomes and urine of prostate cancer patients. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:828-35.

Godawska-Matysik A, Kieć-Kononowicz K. Biotransformation of praziquantel by human cytochrome p450 3A4 (CYP 3A4). Acta Pol Pharm 2006; 63:381-5.

Godoy W, Albano RM, Moraes EG et al. CYP2A6/2A7 and CYP2E1 expression in human oesophageal mucosa: regional and inter-individual variation in expression and relevance to nitrosamine metabolism. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23:611-6.

Gödtel-Armbrust U, Metzger A, Kroll U, Kelber O, Wojnowski L. Variability in PXR-mediated induction of CYP3A4 by commercial preparations and dry extracts of St. John’s wort. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2007; 375:377-82.

Goel S, Cohen M, Cömezoglu SN et al. The effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ixabepilone: a first in class epothilone B analogue in late-phase clinical development. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:2701-9.

Goetz AK, Dix DJ. Toxicogenomic effects common to triazole antifungals and conserved between rats and humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 238:80-9.

Goh BC, Lee SC, Wang LZ et al. Explaining interindividual variability of docetaxel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in Asians through phenotyping and genotyping strategies. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20:3683-90.

Goh BC, Reddy NJ, Dandamudi UB et al. An evaluation of the drug interaction potential of pazopanib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, using a modified Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 88:652-9.

Goldberg RJ. Antidepressant use in the elderly. Current status of nefazodone, venlafaxine and moclobemide. Drugs Aging 1997; 11:119-31.

Goldenberg MM. Safety and efficacy of sildenafil citrate in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. Clin Ther 1998; 20:1033-48.

Goldschmidt N, Azaz-Livshits T, Gotsman, Nir-Paz R, Ben-Yehuda A, Muszkat M. Compound cardiac toxicity of oral erythromycin and verapamil. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35:1396-9.

Goldwater DR, Dougherty C, Schumacher M, Villano SA. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of maribavir in healthy adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52:1794-8.

Gomaa MS, Simons C, Brancale A. Homology model of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 24A1 (CYP24A1): active site architecture and ligand binding. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2007; 104:53-60.

Gomaa MS, Yee SW, Milbourne CE, Barbera MC, Simons C, Brancale A. Homology model of human retinoic acid metabolising enzyme cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1): active site architecture and ligand binding. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2006; 21:361-9.

Gomes LG, Huang N, Agrawal V, Mendonça BB, Bachega TA, Miller WL. Extraadrenal 21-hydroxylation by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4: effect on 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94:89-95.

Gómez-Lechón MJ, Donato T, Jover R et al. Expression and induction of a large set of drug-metabolizing enzymes by the highly differentiated human hepatoma cell line BC2. Eur J Biochem 2001; 268:1448-59.

Gong P, Cederbaum AI, Nieto N. Increased expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 induces heme oxygenase-1 through ERK MAPK pathway. J Biol Chem 2003; 278:29693-700.

Gonzalez FJ. Role of gene knockout and transgenic mice in the study of xenobiotic metabolism. Drug Metab Rev 2003; 35:319-35.

Gonzalez FJ. Cytochrome P450 humanised mice. Hum Genomics 2004; 1:300-6.

Gonzalez FJ. CYP3A4 and pregnane X receptor humanized mice. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2007; 21:158-62.

González HM, Romero EM, Chavez Tde J, Peregrina AA, Quezada V, Hoyo-Vadillo C. Phenotype of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by determination of omeprazole and its two main metabolites in plasma using liquid chromatography with liquid-liquid extraction. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2002; 780:459-65.

González HM, Romero EM, Peregrina AA et al. CYP2C19- and CYP3A4-dependent omeprazole metabolism in West Mexicans. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:1211-5.

Gonzalez MC, Marteau C, Franchi J, Migliore-Samour D. Cytochrome P450 4A11 expression in human keratinocytes: effects of ultraviolet irradiation. Br J Dermatol 2001; 145:749-57.

González R, Collado JA, Nell S et al. Cytoprotective properties of alpha-tocopherol are related to gene regulation in cultured D-galactosamine-treated human hepatocytes. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 43:1439-52.

Goodwin B, Hodgson E, D’Costa DJ, Robertson GR, Liddle C. Transcriptional regulation of the human CYP3A4 gene by the constitutive androstane receptor. Mol Pharmacol 2002; 62:359-65.

Goodwin B, Hodgson E, Liddle C. The orphan human pregnane X receptor mediates the transcriptional activation of CYP3A4 by rifampicin through a distal enhancer module. Mol Pharmacol 1999; 56:1329-39.

Gore M, Sadosky A, Leslie D, Sheehan AH. Selecting an appropriate medication for treating neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes: a study using the U. K. and Germany Mediplus databases. Pain Pract 2008; 8:253-62.

Gorski JC, Hall SD, Jones DR, VandenBranden M, Wrighton SA. Regioselective biotransformation of midazolam by members of the human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47:1643-53.

Gorski JC, Jones DR, Hamman MA, Wrighton SA, Hall SD. Biotransformation of alprazolam by members of the human cytochrome P4503A subfamily. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:931-44.

Gorski JC, Jones DR, Wrighton SA, Hall SD. Characterization of dextromethorphan N-demethylation by human liver microsomes. Contribution of the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 48:173-82.

Gorski JC, Jones DR, Wrighton SA, Hall SD. Contribution of human CYP3A subfamily members to the 6-hydroxylation of chlorzoxazone. Xenobiotica 1997; 27:243-56.

Goto A, Adachi Y, Inaba A, Nakajima H, Kobayashi H, Sakai K. Identification of human p450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of the antiallergic drug, oxatomide, and its inhibitory effect on enzyme activity. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27:684-90.

Goto A, Ueda K, Inaba A, Nakajima H, Kobayashi H, Sakai K. Identification of human P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of the antiallergic drug, oxatomide, and its kinetic parameters and inhibition constants. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:328-34.

Goto M, Masuda S, Kiuchi T et al. CYP3A5*1-carrying graft liver reduces the concentration/oral dose ratio of tacrolimus in recipients of living-donor liver transplantation. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14:471-8.

Goto M, Masuda S, Saito H et al. C3435T polymorphism in the MDR1 gene affects the enterocyte expression level of CYP3A4 rather than Pgp in recipients of living-donor liver transplantation. Pharmacogenetics 2002; 12:451-7.

Grace JM, Aguilar AJ, Trotman KM, Peggins JO, Brewer TG. Metabolism of beta-arteether to dihydroqinghaosu by human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:313-7.

Grace JM, Skanchy DJ, Aguilar AJ. Metabolism of artelinic acid to dihydroqinqhaosu by human liver cytochrome P4503A. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:703-17.

Graham JS, Falk S, Samuel LM, Cendros JM, Evans TR. A multi-centre dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of diflomotecan in patients with advanced malignancy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009; 63:945-52.

Granfors MT, Wang JS, Kajosaari LI, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. Differential inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7 by five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors in vitro. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 98:79-85.

Granvil CP, Madan A, Sharkawi M, Parkinson A, Wainer IW. Role of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in the in vitro N-dechloroethylation of (R)- and (S)-ifosfamide in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:533-41.

Granvil CP, Yu AM, Elizondo G et al. Expression of the human CYP3A4 gene in the small intestine of transgenic mice: in vitro metabolism and pharmacokinetics of midazolam. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:548-58.

Gras J, Llenas J. Effects of H1 antihistamines on animal models of QTc prolongation. Drug Saf 1999; 21 Suppl 1:39-44.

Gratz S, Wu QK, El-Nezami H, Juvonen RO, Mykkänen H, Turner PC. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG reduces aflatoxin B1 transport, metabolism, and toxicity in Caco-2 Cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007; 73:3958-64.

Gray VS. Syncopal episodes associated with cisapride and concurrent drugs. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32:648-51.

Gréen H, Skoglund K, Rommel F, Mirghani RA, Lotfi K. CYP3A activity influences imatinib response in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: a pilot study on in vivo CYP3A activity. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:383-6.

Gréen H, Söderkvist P, Rosenberg P et al. Pharmacogenetic studies of paclitaxel in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2009; 104:130-7.

Green MD, Jiang X, King CD. Inhibition of human hepatic CYP isoforms by mGluR5 antagonists. Life Sci 2004; 75:947-53.

Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Giancarlo GM, Garteiz DA. Human cytochromes mediating gepirone biotransformation at low substrate concentrations. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2003; 24:87-94.

Greene DA. Rosiglitazone: a new therapy for Type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 1999; 8:1709-1719.

Greene DS, Barbhaiya RH. Clinical pharmacokinetics of nefazodone. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997; 33:260-75.

Greger DL, Blum JW. Effects of dexamethasone on mRNA abundance of nuclear receptors and hepatic nuclear receptor target genes in neonatal calves. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2007; 91:62-7.

Greger DL, Philipona C, Blum JW. Ontogeny of mRNA abundance of nuclear receptors and nuclear receptor target genes in young cattle. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2006; 31:76-87.

Greuet J, Pichard L, Bonfils C, Domergue J, Maurel P. The fetal specific gene CYP3A7 is inducible by rifampicin in adult human hepatocytes in primary culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 225:689-94.

Greuet J, Pichard L, Ourlin JC et al. Effect of cell density and epidermal growth factor on the inducible expression of CYP3A and CYP1A genes in human hepatocytes in primary culture. Hepatology 1997; 25:1166-75.

Grimm SW, Richtand NM, Winter HR, Stams KR, Reele SB. Effects of cytochrome P450 3A modulators ketoconazole and carbamazepine on quetiapine pharmacokinetics. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 61:58-69.

Grinkova YV, Denisov IG, Waterman MR, Arase M, Kagawa N, Sligar SG. The ferrous-oxy complex of human aromatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008; 372:379-82.

Grobe N, Zhang B, Fisinger U, Kutchan TM, Zenk MH, Guengerich FP. Mammalian cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the phenol-coupling step in endogenous morphine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem 2009; 284:24425-31.

Grond S, Sablotzki A. Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:879-923.

Grönlund J, Saari T, Hagelberg N et al. Effect of telithromycin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oxycodone. J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 50:101-8.

Gross AS, Goh YD, Addison RS, Shenfield GM. Influence of grapefruit juice on cisapride pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 65:395-401.

Gross-Steinmeyer K, Stapleton PL, Tracy JH et al. Modulation of aflatoxin B1-mediated genotoxicity in primary cultures of human hepatocytes by diindolylmethane, curcumin, and xanthohumols. Toxicol Sci 2009; 112:303-10.

Gross-Steinmeyer K, Stapleton PL, Tracy JH, Bammler TK, Strom SC, Eaton DL. Sulforaphane- and phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced inhibition of aflatoxin B1-mediated genotoxicity in human hepatocytes: Role of GSTM1 genotype and CYP3A4 gene expression. Toxicol Sci 2010; 116:422-32.

Grover GS, Brayman TG, Voorman RL, Ware JA. Development of in vitro methods to predict induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in humans. Assay Drug Dev Technol 2007; 5:793-804.

Gruer PJ, Vega JM, Mercuri MF, Dobrinska MR, Tobert JA. Concomitant use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors and simvastatin. Am J Cardiol 1999; 84:811-5.

Grün B, Krautter S, Riedel KD, Mikus G. Inhibition of the active principle of the weak opioid tilidine by the triazole antifungal voriconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68:712-20.

Gsur A, Feik E, Madersbacher S. Genetic polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. World J Urol 2004; 21:414-23.

Gu C, Collins R, Holsworth DD, Walker GS, Voorman RL. Metabolic aromatization of N-alkyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline substructures to quinolinium by human liver microsomes and horseradish peroxidase. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:2044-55.

Gu X, Ke S, Liu D et al. Role of NF-kappaB in regulation of PXR-mediated gene expression: a mechanism for the suppression of cytochrome P-450 3A4 by proinflammatory agents. J Biol Chem 2006; 281:17882-9.

Guarisco JA, Hall JO, Coulombe RA Jr. Mechanisms of butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis-inhibition of aflatoxin B1 metabolism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008; 227:339-46.

Gubbins PO, Gurley BJ, Williams DK et al. Examining sex-related differences in enteric itraconazole metabolism in healthy adults using grapefruit juice. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:293-301.

Gubbins PO, Melchert RB, McConnell SA, Franks AM, Penzak SR, Gurley BJ. Effect of interleukin 6 on the hepatic metabolism of itraconazole and its metabolite hydroxyitraconazole using primary human hepatocytes. Pharmacology 2003; 67:195-201.

Guillén MI, Donato MT, Jover R et al. Oncostatin M down-regulates basal and induced cytochromes P450 in human hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 285:127-34.

Guitton J, Buronfosse T, Désage M, Lepape A, Brazier JL, Beaune P. Possible involvement of multiple cytochrome P450S in fentanyl and sufentanil metabolism as opposed to alfentanil. Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 53:1613-9.

Gulec S, Ozdol C, Rahimov U, Atmaca Y, Kumbasar D, Erol C. Myonecrosis after elective percutaneous coronary intervention: effect of clopidogrel-statin interaction. J Invasive Cardiol 2005; 17:589-93.

Guns ES, Bullock PL, Reimer ML, Dixon R, Bally M, Mayer LD. Assessment of the involvement of CYP3A in the vitro metabolism of a new modulator of MDR in cancer chemotherapy, OC144-193, by human liver microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2001; 26:273-82.

Guo F, An T, Rein KS. The algal hepatoxoxin okadaic acid is a substrate for human cytochromes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Toxicon 2010; 55:325-32.

Guo LQ, Yamazoe Y. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 by furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice and herbal medicines. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004; 25:129-36.

Guo Z, Raeissi S, White RB, Stevens JC. Orphenadrine and methimazole inhibit multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:390-3.

Gupta A, Mugundu GM, Desai PB, Thummel KE, Unadkat JD. Intestinal human colon adenocarcinoma cell line LS180 is an excellent model to study pregnane X receptor, but not constitutive androstane receptor, mediated CYP3A4 and multidrug resistance transporter 1 induction: studies with anti-human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1172-80.

Gupta D, Venkatesh M, Wang H et al. Expanding the roles for pregnane X receptor in cancer: proliferation and drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:5332-40.

Gupta RP, He YA, Patrick KS, Halpert JR, Bell NH. CYP3A4 is a vitamin D-24- and 25-hydroxylase: analysis of structure function by site-directed mutagenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:1210-9.

Gupta RP, Hollis BW, Patel SB, Patrick KS, Bell NH. CYP3A4 is a human microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. J Bone Miner Res 2004; 19:680-8.

Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA et al. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:276-87.

Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA et al. Clinical assessment of effects of botanical supplementation on cytochrome P450 phenotypes in the elderly: St John’s wort, garlic oil, Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba. Drugs Aging 2005; 22:525-39.

Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA et al. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:428-40.

Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA et al. In vivo effects of goldenseal, kava kava, black cohosh, and valerian on human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4/5 phenotypes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 77:415-26.

Gurley BJ, Swain A, Barone GW et al. Effect of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum) supplementation on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:240-5.

Gurley BJ, Swain A, Hubbard MA et al. Supplementation with goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), but not kava kava (Piper methysticum), inhibits human CYP3A activity in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83:61-9.

Guryev OL, Gilep AA, Usanov SA, Estabrook RW. Interaction of apo-cytochrome b5 with cytochromes P4503A4 and P45017A: relevance of heme transfer reactions. Biochemistry 2001; 40:5018-31.

Gustafson DL, Long ME, Bradshaw EL, Merz AL, Kerzic PJ. P450 induction alters paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution with multiple dosing. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2005; 56:248-54.

Gut I, Ojima I, Vaclavikova R et al. Metabolism of new-generation taxanes in human, pig, minipig and rat liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:772-92.

Gutierrez MM, Rosenberg J, Abramowitz W. An evaluation of the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between escitalopram and the cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor ritonavir. Clin Ther 2003; 25:1200-10.

Gutmann H, Poller B, Büter KB, Pfrunder A, Schaffner W, Drewe J. Hypericum perforatum: which constituents may induce intestinal MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression? Planta Med 2006; 72:685-90.

Ha HR, Candinas R, Stieger B, Meyer UA, Follath F. Interaction between amiodarone and lidocaine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1996; 28:533-9.

Ha HR, Chen J, Freiburghaus AU, Follath F. Metabolism of theophylline by cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 39:321-6.

Ha HR, Chen J, Krahenbuhl S, Follath F. Biotransformation of caffeine by cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 49:309-15.

Haas CE, Brazeau D, Cloen D et al. Cytochrome P450 mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a predictor of enzyme induction. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:583-93.

Haas CE, Kaufman DC, DiCenzo RC. Effects of metronidazole on hepatic CYP3A4 activity. Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21:1192-5.

Haas DW, Bartlett JA, Andersen JW et al. Pharmacogenetics of nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity: an Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group collaboration. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:783-6.

Haas DW, Ribaudo HJ, Kim RB et al. Pharmacogenetics of efavirenz and central nervous system side effects: an Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group study. AIDS 2004; 18:2391-400.

Haas DW, Smeaton LM, Shafer RW et al. Pharmacogenetics of long-term responses to antiretroviral regimens containing efavirenz and/or nelfinavir: an Adult Aids Clinical Trials Group Study. J Infect Dis 2005; 192:1931-42.

Haas S, Merkelbach-Bruse S, Justenhoven C, Brauch H, Fischer HP. Expression of xenobiotic and steroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in hepatocellular tumors of the non-cirrhotic liver. Pathol Res Pract 2009; 205:716-25.

Haas S, Pierl C, Harth V et al. Expression of xenobiotic and steroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in human breast carcinomas. Int J Cancer 2006; 119:1785-91.

Haaz MC, Riché C, Rivory LP, Robert J. Biosynthesis of an aminopiperidino metabolite of irinotecan [7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecine] by human hepatic microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:769-74.

Haddad A, Davis M, Lagman R. The pharmacological importance of cytochrome CYP3A4 in the palliation of symptoms: review and recommendations for avoiding adverse drug interactions. Support Care Cancer 2007; 15:251-7.

Haduch A, Wójcikowski J, Daniel WA. The effect of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and newer antidepressant drugs on the activity and level of rat CYP3A. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2006; 16:178-86.

Haehner BD, Gorski JC, Vandenbranden M et al. Bimodal distribution of renal cytochrome P450 3A activity in humans. Mol Pharmacol 1996; 50:52-9.

Haehner T, Refaie MO, Müller-Enoch D. Drug-drug interactions evaluated by a highly active reconstituted native human cytochrome P4503A4 and human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system. Arzneimittelforschung 2004; 54:78-83.

Hafner V, Albermann N, Haefeli WE, Ebinger F. Inhibition of voriconazole metabolism by chloramphenicol in an adolescent with central nervous system aspergillosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52:4172-4.

Hagen N, Olsen AK, Andersen JV, Tjørnelund J, Hansen SH. Characterization of mixtures of recombinant human cytochrome p450s as a screening model for metabolic stability in drug discovery. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:749-59.

Hägg S, Spigset O, Mjörndal T, Granberg K, Persbo-Lundqvist G, Dahlqvist R. Absence of interaction between erythromycin and a single dose of clozapine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:221-6.

Hagihara K, Kazui M, Kurihara A et al. Biotransformation of prasugrel, a novel thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, to the pharmacologically active metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:898-904.

Hakkola J, Pelkonen O, Pasanen M, Raunio H. Xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in the human feto-placental unit: role in intrauterine toxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol 1998; 28:35-72.

Hakkola J, Raunio H, Purkunen R et al. Detection of cytochrome P450 gene expression in human placenta in first trimester of pregnancy. Biochem Pharmacol 1996; 52:379-83.

Hakkola J, Raunio H, Purkunen R et al. Cytochrome P450 3A expression in the human fetal liver: evidence that CYP3A5 is expressed in only a limited number of fetal livers. Biol Neonate 2001; 80:193-201.

Hakkola J, Tanaka E, Pelkonen O. Developmental expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver. Pharmacol Toxicol 1998; 82:209-17.

Hall M, Persiani S, Cheung YL et al. Interaction of dexloxiglumide, a cholecystokinin type-1 receptor antagonist, with human cytochromes P450. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2004; 25:163-76.

Halliday RC, Jones BC, Smith DA, Kitteringham NR, Park BK. An investigation of the interaction between halofantrine, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4: studies with human liver microsomes and heterologous enzyme expression systems. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 40:369-78.

Hallifax D, Galetin A, Houston JB. Prediction of metabolic clearance using fresh human hepatocytes: comparison with cryopreserved hepatocytes and hepatic microsomes for five benzodiazepines. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:353-67.

Hallifax D, Rawden HC, Hakooz N, Houston JB. Prediction of metabolic clearance using cryopreserved human hepatocytes: kinetic characteristics for five benzodiazepines. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1852-8.

Hallinan R, Crettol S, Agho K et al. Cannabis and benzodiazepines as determinants of methadone trough plasma concentration variability in maintenance treatment: a transnational study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65:1113-20.

Hamaoka N, Oda Y, Hase I et al. Propofol decreases the clearance of midazolam by inhibiting CYP3A4: an in vivo and in vitro study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:110-7.

Hamaoka N, Oda Y, Hase I, Asada A. Cytochrome P4502B6 and 2C9 do not metabolize midazolam: kinetic analysis and inhibition study with monoclonal antibodies. Br J Anaesth 2001; 86:540-4.

Hamilton GA, Jolley SL, Gilbert D, Coon DJ, Barros S, LeCluyse EL. Regulation of cell morphology and cytochrome P450 expression in human hepatocytes by extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions. Cell Tissue Res 2001; 306:85-99.

Hamitouche S, Poupon J, Dreano Y, Amet Y, Lucas D. Ethanol oxidation into acetaldehyde by 16 recombinant human cytochrome P450 isoforms: role of CYP2C isoforms in human liver microsomes. Toxicol Lett 2006; 167:221-30.

Hamman MA, Bruce MA, Haehner-Daniels BD, Hall SD. The effect of rifampin administration on the disposition of fexofenadine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69:114-21.

Hammann F, Gutmann H, Baumann U, Helma C, Drewe J. Classification of cytochrome p(450) activities using machine learning methods. Mol Pharm 2009; 6:1920-6.

Hamzeiy H, Bombail V, Plant N, Gibson G, Goldfarb P. Transcriptional regulation of cytochrome P4503A4 gene expression: effects of inherited mutations in the 5’-flanking region. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:1085-95.

Hamzeiy H, Vahdati-Mashhadian N, Edwards HJ, Goldfarb PS. Mutation analysis of the human CYP3A4 gene 5’ regulatory region: population screening using non-radioactive SSCP. Mutat Res 2002; 500:103-10.

Hanatani T, Fukuda T, Ikeda M et al. CYP2C9*3 influences the metabolism and the drug-interaction of candesartan in vitro. Pharmacogenomics J 2001; 1:288-92.

Handschin C, Podvinec M, Amherd R, Looser R, Ourlin JC, Meyer UA. Cholesterol and bile acids regulate xenosensor signaling in drug-mediated induction of cytochromes P450. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:29561-7.

Hanioka N, Ozawa S, Jinno H et al. Interaction of irinotecan (CPT-11) and its active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) with human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:391-6.

Hanlon N, Coldham N, Sauer MJ, Ioannides C. Up-regulation of the CYP1 family in rat and human liver by the aliphatic isothiocyanates erucin and sulforaphane. Toxicology 2008; 252:92-8.

Hansen T, Borlak J, Bader A. Cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and protein expression in primary porcine enterocyte and hepatocyte cultures. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:27-46.

Hansen TS, Nilsen OG. In vitro CYP3A4 metabolism: inhibition by Echinacea purpurea and choice of substrate for the evaluation of herbal inhibition. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008; 103:445-9.

Hanson KL, Vandenbrink BM, Babu KN, Allen KE, Nelson WL, Kunze KL. Sequential metabolism of secondary alkyl amines to metabolic-intermediate complexes: Opposing roles for the secondary hydroxylamine and primary amine metabolites of desipramine, (S)-Fluoxetine and N-desmethyldiltiazem. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:963-72.

Hao B, Chen ZW, Zhou XJ et al. Identification of phase-I metabolites and chronic toxicity study of the Kv1. 3 blocker PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) in the rat. Xenobiotica 2011; 41:198-211. Hao M, Zhao Y, Chen P et al. Structure-activity relationship and substrate-dependent phenomena in effects of ginsenosides on activities of drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes. PLoS One 2008. doi:10. 1371/journal. pone. 0002697.

Hara H, Mitani N, Adachi T. Inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on the induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 mRNA by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Caco-2 cells. Free Radic Res 2000; 33:279-85.

Hara H, Yasunami Y, Adachi T. Alteration of cellular phosphorylation state affects vitamin D receptor-mediated CYP3A4 mRNA induction in Caco-2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 296:182-8.

Hara H, Yasunami Y, Adachi T. Loss of CYP3A7 gene induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is caused by less binding of VDR to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A7 gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 321:909-15.

Harden CL, Leppik I. Optimizing therapy of seizures in women who use oral contraceptives. Neurology 2006; 67(12 Suppl 4):56-8.

Hariparsad N, Carr BA, Evers R, Chu X. Comparison of immortalized Fa2N-4 cells and human hepatocytes as in vitro models for cytochrome P450 induction. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1046-55.

Hariparsad N, Chu X, Yabut J et al. Identification of pregnane-X receptor target genes and coactivator and corepressor binding to promoter elements in human hepatocytes. Nucleic Acids Res 2009; 37:1160-73.

Hariparsad N, Nallani SC, Sane RS, Buckley DJ, Buckley AR, Desai PB. Induction of CYP3A4 by efavirenz in primary human hepatocytes: comparison with rifampin and phenobarbital. J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 44:1273-81.

Haritos VS, Ghabrial H, Ahokas JT, Ching MS. Role of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in the stereospecific metabolism of E- and Z-doxepin. Pharmacogenetics 2000; 10:591-603.

Harmsen S, Koster AS, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH, Meijerman I. Comparison of two immortalized human cell lines to study nuclear receptor-mediated CYP3A4 induction. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1166-71.

Harmsen S, Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. The role of nuclear receptors in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions in oncology. Cancer Treat Rev 2007; 33:369-80.

Harmsen S, Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. Nuclear receptor mediated induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 by anticancer drugs: a key role for the pregnane X receptor. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009; 64:35-43.

Harmsze A, van Werkum JW, Bouman HJ et al. Besides CYP2C19*2, the variant allele CYP2C9*3 is associated with higher on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2010; 20:18-25.

Harmsze AM, Robijns K, van Werkum JW et al. The use of amlodipine, but not of P-glycoprotein inhibiting calcium channel blockers is associated with clopidogrel poor-response. Thromb Haemost 2010; 103:920-5.

Harris RZ, Inglis AM, Miller AK et al. Rosiglitazone has no clinically significant effect on nifedipine pharmacokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:1189-94.

Harris RZ, Jang GR, Tsunoda S. Dietary effects on drug metabolism and transport. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:1071-88.

Harris RZ, Salfi M, Sullivan JT, Padhi D. Pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet hydrochloride when administered with ketoconazole. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:495-501.

Harris RZ, Tsunoda SM, Mroczkowski P, Wong H, Benet LZ. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapies on prednisolone and erythromycin pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 59:429-35.

Harris SR, Gedge JI, Nedderman AN, Roffey SJ, Savage M. A sensitive HPLC-MS-MS assay for quantitative determination of midazolam in dog plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2004; 35:127-34.

Hartley DP, Dai X, Yabut J et al. Identification of potential pharmacological and toxicological targets differentiating structural analogs by a combination of transcriptional profiling and promoter analysis in LS-180 and Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cell lines. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:579-99.

Härtter S, Tybring G, Friedberg T, Weigmann H, Hiemke C. The N-demethylation of the doxepin isomers is mainly catalyzed by the polymorphic CYP2C19. Pharm Res 2002; 19:1034-7.

Harvey JL, Paine AJ, Maurel P, Wright MC. Effect of the adrenal 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone on human hepatic cytochrome P-450 expression: induction of cytochrome P-450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:96-101.

Hashida T, Masuda S, Uemoto S, Saito H, Tanaka K, Inui K. Pharmacokinetic and prognostic significance of intestinal MDR1 expression in recipients of living-donor liver transplantation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69:308-16.

Hashimoto H, Nakagawa T, Yokoi T, Sawada M, Itoh S, Kamataki T. Fetus-specific CYP3A7 and adult-specific CYP3A4 expressed in Chinese hamster CHL cells have similar capacity to activate carcinogenic mycotoxins. Cancer Res 1995; 55:787-91.

Hashimoto H, Toide K, Kitamura R et al. Gene structure of CYP3A4, an adult-specific form of cytochrome P450 in human livers, and its transcriptional control. Eur J Biochem 1993; 218:585-95.

Hashimoto K, Kataoka M, Tatsuta M et al. Benzimidazole-5-sulfonamides as novel nonpeptide luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists: minimization of mechanism-based CYP3A4 inhibition. Chem Pharm Bull 2005; 53:1314-7.

Hashizume T, Imaoka S, Mise M et al. Involvement of CYP2J2 and CYP4F12 in the metabolism of ebastine in human intestinal microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 300:298-304.

Hashizume T, Mise M, Matsumoto S et al. A novel cytochrome P450 enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ebastine in monkey small intestine. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:798-805.

Hashizume T, Mise M, Terauchi Y et al. N-Dealkylation and hydroxylation of ebastine by human liver cytochrome P450. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:566-71.

Hassan PC, Sproule BA, Naranjo CA, Herrmann N. Dose-response evaluation of the interaction between sertraline and alprazolam in vivo. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20:150-8.

Hasselstrøm J, Linnet K. In vitro studies on quetiapine metabolism using the substrate depletion approach with focus on drug-drug interactions. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2006; 21:187-211.

Hasselstrøm J, Linnet K. Quetiapine serum concentrations in psychiatric patients: the influence of comedication. Ther Drug Monit 2004; 26:486-91.

Hata M, Tanaka Y, Kyoda N et al. An epoxidation mechanism of carbamazepine by CYP3A4. Bioorg Med Chem 2008; 16:5134-48.

Hata S, Miki Y, Fujishima F et al. Cytochrome 3A and 2E1 in human liver tissue: individual variations among normal Japanese subjects. Life Sci 2010; 86:393-401.

Hatcher D, Daniels G, Osman I, Lee P. Molecular mechanisms involving prostate cancer racial disparity. Am J Transl Res 2009; 1:235-48.

Hatorp V, Hansen KT, Thomsen MS. Influence of drugs interacting with CYP3A4 on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of the prandial glucose regulator repaglinide. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:649-60.

Hayashi K, Sakaki T, Kominami S, Inouye K, Yabusaki Y. Coexpression of genetically engineered fused enzyme between yeast NADPH-P450 reductase and human cytochrome P450 3A4 and human cytochrome b5 in yeast. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000; 81:164-70.

Hayashi S, Jayesekera D, Jayewardene A, Shah A, Thevanayagam L, Aweeka F. Altered pharmacokinetics of indinavir by a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (HBY-097): a pharmacokinetic evaluation in HIV-positive patients. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:1085-93.

Hayashi Y, Ikeda U, Hashimoto T, Watanabe T, Mitsuhashi T, Shimada K. Torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia induced by clarithromycin and disopyramide in the presence of hypokalemia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1999; 22:672-4.

Hayney MS, Buck JM. Effect of age and degree of immune activation on cytochrome P450 3A4 activity after influenza immunization. Pharmacotherapy 2002; 22:1235-8.

Hayney MS, Hammes RJ, Fine JP, Bianco JA. Effect of influenza immunization on CYP3A4 activity. Vaccine 2001; 20:858-61.

Hayney MS, Muller D. Effect of influenza immunization on CYP3A4 activity in vivo. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:1377-81.

Hazai E, Vereczkey L, Monostory K. Reduction of toxic metabolite formation of acetaminophen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 291:1089-94.

He F, Bi HC, Xie ZY et al. Rapid determination of six metabolites from multiple cytochrome P450 probe substrates in human liver microsome by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: application to high-throughput inhibition screening of terpenoids. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2007; 21:635-43.

He K, Qian M, Wong H et al. N-in-1 dosing pharmacokinetics in drug discovery: experience, theoretical and practical considerations. J Pharm Sci 2008; 97:2568-80.

He K, Woolf TF, Hollenberg PF. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P-450-3A4 by mifepristone (RU486). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 288:791-7.

He K, Woolf TF, Kindt EK, Fielder AE, Talaat RE. Troglitazone quinone formation catalyzed by human and rat CYP3A: an atypical CYP oxidation reaction. Biochem Pharmacol 2001; 62:191-8.

He N, Edeki T. The inhibitory effects of herbal components on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 catalytic activities in human liver microsomes. Am J Ther 2004; 11:206-12.

He N, Huang SL, Zhu RH et al. Inhibitory effect of troleandomycin on the metabolism of omeprazole is CYP2C19 genotype-dependent. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:211-21.

He N, Xie HG, Collins X, Edeki T, Yan Z. Effects of individual ginsenosides, ginkgolides and flavonoids on CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 activity in human liver microsomes. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006; 33:813-5.

He P, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL. Factors influencing midazolam hydroxylation activity in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1198-207.

He P, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL. Genotype-phenotype associations of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 polymorphism with midazolam clearance in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 77:373-87.

He W, Li K. Incidence of genetic polymorphisms involved in lipid metabolism among Chinese patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Acta Orthop 2009; 80:325-9.

He XY, Tang L, Wang SL, Cai QS, Wang JS, Hong JY. Efficient activation of aflatoxin B1 by cytochrome P450 2A13, an enzyme predominantly expressed in human respiratory tract. Int J Cancer 2006; 118:2665-71.

He YA, Roussel F, Halpert JR. Analysis of homotropic and heterotropic cooperativity of diazepam oxidation by CYP3A4 using site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic modeling. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003; 409:92-101.

Healan-Greenberg C, Waring JF, Kempf DJ, Blomme EA, Tirona RG, Kim RB. A human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor is a novel functional inhibitor of human pregnane X receptor. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:500-7.

Hebert MF. Contributions of hepatic and intestinal metabolism and P-glycoprotein to cyclosporine and tacrolimus oral drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1997; 27:201-214.

Hebert MF, Fisher RM, Marsh CL, Dressler D, Bekersky I. Effects of rifampin on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:91-6.

Hedaya MA, El-Afify DR, El-Maghraby GM. The effect of ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin on sildenafil oral bioavailability in human volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2006; 27:103-10.

Heikinheimo O. Clinical pharmacokinetics of mifepristone. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997; 33:7-17.

Heikinheimo O, Kekkonen R, Lähteenmäki P. The pharmacokinetics of mifepristone in humans reveal insights into differential mechanisms of antiprogestin action. Contraception 2003; 68:421-6.

Heinig R. Clinical pharmacokinetics of nisoldipine coat-core. Clin Pharmacokinet 1998; 35:191-208.

Heiskanen T, Backman JT, Neuvonen M, Kontinen VK, Neuvonen PJ, Kalso E. Itraconazole, a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, moderately increases plasma concentrations of oral morphine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52:1319-26.

Hellum BH, Hu Z, Nilsen OG. The induction of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by six trade herbal products in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007; 100:23-30.

Hellum BH, Nilsen OG. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by trade herbal products. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008; 102:466-75.

Hellum BH, Tosse A, Hoybakk K, Thomsen M, Rohloff J, Georg Nilsen O. Potent in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-Glycoprotein by Rhodiola rosea. Planta Med 2010; 76:331-8.

Hemeryck A, Belpaire FM. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cytochrome P-450 mediated drug-drug interactions: an update. Curr Drug Metab 2002; 3:13-37.

Hemeryck A, de Vriendt C, Belpaire FM. Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the oxidative metabolism of propafenone: in vitro studies using human liver microsomes. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20:428-34.

Henderson GL, Harkey MR, Gershwin ME, Hackman RM, Stern JS, Stresser DM. Effects of ginseng components on c-DNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzyme catalytic activity. Life Sci 1999; 65:209-14.

Henderson L, Yue QY, Bergquist C, Gerden B, Arlett P. St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum): drug interactions and clinical outcomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 54:349-56.

Henderson MC, Miranda CL, Stevens JF, Deinzer ML, Buhler DR. In vitro inhibition of human P450 enzymes by prenylated flavonoids from hops, Humulus lupulus. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:235-51.

Hennessy M, Kelleher D, Spiers JP et al. St Johns wort increases expression of P-glycoprotein: implications for drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53:75-82.

Hennessy S, Leonard CE, Newcomb C, Kimmel SE, Bilker WB. Cisapride and ventricular arrhythmia. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 66:375-85.

Henningsson A, Marsh S, Loos WJ et al. Association of CYP2C8, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms with the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:8097-104.

Hensel A, Deters AM, Müller G, Stark T, Wittschier N, Hofmann T. Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach. Planta Med 2007; 73:142-50.

Henshall J, Galetin A, Harrison A, Houston JB. Comparative analysis of CYP3A heteroactivation by steroid hormones and flavonoids in different in vitro systems and potential in vivo implications. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1332-40.

Herbrecht R. Posaconazole: a potent, extended-spectrum triazole anti-fungal for the treatment of serious fungal infections. Int J Clin Pract 2004; 58:612-24.

Herbst J, Anthony M, Stewart J et al. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies. Assay Drug Dev Technol 2009; 7:294-303.

Hermann M, Kase ET, Molden E, Christensen H. Evaluation of microsomal incubation conditions on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of cyclosporine A by a statistical experimental design. Curr Drug Metab 2006; 7:265-71.

Herrlin K, Segerdahl M, Gustafsson LL, Kalso E. Methadone, ciprofloxacin, and adverse drug reactions. Lancet 2000; 356:2069-70.

Hesse LM, Sakai Y, Vishnuvardhan D, Li AP, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. Effect of bupropion on CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 catalytic activity, immunoreactive protein and mRNA levels in primary human hepatocytes: comparison with rifampicin. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003; 55:1229-39.

Hesse LM, Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ. CYP3A4 is the major CYP isoform mediating the in vitro hydroxylation and demethylation of flunitrazepam. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:133-40.

Hesse LM, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. Clinically important drug interactions with zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon. CNS Drugs 2003; 17:513-32.

Hesselink DA, van Gelder T, van Schaik RH et al. Population pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in kidney and heart transplant recipients and the influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms in the MDR-1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:545-56.

Hesselink DA, van Schaik RH, Nauta J, van Gelder T. A drug transporter for all ages? ABCB1 and the developmental pharmacogenetics of cyclosporine. Pharmacogenomics 2008; 9:783-9.

Hesselink DA, van Schaik RH, van der Heiden IP et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and MDR-1 genes and pharmacokinetics of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 74:245-54.

Hester EK, Chandler HV, Sims KM. Fosamprenavir: drug development for adherence. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40:1301-10.

Hewes JC, Riddy D, Morris RW, Woodrooffe AJ, Davidson BR, Fuller B. A prospective study of isolated human hepatocyte function following liver resection for colorectal liver metastases: the effects of prior exposure to chemotherapy. J Hepatol 2006; 45:263-70.

Hewitt NJ, Lloyd S, Hayden M et al. Correlation between troglitazone cytotoxicity and drug metabolic enzyme activities in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 2002; 142:73-82.

Hey JA, del Prado M, Kreutner W, Egan RW. Cardiotoxic and drug interaction profile of the second generation antihistamines ebastine and terfenadine in an experimental animal model of torsade de pointes. Arzneimittelforschung 1996; 46:159-63.

Heyn H, White RB, Stevens JC. Catalytic role of cytochrome P4502B6 in the N-demethylation of S-mephenytoin. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:948-54.

Hidestrand M, Oscarson M, Salonen JS et al. CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 as the major enzymes responsible for the metabolism of selegiline, a drug used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, as revealed from experiments with recombinant enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1480-4.

Hijazi Y, Boulieu R. Contribution of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 isoforms to N-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:853-8.

Hikage S, Nakayama K, Saito T et al. Cytotoxicity of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate on cytochrome P450-producing cells. J Oral Rehabil 2003; 30:544-9.

Hille UE, Hu Q, Vock C et al. Novel CYP17 inhibitors: synthesis, biological evaluation, structure-activity relationships and modelling of methoxy- and hydroxy-substituted methyleneimidazolyl biphenyls. Eur J Med Chem 2009; 44:2765-75.

Hines RN. Ontogeny of human hepatic cytochromes P450. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2007; 21:169-75.

Hines RN, McCarver DG. The ontogeny of human drug-metabolizing enzymes: phase I oxidative enzymes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 300:355-60.

Hippius M, Farker K, Helble S, Hoffmann A. Assessment of ADRs associated with lipid-lowering agents recorded in the Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Jena. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 40:97-101.

Hirata-Koizumi M, Saito M, Miyake S, Hasegawa R. Incremental effect and mechanism of cyclosporine on blood concentration of statins and statin package insert information in Japan. Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku 2005; 37-40.

Hiratsuka M, Hinai Y, Sasaki T et al. Characterization of human cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of cilostazol. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1730-2.

Hirota N, Ito K, Iwatsubo T et al. In vitro/in vivo scaling of alprazolam metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in humans. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2001; 22:53-71.

Hirota T, Ieiri I, Takane H et al. Allelic expression imbalance of the human CYP3A4 gene and individual phenotypic status. Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13:2959-69.

Hirt D, Treluyer JM, Jullien V et al. Pregnancy-related effects on nelfinavir-M8 pharmacokinetics: a population study with 133 women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50:2079-86.

Hirth J, Watkins PB, Strawderman M, Schott A, Bruno R, Baker LH. The effect of an individual’s cytochrome CYP3A4 activity on docetaxel clearance. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6:1255-8.

Hisaka A, Kusama M, Ohno Y, Sugiyama Y, Suzuki H. A proposal for a pharmacokinetic interaction significance classification system (PISCS) based on predicted drug exposure changes and its potential application to alert classifications in product labelling. Clin Pharmacokinet 2009; 48:653-66.

Ho PC, Chalcroft SC, Coville PF, Wanwimolruk S. Grapefruit juice has no effect on quinine pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:393-8.

Ho PC, Saville DJ, Coville PF, Wanwimolruk S. Content of CYP3A4 inhibitors, naringin, naringenin and bergapten in grapefruit and grapefruit juice products. Pharm Acta Helv 2000; 74:379-85.

Ho PC, Saville DJ, Wanwimolruk S. Inhibition of human CYP3A4 activity by grapefruit flavonoids, furanocoumarins and related compounds. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2001; 4:217-27.

Ho SH, Singh M, Holloway AC, Crankshaw DJ. The effects of commercial preparations of herbal supplements commonly used by women on the biotransformation of fluorogenic substrates by human cytochromes P450. Phytother Res 2011. doi:10. 1002/ptr. 3371.

Hochholzer W, Trenk D, Frundi D et al. Time dependence of platelet inhibition after a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel in a large, unselected cohort of candidates for percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 2005; 111:2560-4.

Hochman JH, Chiba M, Nishime J, Yamazaki M, Lin JH. Influence of P-glycoprotein on the transport and metabolism of indinavir in Caco-2 cells expressing cytochrome P-450 3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 292:310-8.

Hochman JH, Chiba M, Yamazaki M, Tang C, Lin JH. P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of indinavir metabolites in Caco-2 cells expressing cytochrome P450 3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 298:323-30.

Hodel EM, Ley SD, Qi W, Ariey F, Genton B, Beck HP. A microarray-based system for the simultaneous analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in human genes involved in the metabolism of anti-malarial drugs. Malar J 2009; 8:285.

Hodgson E, Rose RL. Human metabolic interactions of environmental chemicals. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2007; 21:182-6.

Hodgson E, Rose RL. Metabolic interactions of agrochemicals in humans. Pest Manag Sci 2008; 64:617-21.

Hofer S, Frei K, Rutz HP. Gefitinib accumulation in glioblastoma tissue. Cancer Biol Ther 2006; 5:483-4.

Hogan KJ, Burmester JK, Caldwell MD et al. Perioperative genomic profiles using structure-specific oligonucleotide probes. Clin Med Res 2009; 7:69-84.

Holownia A, Braszko JJ. Tamoxifen cytotoxicity in hepatoblastoma cells stably transfected with human CYP3A4. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 67:1057-64.

Holownia A, Cederbaum AI. Threshold for antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of ttaxol in HepG2 cells expressing human CYP3A4: effect of P-glycoprotein transporters. Pharmacology 2003; 69:142-9.

Holsworth DD, Cai C, Cheng XM et al. Ketopiperazine-based renin inhibitors: optimization of the “C” ring. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006; 16:2500-4.

Holtzman CW, Wiggins BS, Spinler SA. Role of P-glycoprotein in statin drug interactions. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26:1601-7.

Homma M, Beckerman K, Hayashi S et al. Liquid chromatographic determination of urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol to assess cytochrome p-450 3A activity in HIV positive pregnant women. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2000; 23:629-35.

Honda A, Salen G, Matsuzaki Y et al. Side chain hydroxylations in bile acid biosynthesis catalyzed by CYP3A are markedly up-regulated in Cyp27-/- mice but not in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:34579-85.

Honda H, Tomizawa M, Casida JE. Neo-nicotinoid metabolic activation and inactivation established with coupled nicotinic receptor-CYP3A4 and -aldehyde oxidase systems. Toxicol Lett 2006; 161:108-14.

Hong H, Su H, Ma L et al. In vitro characterization of the metabolic pathways and cytochrome P450 inhibition and induction potential of BMS-690514, an ErbB/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39:1658-67.

Hongo I, Bloch KC. Ehrlichia infection of the central nervous system. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2006; 8:179-84.

Hooker AC, Ten Tije AJ, Carducci MA et al. Population pharmacokinetic model for docetaxel in patients with varying degrees of liver function: incorporating cytochrome P4503A activity measurements. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84:111-8.

Hoover CA, Carmichael JK, Nolan PE Jr, Marcus FI. Cardiac Arrest Associated With Combination Cisapride and Itraconazole Therapy. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 1996; 1:255-8.

Horikiri Y, Suzuki T, Mizobe M. Stereoselective metabolism of bisoprolol enantiomers in dogs and humans. Life Sci 1998; 63:1097-108.

Horikiri Y, Suzuki T, Mizobe M. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bisoprolol enantiomers in humans. J Pharm Sci 1998; 87:289-94.

Hosagrahara VP, Hansen LK, Remmel RP. Induction of the metabolism of midazolam by rifampin in cultured porcine hepatocytes: preliminary evidence for CYP3A isoforms in pigs. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1512-8.

Hosohata K, Masuda S, Yonezawa A et al. MDR1 haplotypes conferring an increased expression of intestinal CYP3A4 rather than MDR1 in female living-donor liver transplant patients. Pharm Res 2009; 26:1590-5.

Hosomi H, Akai S, Minami K et al. An in vitro drug-induced hepatotoxicity screening system using CYP3A4-expressing and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase knockdown cells. Toxicol In Vitro 2010; 24:1032-8.

Hossain M, Wright E, Baweja R, Ludden T, Miller R. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling of single dose and multiple dose data for an immediate release (IR) and a controlled release (CR) dosage form of alprazolam. Pharm Res 1997; 14:309-15.

Hostler D, Zhou J, Tortorici MA et al. Mild hypothermia alters midazolam pharmacokinetics in normal healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:781-8.

Hou XL, Takahashi K, Kinoshita N et al. Possible inhibitory mechanism of Curcuma drugs on CYP3A4 in 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 treated Caco-2 cells. Int J Pharm 2007; 337:169-77.

Houston JB, Galetin A. Modelling atypical CYP3A4 kinetics: principles and pragmatism. Arch Biochem Biophys 2005; 433:351-60.

Howard CB, Stevens J, Izevbigie EB, Walker A, McDaniel O. Time and dose-dependent modulation of phase 1 and phase 2 gene expression in response to treatment of MCF-7 cells with a natural anti-cancer agent. Cell Mol Biol 2003; 49:1057-65.

Howell JE, Szabatura AH, Hatfield Seung A, Nesbit SA. Characterization of the occurrence of ifosfamide-induced neurotoxicity with concomitant aprepitant. J Oncol Pharm Pract 2008; 14:157-62.

Hoyo-Vadillo C, Venturelli CR, González H et al. Metabolism of omeprazole after two oral doses in children 1 to 9 months old. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2005; 48:108-9.

Hsieh KP, Lin YY, Cheng CL et al. Novel mutations of CYP3A4 in Chinese. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:268-73.

Hsiu SL, Hou YC, Wang YH, Tsao CW, Su SF, Chao PD. Quercetin significantly decreased cyclosporin oral bioavailability in pigs and rats. Life Sci 2002; 72:227-35.

Hsu WC, Chen WH, Chang MT, Chiu HC. Colchicine-induced acute myopathy in a patient with concomitant use of simvastatin. Clin Neuropharmacol 2002; 25:266-8.

Hsyu PH, Schultz-Smith MD, Lillibridge JH, Lewis RH, Kerr BM. Pharmacokinetic interactions between nelfinavir and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors atorvastatin and simvastatin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001; 45:3445-50.

Hu M, Li Y, Davitt CM et al. Transport and metabolic characterization of Caco-2 cells expressing CYP3A4 and CYP3A4 plus oxidoreductase. Pharm Res 1999; 16:1352-9.

Hu Y, Kupfer D. Metabolism of the endocrine disruptor pesticide-methoxychlor by human P450s: pathways involving a novel catechol metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1035-42.

Hu Y, Yang S, Shilliday FB et al. Novel metabolic bioactivation mechanism for a series of anti-inflammatory agents (2,5-diaminothiophene derivatives) mediated by cytochrome p450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1522-31.

Hu YF, He J, Chen GL et al. CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*18 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a Chinese population. Clin Chim Acta 2005; 353:187-92.

Hu YF, Qiu W, Liu ZQ et al. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MDR1 on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics after renal transplantation. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006; 33:1093-8.

Hu YF, Tu JH, Tan ZR et al. Association of CYP3A4*18B polymorphisms with the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in healthy subjects. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:315-27.

Huang H, Wang H, Sinz M et al. Inhibition of drug metabolism by blocking the activation of nuclear receptors by ketoconazole. Oncogene 2007; 26:258-68.

Huang J, Si L, Jiang L, Fan Z, Qiu J, Li G. Effect of pluronic F68 block copolymer on P-glycoprotein transport and CYP3A4 metabolism. Int J Pharm 2008; 356:351-3.

Huang W, Lin YS, McConn DJ 2nd et al. Evidence of significant contribution from CYP3A5 to hepatic drug metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1434-45.

Huang Y, Okochi H, May BC et al. Quinacrine is mainly metabolized to mono-desethyl quinacrine by CYP3A4/5 and its brain accumulation is limited by P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1136-44.

Huang YT, Onose J, Abe N, Yoshikawa K. In vitro inhibitory effects of pulvinic acid derivatives isolated from Chinese Edible mushrooms, Boletus calopus and Suillus bovinus, on cytochrome P450 activity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2009; 73:855-60.

Huang Z, Fasco MJ, Figge HL, Keyomarsi K, Kaminsky LS. Expression of cytochromes P450 in human breast tissue and tumors. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:899-905.

Huang Z, Guengerich FP, Kaminsky LS. 16Alpha-hydroxylation of estrone by human cytochrome P4503A4/5. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19:867-72.

Huang Z, Roy P, Waxman DJ. Role of human liver microsomal CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in catalyzing N-dechloroethylation of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Biochem Pharmacol 2000; 59:961-72.

Hughes AL, Powell DW, Bard M et al. Dap1/PGRMC1 binds and regulates cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cell Metab 2007; 5:143-9.

Hughes SJ, Morse MA, Weghorst CM et al. Cytochromes P450 are expressed in proliferating cells in Barrett’s metaplasia. Neoplasia 1999; 1:145-53.

Huisman MT, Smit JW, Wiltshire HR, Hoetelmans RM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH. P-glycoprotein limits oral availability, brain, and fetal penetration of saquinavir even with high doses of ritonavir. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 59:806-13.

Hukkanen J, Lassila A, Päivärinta K et al. Induction and regulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s in the human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2000; 22:360-6.

Hukkanen J, Mäntylä M, Kangas L et al. Expression of cytochrome P450 genes encoding enzymes active in the metabolism of tamoxifen in human uterine endometrium. Pharmacol Toxicol 1998; 82:93-7.

Hukkanen J, Väisänen T, Lassila A et al. Regulation of CYP3A5 by glucocorticoids and cigarette smoke in human lung-derived cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 304:745-52.

Hung IF, Wu AK, Cheng VC et al. Fatal interaction between clarithromycin and colchicine in patients with renal insufficiency: a retrospective study. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:291-300.

Hung SI, Chung WH, Jee SH et al. Genetic susceptibility to carbamazepine-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:297-306.

Huskey SW, Dean DC, Miller RR, Rasmusson GH, Chiu SH. Identification of human cytochrome P450 isozymes responsible for the in vitro oxidative metabolism of finasteride. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:1126-35.

Hustert E, Zibat A, Presecan-Siedel E et al. Natural protein variants of pregnane X receptor with altered transactivation activity toward CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1454-9.

Hutchinson MR, Menelaou A, Foster DJ, Coller JK, Somogyi AA. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 involvement in the primary oxidative metabolism of hydrocodone by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:287-97.

Hutson PR, Oettel K, Douglas J et al. Effect of medical castration on CYP3A4 enzyme activity using the erythromycin breath test. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008; 62:373-7.

Huttunen KM, Mähönen N, Leppänen J et al. Novel cyclic phosphate prodrug approach for cytochrome P450-activated drugs containing an alcohol functionality. Pharm Res 2007; 24:679-87.

Hutzler JM, Linder CD, Melton RJ, Vincent J, Daniels JS. In vitro-In vivo correlation and translation to the clinical outcome for CJ-13,610, a novel inhibitor of 5-Lipoxygenase. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1113-21.

Hutzler JM, Melton RJ, Rumsey JM, Schnute ME, Locuson CW, Wienkers LC. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by a pyrimidineimidazole: Evidence for complex heme interactions. Chem Res Toxicol 2006; 19:1650-9.

Huwyler J, Wright MB, Gutmann H, Drewe J. Induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein by the isoxazolyl-penicillin antibiotic flucloxacillin. Curr Drug Metab 2006; 7:119-26.

Hyland R, Dickins M, Collins C, Jones H, Jones B. Maraviroc: in vitro assessment of drug-drug interaction potential. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 66:498-507.

Hyland R, Jones BC, Smith DA. Identification of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the N-oxidation of voriconazole. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:540-7.

Hyland R, Osborne T, Payne A et al. In vitro and in vivo glucuronidation of midazolam in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 67:445-54.

Hyland R, Roe EG, Jones BC, Smith DA. Identification of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the N-demethylation of sildenafil. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:239-48.

Hynninen VV, Olkkola KT, Bertilsson L, Kurkinen K, Neuvonen PJ, Laine K. Effect of terbinafine and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83:342-8.

Hynninen VV, Olkkola KT, Bertilsson L et al. Voriconazole increases while itraconazole decreases plasma meloxicam concentrations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:587-92.

Hynninen VV, Olkkola KT, Leino K et al. Effect of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2007; 21:651-6.

Iatsimirskaia E, Tulebaev S, Storozhuk E et al. Metabolism of rifabutin in human enterocyte and liver microsomes: kinetic parameters, identification of enzyme systems, and drug interactions with macrolides and antifungal agents. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 61:554-62.

Iatsimirskaia EA, Gregory ML, Anderes KL et al. Effect of testosterone suppression on the pharmacokinetics of a potent gnRH receptor antagonist. Pharm Res 2002; 19:202-8.

Ibrahim A, Karim A, Feldman J, Kharasch E. The influence of parecoxib, a parenteral cyclooxygenase-2 specific inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of midazolam. Anesth Analg 2002; 95:667-73.

Ibrahim AE, Feldman J, Karim A, Kharasch ED. Simultaneous assessment of drug interactions with low- and high-extraction opioids: application to parecoxib effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fentanyl and alfentanil. Anesthesiology 2003; 98:853-61.

Igarashi T, Sakuma T, Isogai M, Nagata R, Kamataki T. Marmoset liver cytochrome P450s: study for expression and molecular cloning of their cDNAs. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 339:85-91.

Ikeda S, Kurose K, Jinno H et al. Functional analysis of four naturally occurring variants of human constitutive androstane receptor. Mol Genet Metab 2005; 86:314-9.

Ikezoe T, Hisatake Y, Takeuchi T et al. HIV-1 protease inhibitor, ritonavir: a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, enhanced the anticancer effects of docetaxel in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 2004; 64:7426-31.

Imaeda Y, Kawamoto T, Tobisu M et al. Discovery of piperazinylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines as novel S4 binding elements for orally active factor Xa inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem 2008; 16:3125-40.

Imaeda Y, Miyawaki T, Sakamoto H et al. Discovery of sulfonylalkylamides: A new class of orally active factor Xa inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem 2008; 16:2243-60.

Imai T, Taketani M, Suzu T, Kusube K, Otagiri M. In vitro identification of the human cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the N-demethylation of azelastine. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:942-6.

Imaoka S, Yamada T, Hiroi T et al. Multiple forms of human P450 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Systematic characterization and comparison with those of the rat. Biochem Pharmacol 1996; 51:1041-50.

Inaba T, Fischer NE, Riddick DS, Stewart DJ, Hidaka T. HIV protease inhibitors, saquinavir, indinavir and ritonavir: inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone and benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, in human liver microsomes. Toxicol Lett 1997; 93:215-9.

Inaba T, Nebert DW, Burchell B et al. Pharmacogenetics in clinical pharmacology and toxicology. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1995; 73:331-8.

Ingelman-Sundberg M, Sim SC, Gomez A, Rodriguez-Antona C. Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects. Pharmacol Ther 2007; 116:496-526.

Inomata S, Nagashima A, Itagaki F et al. CYP2C19 genotype affects diazepam pharmacokinetics and emergence from general anesthesia. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78:647-55.

Inoue E, Takahashi Y, Imai Y, Kamataki T. Development of bacterial expression system with high yield of CYP3A7, a human fetus-specific form of cytochrome P450. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 269:623-7.

Inoue K, Inazawa J, Nakagawa H et al. Assignment of the human cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) to chromosome 7 at band q22. 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Jpn J Hum Genet 1992; 37:133-8.

Inouye K, Shinkyo R, Takita T, Ohta M, Sakaki T. Metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) by human cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase systems. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50:5496-502.

Inui H, Maeda A, Ohkawa H. Molecular characterization of specifically active recombinant fused enzymes consisting of CYP3A4, NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, and cytochrome b5. Biochemistry 2007; 46:10213-21.

Ioannides C. Pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal remedies and medicinal drugs. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:451-78.

Iqbal J, Sakloetsakun D, Bernkop-Schnürch A. Thiomers: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2011; 78:361-5.

Irshaid Y, Branch RA, Adedoyin A. Metabolic interactions of putative cytochrome P4503A substrates with alternative pathways of dapsone metabolism in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:164-71.

Irusta G, Murphy MJ, Perez WD, Hennebold JD. Dynamic expression of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes in the primate corpus luteum. Mol Hum Reprod 2007; 13:541-8.

Isbister GK, Friberg LE, Hackett LP, Duffull SB. Pharmacokinetics of quetiapine in overdose and the effect of activated charcoal. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81:821-7.

Iscan M, Klaavuniemi T, Coban T, Kapucuoglu N, Pelkonen O, Raunio H. The expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human breast tumours and normal breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2001; 70:47-54.

Ishak KJ, Tan Y, Glass J, Luong D, Caro JJ. Risk of discontinuation of risperidone after exposure to potentially interacting drugs: a nested case-control study in patients with schizophrenia. Clin Ther 2008; 30:1251-63.

Ishida K, Honda M, Shimizu T, Taguchi M, Hashimoto Y. Stereoselective metabolism of carvedilol by the beta-naphthoflavone-inducible enzyme in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30:1930-3.

Ishida K, Taira S, Morishita H, Kayano Y, Taguchi M, Hashimoto Y. Stereoselective oxidation and glucuronidation of carvedilol in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2008; 31:1297-300.

Ishigam M, Uchiyama M, Kondo T et al. Inhibition of in vitro metabolism of simvastatin by itraconazole in humans and prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions. Pharm Res 2001; 18:622-31.

Ishigami M, Honda T, Takasaki W et al. A comparison of the effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors on the CYP3A4-dependent oxidation of mexazolam in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:282-8.

Ishigami M, Takasaki W, Ikeda T, Komai T, Ito K, Sugiyama Y. Sex difference in inhibition of in vitro mexazolam metabolism by various 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitors in rat liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:904-10.

Ishiguro N, Senda C, Kishimoto W, Sakai K, Funae Y, Igarashi T. Identification of CYP3A4 as the predominant isoform responsible for the metabolism of ambroxol in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:71-80.

Ishii Y, Takeda S, Yamada H. Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity by protein-protein association. Drug Metab Rev 2010; 42:140-53.

Ishikawa C, Ozaki H, Nakajima T et al. A frameshift variant of CYP2C8 was identified in a patient who suffered from rhabdomyolysis after administration of cerivastatin. J Hum Genet 2004; 49:582-5.

Ishikawa M, Yoshii H, Furuta T. Interaction of modified cyclodextrins with cytochrome P-450. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2005; 69:246-8.

Ishizaki T, Horai Y. Review article: cytochrome P450 and the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors-emphasis on rabeprazole. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13 Suppl 3:27-36.

Ishizawa M, Komatsu H. Pharmacological study and clinical effect of HIV protease inhibitor amprenavir. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2001; 117:59-64.

Isin EM, Guengerich FP. Kinetics and thermodynamics of ligand binding by cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biol Chem 2006; 281:9127-36.

Isin EM, Guengerich FP. Multiple sequential steps involved in the binding of inhibitors to cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:6863-74.

Isla Tejera B, Aumente Rubio MD, Martínez-Moreno J, Reyes Malia M, Arizón JM, Suárez García A. Pharmacogenetic analysis of the absorption kinetics of cyclosporine in a population of Spanish cardiac transplant patients. Farm Hosp 2009; 33:324-9.

Islam SI, Masuda QN, Bolaji OO, Shaheen FM, Sheikh IA. Possible interaction between cyclosporine and glibenclamide in posttransplant diabetic patients. Ther Drug Monit 1996; 18:624-6.

Isohanni MH, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. Effect of erythromycin and itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of oral lignocaine. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 84:143-6.

Isohanni MH, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of inhaled lidocaine. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2004; 95:120-3.

Isohanni MH, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. Effect of fluvoxamine and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of oral lidocaine. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 99:168-72.

Isohanni MH, Neuvonen PJ, Palkama VJ, Olkkola KT. Effect of erythromycin and itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous lignocaine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:561-5.

Isoherranen N, Kunze KL, Allen KE, Nelson WL, Thummel KE. Role of itraconazole metabolites in CYP3A4 inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1121-31.

Istrate MA, Nussler AK, Eichelbaum M, Burk O. Regulation of CYP3A4 by pregnane X receptor: The role of nuclear receptors competing for response element binding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010; 393:688-93.

Ito K, Brown HS, Houston JB. Database analyses for the prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions from in vitro data. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:473-86.

Ito K, Kubota Y, Toda T, Suto S, Ikarashi N, Sugiyama K. Effect of hydrocotarnine on cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2009; 24:108-13.

Ito K, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y. Effects of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein on oral drug absorption-theoretical approach. Pharm Res 1999; 16:225-31.

Ito K, Satoh T, Watanabe Y et al. Effects of Kampo medicines on CYP and P-gp activity in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull 2008; 31:893-6.

Iwahori T, Matsuura T, Maehashi H et al. CYP3A4 inducible model for in vitro analysis of human drug metabolism using a bioartificial liver. Hepatology 2003; 37:665-73.

Iwamoto K, Ikeda J, Nito M et al. Effect of oxatomide, an antiallergic agent, on QT interval in dogs. Arzneimittelforschung 2001; 51:971-6.

Iwamoto K, Ikeda J, Nito M et al. Effect of olopatadine hydrochloride, a novel antiallergic agent, on the QT interval in dogs. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2001; 117:401-9.

Iwamoto M, Kassahun K, Troyer MD et al. Lack of a pharmacokinetic effect of raltegravir on midazolam: in vitro/in vivo correlation. J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 48:209-14.

Iwasaki K. Metabolism of tacrolimus (FK506) and recent topics in clinical pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:328-35.

Iwasaki K, Uno Y. Cynomolgus monkey CYPs: a comparison with human CYPs. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:578-81.

Iwase M, Kurata N, Ehana R, Nishimura Y, Masamoto T, Yasuhara H. Evaluation of the effects of hydrophilic organic solvents on CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction in vitro. Hum Exp Toxicol 2006; 25:715-21.

Iwata H, Fujita K, Kushida H et al. High catalytic activity of human cytochrome P450 co-expressed with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:1315-25.

Iwata H, Tezuka Y, Kadota S, Hiratsuka A, Watabe T. Identification and characterization of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors in Schisandra fruit extract. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1351-8.

Iwata H, Tezuka Y, Kadota S, Hiratsuka A, Watabe T. Mechanism-based inactivation of human liver microsomal CYP3A4 by rutaecarpine and limonin from Evodia fruit extract. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2005; 20:34-45.

Iwatsubo T, Hirota N, Ooie T et al. Prediction of in vivo drug metabolism in the human liver from in vitro metabolism data. Pharmacol Ther 1997; 73:147-71.

Iwatsubo T, Suzuki H, Shimada N et al. Prediction of in vivo hepatic metabolic clearance of YM796 from in vitro data by use of human liver microsomes and recombinant P-450 isozymes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 282:909-19.

Iyengar RR, Lynch JK, Mulhern MM et al. An evaluation of 3,4-methylenedioxy phenyl replacements in the aminopiperidine chromone class of MCHr1 antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007; 17:874-8.

Iyer KR, Sinz MW. Characterization of Phase I and Phase II hepatic drug metabolism activities in a panel of human liver preparations. Chem Biol Interact 1999; 118:151-69.

Izuishi K, Wakabayashi H, Ohnishi T, Maeta H, Maeba T, Ichikawa Y. Effects of an immunosuppressive agent, tacrolimus (FK-506), on the activities of cytochrome P-450-linked monooxygenase systems in rat liver microsomes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1997; 29:921-8.

Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. Drugs 2009; 69:1777-98.

Jaakkola T, Backman JT, Neuvonen M, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of gemfibrozil, itraconazole, and their combination on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 77:404-14.

Jaakkola T, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. Pioglitazone is metabolised by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in vitro: potential for interactions with CYP2C8 inhibitors. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 99:44-51.

Jackson JP, Ferguson SS, Moore R, Negishi M, Goldstein JA. The constitutive active/androstane receptor regulates phenytoin induction of Cyp2c29. Mol Pharmacol 2004; 65:1397-404.

Jackson JP, Kabirov KK, Kapetanovic IM, Lyubimov A. In vitro assessment of P450 induction potential of novel chemopreventive agents SR13668, 9-cis-UAB30, and pentamethychromanol in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 2009; 179:263-72.

Jacobsen W, Christians U, Benet LZ. In vitro evaluation of the disposition of A novel cysteine protease inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1343-51.

Jacobsen W, Kirchner G, Hallensleben K et al. Comparison of cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolism and drug interactions of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors lovastatin and pravastatin in the liver. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:173-9.

Jacobsen W, Kuhn B, Soldner A et al. Lactonization is the critical first step in the disposition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1369-78.

Jacobson PA, Green K, Birnbaum A, Remmel RP. Cytochrome P450 isozymes 3A4 and 2B6 are involved in the in vitro human metabolism of thiotepa to TEPA. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2002; 49:461-7.

Jaffe CA, Turgeon DK, Lown K, Demott-Friberg R, Watkins PB. Growth hormone secretion pattern is an independent regulator of growth hormone actions in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 283:1008-15.

Jäger W, Correia MA, Bornheim LM et al. Ethynylestradiol-mediated induction of hepatic CYP3A9 in female rats: implication for cyclosporine metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1505-11.

Jakate AS, Roy P, Patel A et al. Effect of azole antifungals ketoconazole and fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of dexloxiglumide. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:498-507.

Jalava KM, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Itraconazole greatly increases plasma concentrations and effects of felodipine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 61:410-5.

Janardan SK, Lown KS, Schmiedlin-Ren P, Thummel KE, Watkins PB. Selective expression of CYP3A5 and not CYP3A4 in human blood. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6:379-85.

Jancová P, Anzenbacherová E, Papousková B et al. Silybin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C8 in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:2035-9.

Jang GR, Benet LZ. Antiprogestin pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism: implications for their long-term use. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 1997; 25:647-72.

Jang GR, Benet LZ. Cytochrome P4503A4-mediated N-demethylation of the antiprogestins lilopristone and onapristone. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:1119-22.

Jang GR, Benet LZ. Antiprogestin-mediated inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4. Pharmacology 1998; 56:150-7.

Jang GR, Harris RZ. Drug interactions involving ethanol and alcoholic beverages. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2007; 3:719-31.

Jang GR, Wrighton SA, Benet LZ. Identification of CYP3A4 as the principal enzyme catalyzing mifepristone (RU 486) oxidation in human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1996; 52:753-61.

Jani AJ, Rathnam S, Mehta AA. Phenotyping of cytochrome P450 3A enzyme in Gujarat population. Drug Metab Lett 2008; 2:5-10.

Janicki PK. Cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Med Sci Monit 2005; 11:322-8.

Janmohamed A, Dolphin CT, Phillips IR, Shephard EA. Quantification and cellular localization of expression in human skin of genes encoding flavin-containing monooxygenases and cytochromes P450. Biochem Pharmacol 2001; 62:777-86.

Jann MW, Shirley KL, Small GW. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cholinesterase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:719-39.

Jaquenoud Sirot E, Knezevic B, Morena GP et al. ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 polymorphisms: clinical pharmacogenetics of clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009; 29:319-26.

Jasińska M, Owczarek J, Orszulak-Michalak D. Influence of simvastatin at high dose and nifedipine on hemodynamic parameters in rabbits. Pharmacol Rep 2006; 58:48-59.

Jasińska M, Owczarek J, Orszulak-Michalak D. The influence of simvastatin at high dose and diltiazem on myocardium in rabbits, the biochemical study. Acta Pol Pharm 2006; 63:386-90.

Jáuregui I, Ferrer M, Montoro J et al. Antihistamines in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2007; 17 Suppl 2:41-52.

Jayakanthan M, Chandrasekar S, Muthukumaran J, Mathur PP. Analysis of CYP3A4-HIV-1 protease drugs interactions by computational methods for Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV/AIDS. J Mol Graph Model 2010; 28:455-63.

Jeannot E, Poussin K, Chiche L et al. Association of CYP1B1 germ line mutations with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-mutated hepatocellular adenoma. Cancer Res 2007; 67:2611-6.

Jenkins J, Williams D, Deng Y, Collins DA, Kitchen VS. Eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has no impact on the pharmacokinetic profile of probe drugs for cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in healthy men: a cocktail analysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:67-76.

Jensen BF, Vind C, Padkjaer SB, Brockhoff PB, Refsgaard HH. In silico prediction of cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 inhibition using Gaussian kernel weighted k-nearest neighbor and extended connectivity fingerprints, including structural fragment analysis of inhibitors versus noninhibitors. J Med Chem 2007; 50:501-11.

Jensen KG, Dalgaard L. In vitro metabolism of the M1-muscarinic agonist 5-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine by human hepatic cytochromes P-450 determined at pH 7. 4 and 8. 5. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:125-32.

Jeon S, Kim KH, Yun CH et al. An NH2-terminal truncated cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 showing catalytic activity is present in the cytoplasm of human liver cells. Exp Mol Med 2008; 40:254-60.

Jerling M, Huan BL, Leung K, Chu N, Abdallah H, Hussein Z. Studies to investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions between ranolazine and ketoconazole, diltiazem, or simvastatin during combined administration in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 45:422-33.

Jerling M, Lindström L, Bondesson U, Bertilsson L. Fluvoxamine inhibition and carbamazepine induction of the metabolism of clozapine: evidence from a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Ther Drug Monit 1994; 16:368-74.

Jernström H, Chu W, Vesprini D et al. Genetic factors related to racial variation in plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1: implications for premenopausal breast cancer risk. Mol Genet Metab 2001; 72:144-54.

Jetter A, Kinzig-Schippers M, Walchner-Bonjean M et al. Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:21-9.

Jeu L, Piacenti FJ, Lyakhovetskiy AG, Fung HB. Voriconazole. Clin Ther 2003; 25:1321-81.

Ji HY, Lee HW, Kim HH et al. Role of human cytochrome P450 3A4 in the metabolism of DA-8159, a new erectogenic. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:973-82.

Ji HY, Lee HW, Kim HH, Choi JK, Lee HS. Characterization of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of a new H+/K+-ATPase inhibitor KR-60436. Toxicol Lett 2005; 155:103-14.

Ji HY, Lee SS, Yoo SE et al. In vitro metabolism of a new neuroprotective agent, KR-31543 in the human liver microsomes: identification of human cytochrome P450. Arch Pharm Res 2004; 27:239-45.

Ji HY, Shim HJ, Yoo M, Park ES, Lee HS. Transport of a new erectogenic udenafil in Caco-2 cells. Arch Pharm Res 2007; 30:1168-73.

Jia H, Xu A, Yuan J, Gao X, Gao J. Experimental study on cytochrome P450 enzymes after receiving ferment powder caterpillar fungus. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2009; 34:2079-82.

Jiang JH, Jia WH, Qin HD, Liang H, Pan ZG, Zeng YX. Expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and non-cancerous nasopharynx tissue. Ai Zheng 2004; 23:672-7.

Jiang R, Yamaori S, Takeda S, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K. Identification of cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for metabolism of cannabidiol by human liver microsomes. Life Sci 2011; 89:165-70.

Jiang Y, He X, Ortiz de Montellano PR. Radical intermediates in the catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons by bacterial and human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biochemistry 2006; 45:533-42.

Jiang Y, Ortiz de Montellano PR. Cooperative effects on radical recombination in CYP3A4-catalyzed oxidation of the radical clock beta-thujone. Chembiochem 2009; 10:650-3.

Jiko M, Yano I, Sato E et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of paclitaxel with carboplatin or gemcitabine, and effects of CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms in patients with urogenital cancers. Int J Clin Oncol 2007; 12:284-90.

Jin M, Gock SB, Jannetto PJ, Jentzen JM, Wong SH. Pharmacogenomics as molecular autopsy for forensic toxicology: genotyping cytochrome P450 3A4*1B and 3A5*3 for 25 fentanyl cases. J Anal Toxicol 2005; 29:590-8.

Jinnai T, Horiuchi H, Makiyama T et al. Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in an actual clinical setting in Japan. Circ J 2009; 73:1498-503.

Jinno H, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Hanioka N et al. Identification of novel alternative splice variants of human constitutive androstane receptor and characterization of their expression in the liver. Mol Pharmacol 2004; 65:496-502.

Jobe SO, Ramadoss J, Koch JM, Jiang Y, Zheng J, Magness RR. Estradiol-17beta and its cytochrome P450- and catechol-O-methyltransferase-derived metabolites stimulate proliferation in uterine artery endothelial cells: role of estrogen receptor-alpha versus estrogen receptor-beta. Hypertension 2010; 55:1005-11.

Johnson BM, Adams LM, Zhang K et al. Ketoconazole and rifampin significantly affect the pharmacokinetics, but not the safety or QTc interval, of casopitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist. J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 50:951-9.

Johnson DR, Li CW, Chen LY, Ghosh JC, Chen JD. Regulation and binding of pregnane X receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). Mol Pharmacol 2006; 69:99-108.

Johnson FM, Agrawal S, Burris H et al. Phase 1 pharmacokinetic and drug-interaction study of dasatinib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Cancer 2010; 116:1582-91

Johnson GE, Quick EL, Parry EM, Parry JM. Metabolic influences for mutation induction curves after exposure to Sudan-1 and para red. Mutagenesis 2010; 25:327-33.

Johnson JA. Predictability of the effects of race or ethnicity on pharmacokinetics of drugs. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 38:53-60.

Johnson TN, Kerbusch T, Jones B, Tucker GT, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Milligan PA. Assessing the efficiency of mixed effects modelling in quantifying metabolism based drug-drug interactions: using in vitro data as an aid to assess study power. Pharm Stat 2009; 8:186-202.

Johnson TN, Tanner MS, Taylor CJ, Tucker GT. Enterocytic CYP3A4 in a paediatric population: developmental changes and the effect of coeliac disease and cystic fibrosis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:451-60.

Jokinen MJ, Ahonen J, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. Effect of clarithromycin and itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine. Pharmacol Toxicol 2001; 88:187-91.

Jokinen MJ, Ahonen J, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. The effect of erythromycin, fluvoxamine, and their combination on the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:1207-12.

Jokinen MJ, Olkkola KT, Ahonen J, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of rifampin and tobacco smoking on the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:344-50.

Jokinen MJ, Olkkola KT, Ahonen J, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 58:653-7.

Jones AE, Brown KC, Werner RE et al. Variability in drug metabolizing enzyme activity in HIV-infected patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:475-85.

Jones DR, Ekins S, Li L, Hall SD. Computational approaches that predict metabolic intermediate complex formation with CYP3A4 (+b5). Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1466-75.

Jones DR, Gorski JC, Haehner BD, O’Mara EM Jr, Hall SD. Determination of cytochrome P450 3A4/5 activity in vivo with dextromethorphan N-demethylation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60:374-84.

Jones DR, Gorski JC, Hamman MA, Mayhew BS, Rider S, Hall SD. Diltiazem inhibition of cytochrome P-450 3A activity is due to metabolite intermediate complex formation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 290:1116-25.

Jones DR, Kim SY, Guderyon M, Yun CH, Moran JH, Miller GP. Hydroxywarfarin metabolites potently inhibit CYP2C9 metabolism of S-Warfarin. Chem Res Toxicol 2010; 23:939-45.

Joo H, Choi K, Rose RL, Hodgson E. Inhibition of fipronil and nonane metabolism in human liver microsomes and human cytochrome P450 isoforms by chlorpyrifos. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2007; 21:76-80.

Jornil J, Jensen KG, Larsen F, Linnet K. Identification of Cytochrome P450 Isoforms involved in the metabolism of paroxetine and estimation of their importance for human paroxetine metabolism using a population-based simulator. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:376-85.

Joseph S, Rusling JF, Lvov YM, Friedberg T, Fuhr U. An amperometric biosensor with human CYP3A4 as a novel drug screening tool. Biochem Pharmacol 2003; 65:1817-26.

Josephson F, Bertilsson L, Böttiger Y et al. CYP3A induction and inhibition by different antiretroviral regimens reflected by changes in plasma 4beta-hydroxycholesterol levels. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:775-81.

Josien H, Bara T, Rajagopalan M et al. Novel orally active morpholine N-arylsulfonamides gamma-secretase inhibitors with low CYP 3A4 liability. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:6032-7.

Jossé R, Aninat C, Glaise D et al. Long-term functional stability of human HepaRG hepatocytes and use for chronic toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1111-8.

Jounaïdi Y, Guzelian PS, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Sequence of the 5’-flanking region of CYP3A5: comparative analysis with CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 205:1741-7.

Jounaïdi Y, Hecht JE, Waxman DJ. Retroviral transfer of human cytochrome P450 genes for oxazaphosphorine-based cancer gene therapy. Cancer Res 1998; 58:4391-401.

Jovanović N, Božina N, Lovrić M, Medved V, Jakovljević M, Peleš AM. The role of CYP2D6 and ABCB1 pharmacogenetics in drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia treated with risperidone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:1109-17.

Jover F, Cuadrado JM, Andreu L, Merino J. Reversible coma caused by risperidone-ritonavir interaction. Clin Neuropharmacol 2002; 25:251-3.

Jover R, Bort R, Gómez-Lechón MJ, Castell JV. Cytochrome P450 regulation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 in human hepatocytes: a study using adenovirus-mediated antisense targeting. Hepatology 2001; 33:668-75.

Jover R, Bort R, Gómez-Lechón MJ, Castell JV. Down-regulation of human CYP3A4 by the inflammatory signal interleukin-6: molecular mechanism and transcription factors involved. FASEB J 2002; 16:1799-801.

Jover R, Hoffmann K, Meyer UA. Induction of 5-aminolevulinate synthase by drugs is independent of increased apocytochrome P450 synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 226:152-7.

Judson RS, Salisbury BA, Reed CR, Ackerman MJ. Pharmacogenetic issues in thorough QT trials. Mol Diagn Ther 2006; 10:153-62.

Julsing MK, Vasilev NP, Schneidman-Duhovny D et al. Metabolic stereoselectivity of cytochrome P450 3A4 towards deoxypodophyllotoxin: In silico predictions and experimental validation. Eur J Med Chem 2008; 43:1171-9.

Jun KR, Lee W, Jang MS et al. Tacrolimus concentrations in relation to CYP3A and ABCB1 polymorphisms among solid organ transplant recipients in Korea. Transplantation 2009; 87:1225-31.

Jun MA, Park WS, Kang SK et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazoline analogues with beta-amino acyl group as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem 2008; 43:1889-902.

Jung M, Triebel S, Anke T, Richling E, Erkel G. Influence of apple polyphenols on inflammatory gene expression. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009; 53:1263-80.

Jung SM, Kim KA, Cho HK et al. Cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor itraconazole affects plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in schizophrenic patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78:520-8.

Junnila S, Kokkola A, Karjalainen-Lindsberg ML, Puolakkainen P, Monni O. Genome-wide gene copy number and expression analysis of primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines. BMC Cancer 2010; 10:73.

Jürgens G, Christensen HR, Brøsen K, Sonne J, Loft S, Olsen NV. Acute hypoxia and cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic drug metabolism in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:214-20.

Jürgens G, Lange KH, Reuther LØ, Rasmussen BB, Brøsen K, Christensen HR. Effect of growth hormone on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in healthy elderly men. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:162-8.

Jurica J, Dostálek M, Konecný J, Glatz Z, Hadasová E, Tomandl J. HPLC determination of midazolam and its three hydroxy metabolites in perfusion medium and plasma from rats. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 852:571-7.

Jurima-Romet M, Casley WL, Leblanc CA, Nowakowska M. Evidence for the catalysis of dextromethorphan O-demethylation by a CYP2D6-like enzyme in pig liver. Toxicol In Vitro 2000; 14:253-63.

Jurutka PW, Thompson PD, Whitfield GK et al. Molecular and functional comparison of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and the novel vitamin D receptor ligand, lithocholic acid, in activating transcription of cytochrome P450 3A4. J Cell Biochem 2005; 94:917-43.

Jushchyshyn MI, Hutzler JM, Schrag ML, Wienkers LC. Catalytic turnover of pyrene by CYP3A4: evidence that cytochrome b5 directly induces positive cooperativity. Arch Biochem Biophys 2005; 438:21-8.

Justesen US, Klitgaard NA, Brosen K, Pedersen C. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of delavirdine in combination with amprenavir in healthy volunteers. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 54:206-10.

Justesen US, Klitgaard NA, Brosen K, Pedersen C. Pharmacokinetic interaction between amprenavir and delavirdine after multiple-dose administration in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55:100-6.

Kacevska M, Robertson GR, Clarke SJ, Liddle C. Inflammation and CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism in advanced cancer: impact and implications for chemotherapeutic drug dosing. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2008; 4:137-49.

Kadlubar FF, Berkowitz GS, Delongchamp RR et al. The CYP3A4*1B variant is related to the onset of puberty, a known risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12:327-31.

Kadono K, Akabane T, Tabata K, Gato K, Terashita S, Teramura T. Quantitative prediction of intestinal metabolism in humans from simplified Fg model and empirical scaling factor. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1230-7.

Kaeser B, Zandt H, Bour F, Zwanziger E, Schmitt C, Zhang X. Drug-drug interaction study of ketoconazole and ritonavir-boosted saquinavir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:609-14.

Kafert-Kasting S, Alexandrova K, Barthold M et al. Enzyme induction in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Toxicology 2006; 220:117-25.

Kaipiainen-Seppänen O, Savolainen E, Elfving P, Kononoff A. Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin. Duodecim 2009; 125:788-91.

Kajbaf M, Palmieri E, Longhi R, Fontana S. Identifying a Higher Throughput Assay for Metabolism Dependent Inhibition (MDI). Drug Metab Lett 2010; 4:104-113.

Kajinami K, Brousseau ME, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ. CYP3A4 genotypes and plasma lipoprotein levels before and after treatment with atorvastatin in primary hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 2004; 93:104-7.

Kajinami K, Takekoshi N, Saito Y. Pitavastatin: efficacy and safety profiles of a novel synthetic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2003; 21:199-215.

Kajita J, Inano K, Fuse E, Kuwabara T, Kobayashi H. Effects of olopatadine, a new antiallergic agent, on human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activities. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1504-11.

Kajita J, Kuwabara T, Kobayashi H, Kobayashi S. CYP3A4 is mainly responsibile for the metabolism of a new vinca alkaloid, vinorelbine, in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1121-7.

Kajosaari LI, Jaakkola T, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. Pioglitazone, an in vitro inhibitor of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4, does not increase the plasma concentrations of the CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 substrate repaglinide. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:217-23.

Kajosaari LI, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. Metabolism of repaglinide by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in vitro: effect of fibrates and rifampicin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2005; 97:249-56.

Kajosaari LI, Niemi M, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Telithromycin, but not montelukast, increases the plasma concentrations and effects of the cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C8 substrate repaglinide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 79:231-42.

Kajosaari LI, Niemi M, Neuvonen M, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. Cyclosporine markedly raises the plasma concentrations of repaglinide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78:388-99.

Kakar SM, Paine MF, Stewart PW, Watkins PB. 6’7’-Dihydroxybergamottin contributes to the grapefruit juice effect. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:569-79.

Kale VM, Miranda SR, Wilbanks MS, Meyer SA. Comparative cytotoxicity of alachlor, acetochlor, and metolachlor herbicides in isolated rat and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2008; 22:41-50.

Kalgutkar AS, Hatch HL, Kosea F et al. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 6-(4-(2,5-difluorophenyl)oxazol-5-yl)-3-isopropyl-[1,2,4]-triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine, a novel and selective p38alpha inhibitor: identification of an active metabolite in preclinical species and human liver microsomes. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2006; 27:371-86.

Kalgutkar AS, Taylor TJ, Venkatakrishnan K, Isin EM. Assessment of the contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the metabolism of the antipsychotic agent haloperidol to its potentially neurotoxic pyridinium metabolite and effect of antidepressants on the bioactivation pathway. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:243-9.

Kalgutkar AS, Tugnait M, Zhu T et al. Preclinical species and human disposition of PF-04971729, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 and clinical candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39:1609-19.

Kamada T, Chow T, Hiroi T et al. Metabolism of selegiline hydrochloride, a selective monoamine b-type inhibitor, in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:199-206.

Kamataki T, Fujita K, Nakayama K, Yamazaki Y, Miyamoto M, Ariyoshi N. Role of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the metabolic activation of nitrosamine derivatives: application of genetically engineered Salmonella expressing human CYP. Drug Metab Rev 2002; 34:667-76.

Kamath AV, Chang M, Lee FY, Zhang Y, Marathe PH. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of BMS-310705, a novel epothilone B analog. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2005; 56:145-53.

Kamdem LK, Flockhart DA, Desta Z. In vitro cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of exemestane. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39:98-105.

Kamdem LK, Hamilton L, Cheng C et al. Genetic predictors of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:507-14.

Kamdem LK, Liu Y, Stearns V et al. In vitro and in vivo oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation of anastrozole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 70:854-69.

Kamdem LK, Meineke I, Gödtel-Armbrust U, Brockmöller J, Wojnowski L. Dominant contribution of P450 3A4 to the hepatic carcinogenic activation of aflatoxin B1. Chem Res Toxicol 2006; 19:577-86.

Kamdem LK, Meineke I, Koch I, Zanger UM, Brockmöller J, Wojnowski L. Limited contribution of CYP3A5 to the hepatic 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2004; 370:71-7.

Kamdem LK, Streit F, Zanger UM et al. Contribution of CYP3A5 to the in vitro hepatic clearance of tacrolimus. Clin Chem 2005; 51:1374-81.

Kamimura H, Oishi S, Matsushima H et al. Identification of cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in metabolism of the alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker tamsulosin in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:909-22.

Kaminsky LS, Zhang ZY. Human P450 metabolism of warfarin. Pharmacol Ther 1997; 73:67-74.

Kamiyama E, Yoshigae Y, Kasuya A, Takei M, Kurihara A, Ikeda T. Inhibitory effects of angiotensin receptor blockers on CYP2C9 activity in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:267-75.

Kamiyama Y, Matsubara T, Yoshinari K, Nagata K, Kamimura H, Yamazoe Y. Role of human hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human hepatocytes assessed by use of small interfering RNA. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:287-98.

Kammerer B, Scheible H, Albrecht W, Gleiter CH, Laufer S. Pharmacokinetics of ML3403 ({4-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methylsulfanyl-3H-imidazol-4-yl]-pyridin-2-yl}-(1-phenylethyl)-amine), a 4-Pyridinylimidazole-type p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:875-83.

Kanamitsu S, Ito K, Green CE, Tyson CA, Shimada N, Sugiyama Y. Prediction of in vivo interaction between triazolam and erythromycin based on in vitro studies using human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP3A4. Pharm Res 2000; 17:419-26.

Kanamori M, Takahashi H, Echizen H. Developmental changes in the liver weight- and body weight-normalized clearance of theophylline, phenytoin and cyclosporine in children. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 40:485-92.

Kanamori Y, Fujita K, Nakayama K, Kawai H, Kamataki T. Large-scale production of genetically engineered CYP3A4 in E. coli: application of a jarfermenter. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 18:42-7.

Kanathur N, Mathai MG, Byrd RP Jr, Fields CL, Roy TM. Simvastatin-diltiazem drug interaction resulting in rhabdomyolysis and hepatitis. Tenn Med 2001; 94:339-41.

Kanayama N, Kanari C, Masuda Y, Ohmori S, Ooie T. Drug-drug interactions in the metabolism of imidafenacin: role of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes and UDP-glucuronic acid transferases, and potential of imidafenacin to inhibit human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:139-54.

Kanazawa H, Okada A, Higaki M, Yokota H, Mashige F, Nakahara K. Stereospecific analysis of omeprazole in human plasma as a probe for CYP2C19 phenotype. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2003; 30:1817-24.

Kanazu T, Okamura N, Yamaguchi Y, Baba T, Koike M. Assessment of the hepatic and intestinal first-pass metabolism of midazolam in a CYP3A drug-drug interaction model rats. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:305-17.

Kanebratt KP, Andersson TB. HepaRG cells as an in vitro model for evaluation of cytochrome P450 induction in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:137-45.

Kanebratt KP, Andersson TB. Evaluation of HepaRG cells as an in vitro model for human drug metabolism studies. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1444-52.

Kanebratt KP, Diczfalusy U, Bäckström T et al. Cytochrome P450 induction by rifampicin in healthy subjects: determination using the Karolinska cocktail and the endogenous CYP3A4 marker 4beta-hydroxycholesterol. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84:589-94.

Kaneko A, Kato M, Sekiguchi N, Mitsui T, Takeda K, Aso Y. In vitro model for the prediction of clinical CYP3A4 induction using HepaRG cells. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:803-10.

Kang BC, Yang CQ, Cho HK, Suh OK, Shin WG. Influence of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole in healthy volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2002; 23:77-81.

Kang HJ, Oh Y, Chun SM et al. TotalPlex gene amplification using bulging primers for pharmacogenetic analysis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Mol Cell Probes 2008; 22:193-200.

Kang KW, Choi JS. Enhanced bioavailability of paclitaxel by bamboo concentrate administration. Arch Pharm Res 2005; 28:469-75.

Kang P, Dalvie D, Smith E, Zhou S, Deese A. Identification of a novel glutathione conjugate of flutamide in incubations with human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1081-8.

Kang P, Dalvie D, Smith E, Zhou S, Deese A, Nieman JA. Bioactivation of flutamide metabolites by human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1425-37.

Kang P, Liao M, Wester MR, Leeder JS, Pearce RE, Correia MA. CYP3A4-Mediated carbamazepine (CBZ) metabolism: formation of a covalent CBZ-CYP3A4 adduct and alteration of the enzyme kinetic profile. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:490-9.

Kang YS, Park SY, Yim CH et al. The CYP3A4*18 genotype in the cytochrome P450 3A4 gene, a rapid metabolizer of sex steroids, is associated with low bone mineral density. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 85:312-8.

Kantola T, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice greatly increases serum concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63:397-402.

Kantola T, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:58-65.

Kantola T, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Erythromycin and verapamil considerably increase serum simvastatin and simvastatin acid concentrations. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:177-82.

Kantola T, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of itraconazole on cerivastatin pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 54:851-5.

Kapelyukh Y, Paine MJ, Maréchal JD, Sutcliffe MJ, Wolf CR, Roberts GC. Multiple substrate binding by cytochrome P450 3A4: estimation of the number of bound substrate molecules. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2136-44.

Kappelhoff BS, Huitema AD, Mairuhu AT, Schellens JH, Beijnen JH. No pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between nevirapine and paclitaxel. Anticancer Drugs 2005; 16:627-30.

Kappers WA, Edwards RJ, Murray S, Boobis AR. Diazinon is activated by CYP2C19 in human liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001; 177:68-76.

Kapucuoglu N, Coban T, Raunio H et al. Expression of CYP3A4 in human breast tumour and non-tumour tissues. Cancer Lett 2003; 202:17-23.

Karam WG, Goldstein JA, Lasker JM, Ghanayem BI. Human CYP2C19 is a major omeprazole 5-hydroxylase, as demonstrated with recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:1081-7.

Karanam BV, Hop CE, Liu DQ et al. In vitro metabolism of MK-0767 [(+/-)-5-[(2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-yl)methyl]-2-methoxy-N-[[(4-trifluoromethyl) phenyl]methyl]benzamide], a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist. I. Role of cytochrome P450, methyltransferases, flavin monooxygenases, and esterases. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1015-22.

Karanam BV, Welch CJ, Reddy VG, Chilenski J, Biba M, Vincent S. Species differential stereoselective oxidation of a methylsulfide metabolite of MK-0767 [(+/-)-5-[(2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-yl)methyl]-2-methoxy-N-[[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]benzamide], a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor dual agonist. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1061-8.

Kariv I, Fereshteh MP, Oldenburg KR. Development of a miniaturized 384-well high throughput screen for the detection of substrates of cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 metabolism. J Biomol Screen 2001; 6:91-9.

Karyekar CS, Eddington ND, Dowling TC. Effect of St. John’s Wort extract on intestinal expression of cytochrome P4501A2: studies in LS180 cells. J Postgrad Med 2002; 48:97-100.

Kasahara M, Suzuki H, Komiya I. Studies on the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolic properties of miocamycin: evaluation of the possibility of a metabolic intermediate complex formation with CYP, and identification of the human CYP isoforms. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:409-17.

Kasper S, Praschak-Rieder N, Tauscher J, Wolf R. A risk-benefit assessment of mirtazapine in the treatment of depression. Drug Saf 1997; 17:251-64.

Kassahun K, Skordos K, McIntosh I et al. Zafirlukast metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 produces an electrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated iminium species that results in the selective mechanism-based inactivation of the enzyme. Chem Res Toxicol 2005; 18:1427-37.

Kathman SJ, Williams DH, Hodge JP, Dar M. A Bayesian population PK-PD model for ispinesib/docetaxel combination-induced myelosuppression. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009; 63:469-76.

Kato I, Cichon M, Yee CL, Land S, Korczak JF. African American-preponderant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol 2009; 33:24-30.

Kato M. Intestinal first-pass metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2008; 23:87-94.

Kato M, Chiba K, Hisaka A et al. The intestinal first-pass metabolism of substrates of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein-quantitative analysis based on information from the literature. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 18:365-72.

Kato Y, Fujii T, Mizoguchi N et al. Potential interaction between ritonavir and carbamazepine. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20:851-4.

Katoh M, Matsui T, Nakajima M et al. Expression of human cytochromes P450 in chimeric mice with humanized liver. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1402-10.

Katoh M, Matsui T, Nakajima M et al. In vivo induction of human cytochrome P450 enzymes expressed in chimeric mice with humanized liver. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:754-63.

Katoh M, Nakajima M, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 55:843-52.

Katoh M, Nakajima M, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Inhibitory effects of CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Eur J Pharm Sci 2001; 12:505-13.

Katoh M, Nakajima M, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Inhibitory potencies of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists to P-glycoprotein-mediated transport: comparison with the effects on CYP3A4. Pharm Res 2000; 17:1189-97.

Katoh M, Watanabe M, Tabata T et al. In vivo induction of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by rifabutin in chimeric mice with humanized liver. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:863-75.

Katoh M, Yokoi T. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for predictive ADME. Drug Metab Rev 2007; 39:145-57.

Katoh T, Saitoh H, Ohno N et al. Drug interaction between mosapride and erythromycin without electrocardiographic changes. Jpn Heart J 2003; 44:225-34.

Katsuki H, Hamada A, Nakamura C, Arimori K, Nakano M. Role of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 in the stereoselective metabolism of lansoprazole by human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57:709-15.

Katz DA, Grimm DR, Cassar SC et al. CYP3A5 genotype has a dose-dependent effect on ABT-773 plasma levels. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:516-28.

Katz HI. Drug interactions of the newer oral antifungal agents. Br J Dermatol 1999; 141 Suppl 56:26-32.

Kaufmann P, Haschke M, Török M et al. Mechanisms of venoocclusive disease resulting from the combination of cyclophosphamide and roxithromycin. Ther Drug Monit 2006; 28:766-74.

Kaukonen KM, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Itraconazole increases plasma concentrations of quinidine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:510-7.

Kaukonen KM, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Fluconazole but not itraconazole decreases the metabolism of losartan to E-3174. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 53:445-9.

Kawaguchi A, Ohmori M, Tsuruoka S et al. Drug interaction between St John’s Wort and quazepam. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 58:403-10.

Kawahara I, Kato Y, Suzuki H et al. Selective inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by N-[2(R)-hydroxy-1(S)-indanyl]-5-[2(S)-(1, 1-dimethylethylaminocarbonyl)-4-[(furo[2, 3-b]pyridin-5-yl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl]-4(S)-hydroxy-2(R)-phenylmethy lpentanamide and P-glycoprotein by valspodar in gene transfectant systems. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1238-43.

Kawai M, Chen J, Cheung CY, Chang TK. Transcript profiling of cytochrome P450 genes in HL-60 human leukemic cells: upregulation of CYP1B1 by all-trans-retinoic acid. Mol Cell Biochem 2003; 248:57-65.

Kawana K, Ikuta T, Kobayashi Y, Gotoh O, Takeda K, Kawajiri K. Molecular mechanism of nuclear translocation of an orphan nuclear receptor, SXR. Mol Pharmacol 2003; 63:524-31.

Kawashiro T, Yamashita K, Zhao XJ et al. A study on the metabolism of etoposide and possible interactions with antitumor or supporting agents by human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 286:1294-300.

Kazui M, Nishiya Y, Ishizuka T et al. Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the two oxidative steps in the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its pharmacologically active metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:92-9.

Keam SJ, Keating GM. Tiotropium bromide. A review of its use as maintenance therapy in patients with COPD. Treat Respir Med 2004; 3:247-68.

Kearns GL, Robinson PK, Wilson JT et al. Cisapride disposition in neonates and infants: in vivo reflection of cytochrome P450 3A4 ontogeny. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 74:312-25.

Keating GM, Santoro A. Sorafenib: a review of its use in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Drugs 2009; 69:223-40.

Kedmi M, Maayan S, Cohen SB, Hauzi M, Rund D. MDR1 and CYP3A4 polymorphisms are associated with HIV seropositivity in Israeli patients but do not influence the course of HIV disease. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2007; 21:653-8.

Kehrer DF, Mathijssen RH, Verweij J, de Bruijn P, Sparreboom A. Modulation of irinotecan metabolism by ketoconazole. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20:3122-9.

Keisner SV, Shah SR. Pazopanib: the newest tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Drugs 2011; 71:443-54.

Kelly DV, Béïque LC, Bowmer MI. Extrapyramidal symptoms with ritonavir/indinavir plus risperidone. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36:827-30.

Kenny JR, Chen L, McGinnity DF et al. Efficient assessment of the utility of immortalized Fa2N-4 cells for cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction studies using multiplex quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and substrate cassette methodologies. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:1500-17.

Kenworthy KE, Bloomer JC, Clarke SE, Houston JB. CYP3A4 drug interactions: correlation of 10 in vitro probe substrates. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:716-27.

Kenworthy KE, Clarke SE, Andrews J, Houston JB. Multisite kinetic models for CYP3A4: simultaneous activation and inhibition of diazepam and testosterone metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1644-51.

Kenyon KW, Nappi JM. Bosentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Ann Pharmacother 2003; 37:1055-62.

Kerbusch T, Huitema AD, Ouwerkerk J et al. Evaluation of the autoinduction of ifosfamide metabolism by a population pharmacokinetic approach using NONMEM. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49:555-61.

Kerbusch T, Jansen RL, Mathôt RA et al. Modulation of the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of ifosfamide by ketoconazole and rifampin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:132-41.

Kerr BM, Thummel KE, Wurden CJ et al. Human liver carbamazepine metabolism. Role of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 in 10,11-epoxide formation. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47:1969-79.

Keshava C, McCanlies EC, Weston A. CYP3A4 polymorphisms-potential risk factors for breast and prostate cancer: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160:825-41.

Khaliq Y, Gallicano K, Tisdale C, Carignan G, Cooper C, McCarthy A. Pharmacokinetic interaction between mefloquine and ritonavir in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:591-600.

Khan AA, Chow EC, van Loenen-Weemaes AM, Porte RJ, Pang KS, Groothuis GM. Comparison of effects of VDR versus PXR, FXR and GR ligands on the regulation of CYP3A isozymes in rat and human intestine and liver. Eur J Pharm Sci 2009; 37:115-25.

Khan AY, Preskorn SH. Examining concentration-dependent toxicity of clozapine: role of therapeutic drug monitoring. J Psychiatr Pract 2005; 11:289-301.

Khan KK, Halpert JR. Structure-function analysis of human cytochrome P450 3A4 using 7-alkoxycoumarins as active-site probes. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000; 373:335-45.

Khan KK, Halpert JR. 7-Benzyloxyquinoline oxidation by P450eryF A245T: finding of a new fluorescent substrate probe. Chem Res Toxicol 2002; 15:806-14.

Khan KK, He YQ, Correia MA, Halpert JR. Differential oxidation of mifepristone by cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5: selective inactivation of P450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:985-90.

Khan KK, He YQ, Domanski TL, Halpert JR. Midazolam oxidation by cytochrome P450 3A4 and active-site mutants: an evaluation of multiple binding sites and of the metabolic pathway that leads to enzyme inactivation. Mol Pharmacol 2002; 61:495-506.

Khan KK, Liu H, Halpert JR. Homotropic versus heterotopic cooperativity of cytochrome P450eryF: a substrate oxidation and spectral titration study. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:356-9.

Khandwala HM. Lipid lowering inefficacy of high-dose statin therapy due to concurrent use of phenytoin. South Med J 2006; 99:1385-7.

Kharasch ED, Bedynek PS, Walker A, Whittington D, Hoffer C. Mechanism of ritonavir changes in methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: II. Ritonavir effects on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activities. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84:506-12.

Kharasch ED, Hankins DC, Fenstamaker K, Cox K. Human halothane metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and cytochromes P(450)2A6 and P(450)3A4. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 55:853-9.

Kharasch ED, Hoffer C, Whittington D, Sheffels P. Role of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and 2B6 in the metabolism, disposition, and miotic effects of methadone. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:250-69.

Kharasch ED, Jubert C, Senn T, Bowdle TA, Thummel KE. Intraindividual variability in male hepatic CYP3A4 activity assessed by alfentanil and midazolam clearance. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:664-9.

Kharasch ED, Mautz D, Senn T, Lentz G, Cox K. Menstrual cycle variability in midazolam pharmacokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:275-80.

Kharasch ED, Walker A, Whittington D, Hoffer C, Bedynek PS. Methadone metabolism and clearance are induced by nelfinavir despite inhibition of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009; 101:158-68.

Khojasteh-Bakht SC, Koenigs LL, Peter RM, Trager WF, Nelson SD. (R)-(+)-Menthofuran is a potent, mechanism-based inactivator of human liver cytochrome P450 2A6. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:701-4.

Khojasteh SC, Prabhu S, Kenny JR, Halladay JS, Lu AY. Chemical inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes: a re-evaluation of P450 isoform selectivity. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2011; 36:1-16.

Khojasteh-Bakht SC, Rossulek MI, Fouda HG, Prakash C. Identification of the human cytochrome P450s responsible for the in vitro metabolism of a leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, CP-195,543. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:1201-10.

Khoo SM, Porter JH, Edwards GA, Charman WN. Metabolism of halofantrine to its equipotent metabolite, desbutylhalofantrine, is decreased when orally administered with ketoconazole. J Pharm Sci 1998; 87:1538-41.

Kiani J, Imam SZ. Medicinal importance of grapefruit juice and its interaction with various drugs. Nutr J 2007; 6:33.

Kidd RS, Straughn AB, Meyer MC, Blaisdell J, Goldstein JA, Dalton JT. Pharmacokinetics of chlorpheniramine, phenytoin, glipizide and nifedipine in an individual homozygous for the CYP2C9*3 allele. Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9:71-80.

Kijac AZ, Li Y, Sligar SG, Rienstra CM. Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy of nanodisc-embedded human CYP3A4. Biochemistry 2007; 46:13696-703.

Kikuchi H. Regulation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 2002; 56:622-8.

Kiley CA, Cragin DJ, Roth BJ. Omeprazole-associated digoxin toxicity. South Med J 2007; 100:400-2.

Kilicarslan T, Haining RL, Rettie AE, Busto U, Tyndale RF, Sellers EM. Flunitrazepam metabolism by cytochrome P450S 2C19 and 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:460-5.

Kilicarslan T, Sellers EM. Lack of interaction of buprenorphine with flunitrazepam metabolism. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157:1164-6.

Killer N, Hock M, Gehlhaus M et al. Modulation of androgen and estrogen receptor expression by antiepileptic drugs and steroids in hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2009; 50:1875-90.

Kim CS, Choi SJ, Park CY, Li C, Choi JS. Effects of silybinin on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen in rats. Anticancer Res 2010; 30:79-85.

Kim DN, Cho KH, Oh WS et al. EaMEAD: Activation energy prediction of cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism with effective atomic descriptors. J Chem Inf Model 2009; 49:1643-54.

Kim EJ, Seo JW, Hwang JY, Han SS. Effects of combined treatment with sildenafil and itraconazole on the cardiovascular system in telemetered conscious dogs. Drug Chem Toxicol 2005; 28:177-86.

Kim H, Kang S, Kim H et al. In vitro metabolism of a new cardioprotective agent, KR-32570, in human liver microsomes. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2006; 20:837-43.

Kim H, Seo KA, Kim H et al. Enzyme kinetic study of a new cardioprotective agent, KR-32570 using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms. Arch Pharm Res 2007; 30:469-74.

Kim H, Yoon YJ, Kim H et al. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of a new cardioprotective agent KR-33028. Toxicol Lett 2006; 166:105-14.

Kim HJ, Choi JS. Effects of naringin on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and one of its metabolites, norverapamil, in rabbits. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2005; 26:295-300.

Kim J, Peraire C, Solà J, Johanning KM, Dalton JT, Veverka KA. Drug interaction potential of toremifene and N-desmethyltoremifene with multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms. Xenobiotica 2011; 41:851-62.

Kim JS, Yun CH. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4 activity by zinc(II) ion. Toxicol Lett 2005; 156:341-50.

Kim JY, Ahn MR, Kim DK, Sheen YY. Histone deacetylase inhibitor stimulate CYP3A4 proximal promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Arch Pharm Res 2004; 27:407-14.

Kim JY, Baek M, Lee S et al. Characterization of the selectivity and mechanism of cytochrome P450 inhibition by dimethyl-4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1555-60.

Kim JY, Lee S, Kim DH, Kim BR, Park R, Lee BM. Effects of flavonoids isolated from Scutellariae radix on cytochrome P-450 activities in human liver microsomes. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2002; 65:373-81.

Kim KA, Chung J, Jung DH, Park JY. Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of loperamide in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 60:575-81.

Kim KA, Kim MJ, Park JY et al. Stereoselective metabolism of lansoprazole by human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1227-34.

Kim KA, Lee JS, Park HJ et al. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activities by oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in human liver microsomes. Life Sci 2004; 74:2769-79.

Kim KA, Oh SO, Park PW, Park JY. Effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:275-80.

Kim KA, Park JY, Lee JS, Lim S. Cytochrome P450 2C8 and CYP3A4/5 are involved in chloroquine metabolism in human liver microsomes. Arch Pharm Res 2003; 26:631-7.

Kim KA, Park JY. Inhibitory effect of glyburide on human cytochrome p450 isoforms in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1090-2.

Kim KA, Park PW, Lee OJ, Kang DK, Park JY. Effect of polymorphic CYP3A5 genotype on the single-dose simvastatin pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 47:87-93.

Kim KA, Park PW, Park JY. Effect of CYP3A5*3 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:589-97.

Kim KB, Seo KA, Yoon YJ et al. In vitro metabolism of a novel PPAR gamma agonist, KR-62980, and its stereoisomer, KR-63198, in human liver microsomes and by recombinant cytochrome P450s. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:1165-76.

Kim KH, Ahn T, Yun CH. Membrane properties induced by anionic phospholipids and phosphatidylethanolamine are critical for the membrane binding and catalytic activity of human cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry 2003; 42:15377-87.

Kim MJ, Kim H, Cha IJ et al. High-throughput screening of inhibitory potential of nine cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2005; 19:2651-8.

Kim S, Dinchuk JE, Anthony MN et al. Evaluation of cynomolgus monkey pregnane X receptor, primary hepatocyte, and in vivo pharmacokinetic changes in predicting human CYP3A4 induction. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:16-24.

Kim YW, Kim YK, Kim DK, Sheen YY. Identification of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of IN-1130, a novel activin receptor-like kinase-5 (ALK5) inhibitor. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:451-64.

Kimura M, Yamazaki H, Fujieda M et al. Cyp2a6 is a principal enzyme involved in hydroxylation of 1,7-dimethylxanthine, a main caffeine metabolite, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1361-6.

Kimura S, Oshima K, Okuda S et al. Pharmacokinetics of CsA during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to oral administration after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45:1088-94.

Kimura Y, Ito H, Ohnishi R, Hatano T. Inhibitory effects of polyphenols on human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C9 activity. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48:429-35.

King CR, Xiao M, Yu J et al. Identification of NR1I2 genetic variation using resequencing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:547-54.

Kinirons MT, Lang CC, He HB et al. Triazolam pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in Caucasians and Southern Asians: ethnicity and CYP3A activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 41:69-72.

Kirby GM, Batist G, Alpert L, Lamoureux E, Cameron RG, Alaoui-Jamali MA. Overexpression of cytochrome P-450 isoforms involved in aflatoxin B1 bioactivation in human liver with cirrhosis and hepatitis. Toxicol Pathol 1996; 24:458-67.

Kirby GM, Wolf CR, Neal GE et al. In vitro metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by normal and tumorous liver tissue from Thailand. Carcinogenesis 1993; 14:2613-20.

Kirches E, Scherlach C, von Bossanyi P et al. MGMT- and P450 3A-inhibitors do not sensitize glioblastoma cell cultures against nitrosoureas. Clin Neuropathol 1999; 18:1-8.

Kirchheiner J, Henckel HB, Meineke I, Roots I, Brockmöller J. Impact of the CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer genotype on mirtazapine pharmacokinetics and adverse events in healthy volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004; 24:647-52.

Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Müller G et al. Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of nateglinide in genotyped healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:267-78.

Kirchheiner J, Roots I, Goldammer M, Rosenkranz B, Brockmöller J. Effect of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP2C8 on the pharmacokinetics of oral antidiabetic drugs: clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:1209-25.

Kirchner GI, Meier-Wiedenbach I, Manns MP. Clinical pharmacokinetics of everolimus. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:83-95.

Kiriyama A, Nishiura T, Yamaji H, Takada K. Metabolic characterization of a tripeptide human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor, KNI-272, in rat liver microsomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43:549-56.

Kirschbaum KM, Müller MJ, Malevani J et al. Serum levels of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole, clinical response and side effects. World J Biol Psychiatry 2008; 9:212-8.

Kishi S, Yang W, Boureau B et al. Effects of prednisone and genetic polymorphisms on etoposide disposition in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 2004; 103:67-72.

Kishimoto W, Hiroi T, Sakai K, Funae Y, Igarashi T. Metabolism of epinastine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, in human liver microsomes in comparison with that of terfenadine. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1997; 98:273-92.

Kishino S, Ogawa M, Takekuma Y et al. The variability of liver graft function and urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratio during liver regeneration in liver transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 2004; 18:124-9.

Kistler A, Liechti H, Pichard L, Wolz E, Oesterhelt G, Hayes A, Maurel P. Metabolism and CYP-inducer properties of astaxanthin in man and primary human hepatocytes. Arch Toxicol 2002; 75:665-75.

Kita T, Sakaeda T, Baba T et al. Different contribution of CYP2C19 in the in vitro metabolism of three proton pump inhibitors. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26:386-90.

Kitamura A, Mizuno Y, Natsui K, Yabuki M, Komuro S, Kanamaru H. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of perospirone. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2005; 26:59-65.

Kittles RA, Chen W, Panguluri RK et al. CYP3A4-V and prostate cancer in African Americans: causal or confounding association because of population stratification? Hum Genet 2002; 110:553-60.

Kivistö KT, Bookjans G, Fromm MF, Griese EU, Münzel P, Kroemer HK. Expression of CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 in human duodenal tissue. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 42:387-9.

Kivistö KT, Griese EU, Fritz P et al. Expression of cytochrome P 450 3A enzymes in human lung: a combined RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis of normal tissue and lung tumours. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1996; 353:207-12.

Kivistö KT, Kantola T, Neuvonen PJ. Different effects of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin and lovastatin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 46:49-53.

Kivistö KT, Kroemer HK, Eichelbaum M. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the metabolism of anticancer agents: implications for drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 40:523-30.

Kivistö KT, Kroemer HK. Use of probe drugs as predictors of drug metabolism in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 37(1 Suppl):40-8.

Kivistö KT, Lamberg TS, Kantola T, Neuvonen PJ. Plasma buspirone concentrations are greatly increased by erythromycin and itraconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:348-54.

Kivistö KT, Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Repeated consumption of grapefruit juice considerably increases plasma concentrations of cisapride. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:448-53.

Kivistö KT, Niemi M, Fromm MF. Functional interaction of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2004; 18:621-6.

Kivistö KT, Wang JS, Backman JT et al. Selegiline pharmacokinetics are unaffected by the CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57:37-42.

Kiyotani K, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Zembutsu H, Sugiyama Y, Nakamura Y. Association of genetic polymorphisms in SLCO1B3 and ABCC2 with docetaxel-induced leukopenia. Cancer Sci 2008; 99:967-72.

Kjellander B, Masimirembwa CM, Zamora I. Exploration of enzyme-ligand interactions in CYP2D6 & 3A4 homology models and crystal structures using a novel computational approach. J Chem Inf Model 2007; 47:1234-47.

Klees TM, Sheffels P, Dale O, Kharasch ED. Metabolism of alfentanil by cytochrome p4503a (cyp3a) enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:303-11.

Klees TM, Sheffels P, Thummel KE, Kharasch ED. Pharmacogenetic determinants of human liver microsomal alfentanil metabolism and the role of cytochrome P450 3A5. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:550-6.

Klibanov OM. Vicriviroc, a CCR5 receptor antagonist for the potential treatment of HIV infection. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2009; 10:845-59.

Klieber S, Hugla S, Ngo R et al. Contribution of the N-glucuronidation pathway to the overall in vitro metabolic clearance of midazolam in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:851-62.

Kliewer SA, Goodwin B, Willson TM. The nuclear pregnane X receptor: a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. Endocr Rev 2002; 23:687-702.

Kliewer SA. The nuclear pregnane X receptor regulates xenobiotic detoxification. J Nutr 2003; 133(7 Suppl):2444-7.

Klotsman M, York TP, Pillai SG et al. Pharmacogenetics of the 5-lipoxygenase biosynthetic pathway and variable clinical response to montelukast. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2007; 17:189-96.

Klotz U. Interaction potential of lercanidipine, a new vasoselective dihydropyridine calcium antagonist. Arzneimittelforschung 2002; 52:155-61.

Klotz U. Pharmacological comparison of the statins. Arzneimittelforschung 2003; 53:605-11.

Klotz U. Tramadol-the impact of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties on the clinical management of pain. Arzneimittelforschung 2003; 53:681-7.

Klotz U. Clinical impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the action of proton pump inhibitors: a review of a special problem. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 44:297-302.

Klotz U. Antiarrhythmics: elimination and dosage considerations in hepatic impairment. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:985-96.

Klotz U. Pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism in the elderly. Drug Metab Rev 2009; 41:67-76.

Kluth D, Banning A, Paur I, Blomhoff R, Brigelius-Flohé R. Modulation of pregnane X receptor- and electrophile responsive element-mediated gene expression by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 42:315-25.

Kluth D, Landes N, Pfluger P et al. Modulation of Cyp3a11 mRNA expression by alpha-tocopherol but not gamma-tocotrienol in mice. Free Radic Biol Med 2005; 38:507-14.

Knebel W, Rao N, Uchimura T et al. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of Istradefylline in healthy subjects and in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 51:40-52.

Knegtering R, Baselmans P, Castelein S, Bosker F, Bruggeman R, van den Bosch RJ. Predominant role of the 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone in elevating blood prolactin levels. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162:1010-2.

Knoell KR, Young TM, Cousins ES. Potential interaction involving warfarin and ritonavir. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32:1299-302.

Knüpfer H, Knüpfer MM, Hotfilder M, Preiss R. P450-expression in brain tumors. Oncol Res 1999; 11:523-8.

Kobayashi K, Abe S, Nakajima M et al. Role of human CYP2B6 in S-mephobarbital N-demethylation. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1429-33.

Kobayashi K, Chiba K, Yagi T et al. Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in citalopram N-demethylation by human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 280:927-33.

Kobayashi K, Ishizuka T, Shimada N, Yoshimura Y, Kamijima K, Chiba K. Sertraline N-demethylation is catalyzed by multiple isoforms of human cytochrome P-450 in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:763-6.

Kobayashi K, Mimura N, Fujii H et al. Role of human cytochrome P450 3A4 in metabolism of medroxyprogesterone acetate. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6:3297-303.

Kobayashi K, Nakajima M, Oshima K, Shimada N, Yokoi T, Chiba K. Involvement of CYP2E1 as A low-affinity enzyme in phenacetin O-deethylation in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:860-5.

Kobayashi K, Yamamoto T, Chiba K et al. Human buprenorphine N-dealkylation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:818-21.

Kober M, Pohl K, Efferth T. Molecular mechanisms underlying St. John’s wort drug interactions. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:1027-37.

Koch I, Weil R, Wolbold R et al. Interindividual variability and tissue-specificity in the expression of cytochrome P450 3A mRNA. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1108-14.

Koehler SC, von Ahsen N, Schlumbohm C et al. Marmoset CYP3A21, a model for human CYP3A4: protein expression and functional characterization of the promoter. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:1210-26.

Koga N, Ohta C, Kato Y et al. In vitro metabolism of nobiletin, a polymethoxy-flavonoid, by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450. Xenobiotica 2011; 41:927-33.

Kohalmy K, Tamási V, Kóbori L et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1495-501.

Kohlrausch FB, Gama CS, Lobato MI et al. Naturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:599-609.

Kojima K, Nagata K, Matsubara T, Yamazoe Y. Broad but distinct role of pregnane x receptor on the expression of individual cytochrome p450s in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:276-86.

Kokudai M, Inui N, Takeuchi K, Sakaeda T, Kagawa Y, Watanabe H. Effects of statins on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 49:568-73.

Kolars JC, Lown KS, Schmiedlin-Ren P et al. CYP3A gene expression in human gut epithelium. Pharmacogenetics 1994; 4:247-59.

Kolars JC, Schmiedlin-Ren P, Schuetz JD, Fang C, Watkins PB. Identification of rifampin-inducible P450IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in human small bowel enterocytes. J Clin Invest 1992; 90:1871-8.

Kolilekas L, Anagnostopoulos GK, Lampaditis I, Eleftheriadis I. Potential interaction between telithromycin and warfarin. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38:1424-7.

Kolwankar D, Vuppalanchi R, Ethell B et al. Association between nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis and hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A activity. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5:388-93.

Komatsu T, Yamazaki H, Asahi S et al. Formation of a dihydroxy metabolite of phenytoin in human liver microsomes/cytosol: roles of cytochromes P450 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1361-8.

Komatsu T, Yamazaki H, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. Identification of catalase in human livers as a factor that enhances phenytoin dihydroxy metabolite formation by human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63:2081-90.

Komoroski BJ, Parise RA, Egorin MJ, Strom SC, Venkataramanan R. Effect of the St. John’s wort constituent hyperforin on docetaxel metabolism by human hepatocyte cultures. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:6972-9.

Komoroski BJ, Zhang S, Cai H et al. Induction and inhibition of cytochromes P450 by the St. John’s wort constituent hyperforin in human hepatocyte cultures. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:512-8.

Komura H, Iwaki M. Species differences in in vitro and in vivo small intestinal metabolism of CYP3A substrates. J Pharm Sci 2008; 97:1775-800.

Komura H, Yasuda M, Yoshida NH, Sugiyama Y. Species difference in nisoldipine oxidation activity in the small intestine. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:427-36.

Kondo T, Tanaka O, Otani K et al. Possible inhibitory effect of diazepam on the metabolism of zotepine, an antipsychotic drug. Psychopharmacology 1996; 127:311-4.

Kondoh N, Wakatsuki T, Ryo A et al. Identification and characterization of genes associated with human hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1999; 59:4990-6.

Kong WM, Chik Z, Ramachandra M, Subramaniam U, Aziddin RE, Mohamed Z. Evaluation of the effects of mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract on cytochrome P450 enzymes using a high throughput assay. Molecules 2011; 16:7344-56.

Konishi H, Tanaka K, Minouchi T, Yamaji A. Urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/17-hydroxycorticosteroids ratio as a measure of hepatic CYP3A4 capacity after enzyme induction. Ann Clin Biochem 2004; 41:335-7.

Konsue N, Ioannides C. Modulation of carcinogen-metabolising cytochromes P450 in human liver by the chemopreventive phytochemical phenethyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables. Toxicology 2010; 268:184-90.

Korhonen T, Tolonen A, Uusitalo J, Lundgren S, Jalonen J, Laine K. The role of CYP2C and CYP3A in the disposition of 3-keto-desogestrel after administration of desogestrel. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:69-75.

Korhonen T, Turpeinen M, Tolonen A, Laine K, Pelkonen O. Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro biotransformation of lynestrenol and norethindrone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2008; 110:56-66.

Korjamo T, Honkakoski P, Toppinen MR et al. Absorption properties and P-glycoprotein activity of modified Caco-2 cell lines. Eur J Pharm Sci 2005; 26:266-79.

Korjamo T, Mönkkönen J, Uusitalo J, Turpeinen M, Pelkonen O, Honkakoski P. Metabolic and efflux properties of Caco-2 cells stably transfected with nuclear receptors. Pharm Res 2006; 23:1991-2001.

Korzekwa KR, Krishnamachary N, Shou M et al. Evaluation of atypical cytochrome P450 kinetics with two-substrate models: evidence that multiple substrates can simultaneously bind to cytochrome P450 active sites. Biochemistry 1998; 37:4137-47.

Kosaki K, Tamura K, Sato R, Samejima H, Tanigawara Y, Takahashi T. A major influence of CYP2C19 genotype on the steady-state concentration of N-desmethylclobazam. Brain Dev 2004; 26:530-4.

Kosina P, Maurel P, Ulrichová J, Dvorák Z. Effect of silybin and its glycosides on the expression of cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2005; 19:149-53.

Kostrubsky VE, Lewis LD, Strom SC et al. Induction of cytochrome P4503A by taxol in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys 1998; 355:131-6.

Kosuge K, Chuang AI, Uematsu S et al. Discovery of osmosensitive transcriptional regulation of human cytochrome P450 3As by the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5). Mol Pharmacol 2007; 72:826-37.

Kosuge K, Jun Y, Watanabe H et al. Effects of CYP3A4 inhibition by diltiazem on pharmacokinetics and dynamics of diazepam in relation to CYP2C19 genotype status. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1284-9.

Kosuge K, Nishimoto M, Kimura M, Umemura K, Nakashima M, Ohashi K. Enhanced effect of triazolam with diltiazem. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43:367-72.

Koszalka GW, Johnson NW, Good SS et al. Preclinical and toxicology studies of 1263W94, a potent and selective inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46:2373-80.

Kot M, Daniel WA. Caffeine as a marker substrate for testing cytochrome P450 activity in human and rat. Pharmacol Rep 2008; 60:789-97.

Kot M, Daniel WA. The relative contribution of human cytochrome P450 isoforms to the four caffeine oxidation pathways: an in vitro comparative study with cDNA-expressed P450s including CYP2C isoforms. Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 76:543-51.

Kotlyar M, Brewer ER, Golding M, Carson SW. Nefazodone inhibits methylprednisolone disposition and enhances its adrenal-suppressant effect. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003; 23:652-6.

Kotsuma M, Tokui T, Freudenthaler S, Nishimura K. Effects of ketoconazole and quinidine on pharmacokinetics of pactimibe and its plasma metabolite, R-125528, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1505-11.

Kotsuma M, Tokui T, Ishizuka-Ozeki T et al. CYP2D6-Mediated metabolism of a novel acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, pactimibe, and its unique plasma metabolite, R-125528. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:529-34.

Koudriakova T, Iatsimirskaia E, Utkin I et al. Metabolism of the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors indinavir and ritonavir by human intestinal microsomes and expressed cytochrome P4503A4/3A5: mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P4503A by ritonavir. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:552-61.

Koue T, Kubo M, Funaki T et al. Nonlinear mixed effects model analysis of the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole in healthy Japanese males. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30:2154-8.

Kounas SP, Letsas KP, Sideris A, Efraimidis M, Kardaras F. QT interval prolongation and torsades de pointes due to a coadministration of metronidazole and amiodarone. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2005; 28:472-3.

Kousalová L, Anzenbacherová E, Baranová J, Anzenbacher P, Skoumalová I, Vondraková J. Presence of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human CD34+ haematopoietic progenitor cells. Gen Physiol Biophys 2004; 23:251-7.

Kousba A, Soll R, Yee S, Martin M. Cyclic conversion of the novel Src kinase inhibitor [7-(2,6-dichloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-benzo[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl]-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-amine (TG100435) and Its N-oxide metabolite by flavin-containing monoxygenases and cytochrome P450 reductase. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:2242-51.

Kovaleva IE, Krynetskii EY, Luzikov VN. Transgenic yeast expressing human cytochrome P450s can serve as a tool in studies of the mechanisms of their induction by various effectors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 221:129-32.

Kovarik JM, Bartlett M, Rordorf C et al. Sotrastaurin and everolimus pharmacokinetics after single-dose coadministration. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 48:103-8.

Kovarik JM, Hartmann S, Figueiredo J, Rouilly M, Port A, Rordorf C. Effect of rifampin on apparent clearance of everolimus. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36:981-5.

Kovarik JM, Huang HL, Slade A, Sfikas N, Chandler PA. The effect on sotrastaurin pharmacokinetics of strong CYP3A inhibition by ketoconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68:381-5.

Koyama N, Sasabe H, Miyamoto G. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in the metabolism of rebamipide by the human liver. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:573-86.

Koyano S, Kurose K, Saito Y et al. Functional characterization of four naturally occurring variants of human pregnane X receptor (PXR): one variant causes dramatic loss of both DNA binding activity and the transactivation of the CYP3A4 promoter/enhancer region. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:149-54.

Kozawa M, Honma M, Suzuki H. Quantitative prediction of in vivo profiles of CYP3A4 induction in humans from in vitro results with a reporter gene assay. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1234-41.

Kraemer T, Pflugmann T, Bossmann M et al. Fenproporex N-dealkylation to amphetamine-enantioselective in vitro studies in human liver microsomes as well as enantioselective in vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 68:947-57.

Kragelund C, Hansen C, Torpet LA et al. Expression of two drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450-enzymes in human salivary glands. Oral Dis 2008; 14:533-40.

Kranendonk M, Carreira F, Theisen P, et al. Escherichia coli MTC, a human NADPH P450 reductase competent mutagenicity tester strain for the expression of human cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 3A4, or 3A5: catalytic activities and mutagenicity studies. Mutat Res 1999; 441:73-83.

Krecic-Shepard ME, Barnas CR, Slimko J, Gorski JC, Wainer IW, Schwartz JB. In vivo comparison of putative probes of CYP3A4/5 activity: erythromycin, dextromethorphan, and verapamil. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:40-50.

Kreth K, Kovar K, Schwab M, Zanger UM. Identification of the human cytochromes P450 involved in the oxidative metabolism of “Ecstasy”-related designer drugs. Biochem Pharmacol 2000; 59:1563-71.

Kriegl JM, Arnhold T, Beck B, Fox T. A support vector machine approach to classify human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors. J Comput Aided Mol Des 2005; 19:189-201.

Kriegl JM, Eriksson L, Arnhold T, Beck B, Johansson E, Fox T. Multivariate modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition. Eur J Pharm Sci 2005; 24:451-63.

Krippendorff BF, Neuhaus R, Lienau P, Reichel A, Huisinga W. Mechanism-based inhibition: deriving K(I) and k(inact) directly from time-dependent IC(50) values. J Biomol Screen 2009; 14:913-23.

Krishna G, Moton A, Ma L et al. Effects of oral posaconazole on the pharmacokinetic properties of oral and intravenous midazolam: a phase I, randomized, open-label, crossover study in healthy volunteers. Clin Ther 2009; 31:286-98.

Krishna R, Bergman A, Larson P et al. Effect of a single cyclosporine dose on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin (MK-0431), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in healthy male subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 47:165-74.

Krishnamoorthy N, Gajendrarao P, Thangapandian S, Lee Y, Lee KW. Probing possible egress channels for multiple ligands in human CYP3A4: A molecular modeling study. J Mol Model 2010; 16:607-14

Krishnan S, Moncrief S. An evaluation of the cytochrome p450 inhibition potential of lisdexamfetamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:180-4.

Kristensen VN, Borresen-Dale AL. Molecular epidemiology of breast cancer: genetic variation in steroid hormone metabolism. Mutat Res 2000; 462:323-33.

Kristensen VN, Kure EH, Erikstein B, Harada N, Børresen-Dale A. Genetic susceptibility and environmental estrogen-like compounds. Mutat Res 2001; 482:77-82.

Krivoruk Y, Kinirons MT, Wood AJ, Wood M. Metabolism of cytochrome P4503A substrates in vivo administered by the same route: lack of correlation between alfentanil clearance and erythromycin breath test. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994; 56:608-14.

Krösser S, Neugebauer R, Dolgos H, Fluck M, Rost KL, Kovar A. Investigation of sarizotan’s impact on the pharmacokinetics of probe drugs for major cytochrome P450 isoenzymes: a combined cocktail trial. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:277-84.

Krusekopf S, Roots I, Kleeberg U. Differential drug-induced mRNA expression of human CYP3A4 compared to CYP3A5, CYP3A7 and CYP3A43. Eur J Pharmacol 2003; 466:7-12.

Krusekopf S, Roots I. St. John’s wort and its constituent hyperforin concordantly regulate expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in basic cellular pathways. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005; 15:817-29.

Ku HY, Ahn HJ, Seo KA et al. The contributions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 to the metabolism of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors sildenafil, udenafil, and vardenafil. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:986-90.

Küblbeck J, Reinisalo M, Mustonen R, Honkakoski P. Up-regulation of CYP expression in hepatoma cells stably transfected by chimeric nuclear receptors. Eur J Pharm Sci 2010; 40:263-72.

Kubo M, Koue T, Inaba A et al. Influence of itraconazole co-administration and CYP2D6 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of the new antipsychotic aripiprazole. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2005; 20:55-64.

Kudo S, Ishizaki T. Pharmacokinetics of haloperidol: an update. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 37:435-56.

Kudo S, Odomi M. Involvement of human cytochrome P450 3A4 in reduced haloperidol oxidation. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:253-9.

Kudo S, Okumura H, Miyamoto G, Ishizaki T. Cytochrome P-450 isoforms involved in carboxylic acid ester cleavage of Hantzsch pyridine ester of pranidipine. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:303-8.

Kudo S, Uchida M, Odomi M. Metabolism of carteolol by cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 52:479-85.

Kuhn JG. Pharmacology of irinotecan. Oncology 1998; 12:39-42.

Kuhn JG, Chang SM, Wen PY et al. Pharmacokinetic and tumor distribution characteristics of temsirolimus in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:7401-6.

Kuhn UD, Kirsch M, Merkel U et al. Reboxetine and cytochrome P450-comparison with paroxetine treatment in humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 45:36-46.

Kulemann V, Bauer M, Graninger W, Joukhadar C. Safety and potential of drug interactions of caspofungin and voriconazole in multimorbid patients. Pharmacology 2005; 75:165-78.

Kumar GN, Dykstra J, Roberts EM et al. Potent inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 3A-mediated human liver microsomal metabolism of a novel HIV protease inhibitor by ritonavir: A positive drug-drug interaction. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:902-8.

Kumar S, Davydov DR, Halpert JR. Role of cytochrome B5 in modulating peroxide-supported cyp3a4 activity: evidence for a conformational transition and cytochrome P450 heterogeneity. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1131-6.

Kumar S, Liu H, Halpert JR. Engineering of cytochrome P450 3A4 for enhanced peroxide-mediated substrate oxidation using directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1958-65.

Kumar S, Qiu H, Oezguen N, Herlyn H, Halpert JR, Wojnowski L. Ligand diversity of human and chimpanzee CYP3A4: activation of human CYP3A4 by lithocholic acid results from positive selection. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1328-33.

Kumar S, Tan EY, Hartmann G et al. Metabolism and excretion of anacetrapib, a novel inhibitor of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:474-83.

Kumarakulasingham M, Rooney PH, Dundas SR et al. Cytochrome p450 profile of colorectal cancer: identification of markers of prognosis. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:3758-65.

Kummer O, Hammann F, Moser C, Schaller O, Drewe J, Krähenbühl S. Effect of the inhibition of CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 67:63-71.

Kunze KL, Nelson WL, Kharasch ED, Thummel KE, Isoherranen N. Stereochemical aspects of itraconazole metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:583-90.

Kuo BP, Hu OY, Hsiong CH, Pao LH, Chen TS, Hung CF. Single-point plasma or urine dextromethorphan method for determining CYP3A activity. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2003; 24:367-73.

Kuperman AV, Kalgutkar AS, Marfat A, Chambers RJ, Liston TE. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of a cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist from the heterocyclic chromanol series in rats: in vitro-in vivo correlation, gender-related differences, isoform identification, and comparison with metabolism in human hepatic tissue. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1403-9.

Kupferschmidt HH, Fattinger KE, Ha HR, Follath F, Krähenbühl S. Grapefruit juice enhances the bioavailability of the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 45:355-9.

Kuppens IE, Breedveld P, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. Modulation of oral drug bioavailability: from preclinical mechanism to therapeutic application. Cancer Invest 2005; 23:443-64.

Kurata N, Nishimura Y, Iwase M et al. Trimethadione metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450: evidence for the involvement of CYP2E1. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:1041-7.

Kuriya S, Ohmori S, Hino M et al. Identification of cytochrome P-450 isoform(s) responsible for the metabolism of pimobendan in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:73-8.

Kurose K, Koyano S, Ikeda S, Tohkin M, Hasegawa R, Sawada J. 5’ diversity of human hepatic PXR (NR1I2) transcripts and identification of the major transcription initiation site. Mol Cell Biochem 2005; 273:79-85.

Kusama M, Toshimoto K, Maeda K et al. In silico classification of major clearance pathways of drugs with their physiochemical parameters. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1362-70.

Kusumi I, Masui T, Koyama T. Long-term perospirone treatment with a single dose at bedtime in schizophrenia: relevant to intermittent dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008; 32:520-2.

Kuypers DR. Immunotherapy in elderly transplant recipients: a guide to clinically significant drug interactions. Drugs Aging 2009; 26:715-37.

Kuypers DR, de Jonge H, Naesens M, Lerut E, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y. CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 but not MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms determine long-term tacrolimus disposition and drug-related nephrotoxicity in renal recipients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 82:711-25.

Kuypers DR, de Jonge H, Naesens M, Vanrenterghem Y. Effects of CYP3A5 and MDR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on drug interactions between tacrolimus and fluconazole in renal allograft recipients. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:861-8.

Kwara A, Ramachandran G, Swaminathan S. Dose adjustment of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors during concurrent rifampicin-containing tuberculosis therapy: one size does not fit all. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2010; 6:55-68.

Kyrklund C, Backman JT, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen M, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ. Rifampin greatly reduces plasma simvastatin and simvastatin acid concentrations. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:592-7.

Labbé L, O’Hara G, Lefebvre M et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between mexiletine and propafenone in human beings. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:44-57.

Laberge P, Martineau P. Clarithromycin-induced digoxin intoxication. Ann Pharmacother 1997; 31:999-1002.

Labrie P, Maddaford SP, Lacroix J et al. In vitro activity of novel dual action MDR anthranilamide modulators with inhibitory activity at CYP-450. Bioorg Med Chem 2006; 14:7972-87.

Labrie P, Maddaford SP, Lacroix J et al. In vitro activity of novel dual action MDR anthranilamide modulators with inhibitory activity on CYP-450 (Part 2). Bioorg Med Chem 2007; 15:3854-68.

Lacroix D, Sonnier M, Moncion A, Cheron G, Cresteil T. Expression of CYP3A in the human liver-evidence that the shift between CYP3A7 and CYP3A4 occurs immediately after birth. Eur J Biochem 1997; 247:625-34.

Ladenheim D, Horn O, Werneke U et al. Potential health risks of complementary alternative medicines in HIV patients. HIV Med 2008; 9:653-9.

Lafite P, André F, Zeldin DC, Dansette PM, Mansuy D. Unusual regioselectivity and active site topology of human cytochrome P450 2J2. Biochemistry 2007; 46:10237-47.

Lahoz A, Donato MT, Montero S, Castell JV, Gómez-Lechón MJ. A new in vitro approach for the simultaneous determination of phase I and phase II enzymatic activities of human hepatocyte preparations. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2008; 22:240-4.

Lahu G, Huennemeyer A, Herzog R et al. Effect of repeated dose of erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 47:236-45.

Lai J, Vesprini D, Chu W, Jernström H, Narod SA. CYP gene polymorphisms and early menarche. Mol Genet Metab 2001; 74:449-57.

Laine JE, Auriola S, Pasanen M, Juvonen RO. Acetaminophen bioactivation by human cytochrome P450 enzymes and animal microsomes. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:11-21.

Laine K, Ahokoski O, Huupponen R et al. Effect of the novel anxiolytic drug deramciclane on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the CYP3A4 probe drug buspirone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:761-6.

Laine K, Yasar U, Widén J, Tybring G. A screening study on the liability of eight different female sex steroids to inhibit CYP2C9, 2C19 and 3A4 activities in human liver microsomes. Pharmacol Toxicol 2003; 93:77-81.

Lake BG, Ball SE, Renwick AB et al. Induction of CYP3A isoforms in cultured precision-cut human liver slices. Xenobiotica 1997; 27:1165-73.

Lake BG, Tredger JM, Renwick AB, Barton PT, Price RJ. 3,3’-Diindolylmethane induces CYP1A2 in cultured precision-cut human liver slices. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:803-11.

Lakehal F, Dansette PM, Becquemont L et al. Indirect cytotoxicity of flucloxacillin toward human biliary epithelium via metabolite formation in hepatocytes. Chem Res Toxicol 2001; 14:694-701.

Lakehal F, Wendum D, Barbu V et al. Phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes are expressed and heterogeneously distributed in the biliary epithelium. Hepatology 1999; 30:1498-506.

Lakhman SS, Ma Q, Morse GD. Pharmacogenomics of CYP3A: considerations for HIV treatment. Pharmacogenomics 2009; 10:1323-39.

Lalovic B, Phillips B, Risler LL, Howald W, Shen DD. Quantitative contribution of CYP2D6 and CYP3A to oxycodone metabolism in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:447-54.

Lam S, Partovi N, Ting LS, Ensom MH. Corticosteroid interactions with cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and sirolimus: fact or fiction? Ann Pharmacother 2008; 42:1037-47.

Lam TN, Hunt CA. Mechanistic insight from in silico pharmacokinetic experiments: roles of P-glycoprotein, Cyp3A4 enzymes, and microenvironments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010; 332:398-412.

Lam YW, Alfaro CL, Ereshefsky L, Miller M. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of oral midazolam with ketoconazole, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and nefazodone. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:1274-82.

Lamb DC, Kelly DE, Baldwin BC, Kelly SL. Differential inhibition of human CYP3A4 and Candida albicans CYP51 with azole antifungal agents. Chem Biol Interact 2000; 125:165-75.

Lamba J, Lamba V, Strom S, Venkataramanan R, Schuetz E. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter and intron 1 of human pregnane X receptor/NR1I2 and their association with CYP3A4 expression. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:169-81.

Lamba J, Strom S, Venkataramanan R et al. MDR1 genotype is associated with hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 basal and induction phenotype. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 79:325-38.

Lamba JK, Chen X, Lan LB et al. Increased CYP3A4 copy number in TONG/HCC cells but not in DNA from other humans. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:415-27.

Lamba JK, Lin YS, Schuetz EG, Thummel KE. Genetic contribution to variable human CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2002; 54:1271-94.

Lamba JK, Lin YS, Thummel K et al. Common allelic variants of cytochrome P4503A4 and their prevalence in different populations. Pharmacogenetics 2002; 12:121-32.

Lamba V, Panetta JC, Strom S, Schuetz EG. Genetic predictors of inter-individual variability in hepatic CYP3A4 expression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010; 332:1088-99.

Lamba V, Yasuda K, Lamba JK et al. PXR (NR1I2): splice variants in human tissues, including brain, and identification of neurosteroids and nicotine as PXR activators. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004; 199:251-65.

Lamberg TS, Kivistö KT, Laitila J, Mårtensson K, Neuvonen PJ. The effect of fluvoxamine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of buspirone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:761-6.

Lamberg TS, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Concentrations and effects of buspirone are considerably reduced by rifampicin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 45:381-5.

Lamberg TS, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of verapamil and diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of buspirone. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63:640-5.

Lamberg TS, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Lack of effect of terfenadine on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate buspirone. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 84:165-9.

Lambert CB, Spire C, Claude N, Guillouzo A. Dose- and time-dependent effects of phenobarbital on gene expression profiling in human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 234:345-60.

Lampe JN, Atkins WM. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of heterotropic ligand binding to cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry 2006; 45:12204-15.

Lampe JN, Fernandez C, Nath A, Atkins WM. Nile Red is a fluorescent allosteric substrate of cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry 2008; 47:509-16.

Lampen A, Bader A, Bestmann T, Winkler M, Witte L, Borlak JT. Catalytic activities, protein- and mRNA-expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in intestinal cell lines. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:429-41.

Lan SF, Safiejko-Mroczka B, Starly B. Long-term cultivation of HepG2 liver cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogels: A study of cell viability, morphology and drug metabolism. Toxicol In Vitro 2010; 24:1314-23.

Landes BD, Petite JP, Flouvat B. Clinical pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole. Clin Pharmacokinet 1995; 28:458-70.

Landes N, Pfluger P, Kluth D et al. Vitamin E activates gene expression via the pregnane X receptor. Biochem Pharmacol 2003; 65:269-73.

Landi S, Gemignani F, Gioia-Patricola L, Chabrier A, Canzian F. Evaluation of a microarray for genotyping polymorphisms related to xenobiotic metabolism and DNA repair. Biotechniques 2003; 35:816-20, 822, 824-7.

Landi S, Gemignani F, Moreno V et al. A comprehensive analysis of phase I and phase II metabolism gene polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005; 15:535-46.

Lane HY, Chiu CC, Kazmi Y et al. Lack of CYP3A4 inhibition by grapefruit juice and ketoconazole upon clozapine administration in vivo. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2001; 18:263-78.

Lane HY, Jann MW, Chang YC et al. Repeated ingestion of grapefruit juice does not alter clozapine’s steady-state plasma levels, effectiveness, and tolerability. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62:812-7.

Lane S, Al-Zubiedi S, Hatch E et al. The population pharmacokinetics of R and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2011. doi:10. 1111/j. 1365-2125. 2011. 04051. x.

Lang CC, Brown RM, Kinirons MT et al. Decreased intestinal CYP3A in celiac disease: reversal after successful gluten-free diet: a potential source of interindividual variability in first-pass drug metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 59:41-6.

Lang CC, Jamal SK, Mohamed Z, Mustafa MR, Mustafa AM, Lee TC. Evidence of an interaction between nifedipine and nafcillin in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55:588-90.

Langouët S, Coles B, Morel F et al. Inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 by oltipraz results in reduction of aflatoxin B1 metabolism in human hepatocytes in primary culture. Cancer Res 1995; 55:5574-9.

Langtry HD, Markham A. Sildenafil: a review of its use in erectile dysfunction. Drugs 1999; 57:967-89.

Larsen JT, Brøsen K. Consumption of charcoal-broiled meat as an experimental tool for discerning CYP1A2-mediated drug metabolism in vivo. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2005; 97:141-8.

Lash LH, Putt DA, Cai H. Drug metabolism enzyme expression and activity in primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells. Toxicology 2008; 244:56-65.

Lathia C, Lettieri J, Cihon F, Gallentine M, Radtke M, Sundaresan P. Lack of effect of ketoconazole-mediated CYP3A inhibition on sorafenib clinical pharmacokinetics. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2006; 57:685-92.

Lau WC, Gurbel PA, Watkins PB et al. Contribution of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolic activity to the phenomenon of clopidogrel resistance. Circulation 2004; 109:166-71.

Lau WC, Waskell LA, Watkins PB et al. Atorvastatin reduces the ability of clopidogrel to inhibit platelet aggregation: a new drug-drug interaction. Circulation 2003; 107:32-7.

Lavigne JA, Nakatsu K, Marks GS. Identification of human hepatic cytochrome P450 sources of N-alkylprotoporphyrin IX after interaction with porphyrinogenic xenobiotics, implications for detection of xenobiotic-induced porphyria in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:788-94.

Law M, Rudnicka AR. Statin safety: a systematic review. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97:52-60.

Le Corre P, Parmer RJ, Kailasam MT et al. Human sympathetic activation by alpha2-adrenergic blockade with yohimbine: Bimodal, epistatic influence of cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:139-53.

Le Gal A, Dréano Y, Gervasi PG, Berthou F. Human cytochrome P450 2A6 is the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of three alkoxyethers used as oxyfuels. Toxicol Lett 2001; 124:47-58.

Le Marchand L, Donlon T, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE, Wilkens LR. Estrogen metabolism-related genes and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14:1998-2003.

Leandro-García LJ, Leskelä S, Montero-Conde C et al. Determination of CYP2D6 gene copy number by multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis. Anal Biochem 2009; 389:74-6.

Lebrun-Vignes B, Archer VC, Diquet B et al. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone and methylprednisolone and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:443-50.

Lechevrel M, Casson AG, Wolf CR et al. Characterization of cytochrome P450 expression in human oesophageal mucosa. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20:243-8.

LeCluyse E, Madan A, Hamilton G, Carroll K, DeHaan R, Parkinson A. Expression and regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2000; 14:177-88.

LeCluyse EL. Pregnane X receptor: molecular basis for species differences in CYP3A induction by xenobiotics. Chem Biol Interact 2001; 134:283-9.

Lecointre K, Furlan V, Taburet AM. In vitro effects of tacrolimus on human cytochrome P450. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2002; 16:455-60.

Ledirac N, de Sousa G, Fontaine F et al. Effects of macrolide antibiotics on CYP3A expression in human and rat hepatocytes: interspecies differences in response to troleandomycin. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1391-3.

Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT. Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology 2003; 144:3382-98.

Lee AJ, Chan WK, Harralson AF, Buffum J, Bui BC. The effects of grapefruit juice on sertraline metabolism: an in vitro and in vivo study. Clin Ther 1999; 21:1890-9.

Lee AJ, Kosh JW, Conney AH, Zhu BT. Characterization of the NADPH-dependent metabolism of 17beta-estradiol to multiple metabolites by human liver microsomes and selectively expressed human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 298:420-32.

Lee AJ, Maddix DS. Rhabdomyolysis secondary to a drug interaction between simvastatin and clarithromycin. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35:26-31.

Lee AJ, Mills LH, Kosh JW, Conney AH, Zhu BT. NADPH-dependent metabolism of estrone by human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 300:838-49.

Lee AK, Ahn CY, Kim EJ et al. Effects of cysteine on the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in rats with protein-calorie malnutrition. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2003; 24:63-70.

Lee CA, Kadwell SH, Kost TA, Serabjit-Singh CJ. CYP3A4 expressed by insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing both CYP3A4 and human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase is catalytically similar to human liver microsomal CYP3A4. Arch Biochem Biophys 1995; 319:157-67.

Lee CA, Neul D, Clouser-Roche A et al. Identification of novel substrates for human cytochrome P450 2J2. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:347-56.

Lee HK, Lewis LD, Tsongalis GJ et al. Negative urine opioid screening caused by rifampin-mediated induction of oxycodone hepatic metabolism. Clin Chim Acta 2006; 367:196-200.

Lee HS, Jin C, Park J, Kim DH. Modulation of cytochrome P450 activities by 7,8-benzoflavone and its metabolites. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1994; 34:483-91.

Lee HS, Park EJ, Ji HY et al. Identification of cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for N -dealkylation of a new oral erectogenic, mirodenafil. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:21-33.

Lee JH, Cho YK, Jung YS, Kim YC, Lee MG. Time-dependent effects of Klebsiella pneumoniae endotoxin on the telithromycin pharmacokinetics in rats; restoration of the parameters in 96-hour KPLPS rats to the control levels. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2008; 21:860-5.

Lee JY, Duke RK, Tran VH, Hook JM, Duke CC. Hyperforin and its analogues inhibit CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Phytochemistry 2006; 67:2550-60.

Lee LS, Andrade AS, Flexner C. Interactions between natural health products and antiretroviral drugs: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:1052-9.

Lee MR, Kim YJ, Hwang DY et al. An in vitro bioassay for xenobiotics using the SXR-driven human CYP3A4/lacZ reporter gene. Int J Toxicol 2003; 22:207-13.

Lee MY, Kumar RA, Sukumaran SM, Hogg MG, Clark DS, Dordick JS. Three-dimensional cellular microarray for high-throughput toxicology assays. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105:59-63.

Lee SJ, Bell DA, Coulter SJ, Ghanayem B, Goldstein JA. Recombinant CYP3A4*17 is defective in metabolizing the hypertensive drug nifedipine, and the CYP3A4*17 allele may occur on the same chromosome as CYP3A5*3, representing a new putative defective CYP3A haplotype. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 313:302-9.

Lee SJ, Goldstein JA. Functionally defective or altered CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their detection with genotyping tests. Pharmacogenomics 2005; 6:357-71.

Lee SJ, Jusko WJ, Salaita CG et al. Reduced methylprednisolone clearance causing prolonged pharmacodynamics in a healthy subject was not associated with CYP3A5*3 allele or a change in diet composition. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46:515-26.

Lee SJ, Lee SS, Jeong HE et al. The CYP3A4*18 allele, the most frequent coding variant in asian populations, does not significantly affect the midazolam disposition in heterozygous individuals. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:2095-101.

Lee SJ, Wang-Buhler JL, Cok I et al. Cloning, sequencing, and tissue expression of CYP3A27, a new member of the CYP3A subfamily from embryonic and adult rainbow trout livers. Arch Biochem Biophys 1998; 360:53-61.

Lee SK, Kim Y, Jin C et al. Inhibitory Effects of deoxypodophyllotoxin from Anthriscus sylvestris on human CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Planta Med 2010; 76:701-4.

Lee SK, Lee JH, Yoo HH, Kim DH, Jahng Y, Jeong TC. Characterization of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of rutaecarpine. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2006; 41:304-9.

Lee SS, Cha EY, Jung HJ et al. Genetic polymorphism of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha influences human cytochrome P450 2D6 activity. Hepatology 2008; 48:635-45.

Lee SS, Zhang B, He ML, Chang VS, Kung HF. Screening of active ingredients of herbal medicine for interaction with CYP450 3A4. Phytother Res 2007; 21:1096-9.

Leeder JS, Gaedigk R, Marcucci KA et al. Variability of CYP3A7 expression in human fetal liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 314:626-35.

Leeder JS, Lu X, Timsit Y, Gaedigk A. Non-monooxygenase cytochromes P450 as potential human autoantigens in anticonvulsant hypersensitivity reactions. Pharmacogenetics 1998; 8:211-25.

Lefebvre T, Foster BC, Drouin CE, Krantis A, Livesey JF, Jordan SA. In vitro activity of commercial valerian root extracts against human cytochrome P450 3A4. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2004; 7:265-73.

Lefèvre G, Bindschedler M, Ezzet F, Schaeffer N, Meyer I, Thomsen MS. Pharmacokinetic interaction trial between co-artemether and mefloquine. Eur J Pharm Sci 2000; 10:141-51.

Lefèvre G, Carpenter P, Souppart C, Schmidli H, McClean M, Stypinski D. Pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic pharmacodynamics of artemether-lumefantrine (Riamet) with concomitant administration of ketoconazole in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 54:485-92.

Legendre C, Hori T, Loyer P et al. Drug-metabolising enzymes are down-regulated by hypoxia in differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells: HIF-1alpha involvement in CYP3A4 repression. Eur J Cancer 2009; 45:2882-92.

Leger P, Dillingham R, Beauharnais CA et al. CYP2B6 variants and plasma efavirenz concentrations during antiretroviral therapy in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. J Infect Dis 2009; 200:955-64.

Lehmann DF, Newman N, Morse PD. The effect of cimetidine on the formation of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 38:463-6.

Lehmann JM, McKee DD, Watson MA, Willson TM, Moore JT, Kliewer SA. The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions. J Clin Invest 1998; 102:1016-23.

Lehr T, Staab A, Trommeshauser D, Schaefer HG, Kloft C. Semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction modelling of a long half-life substrate and itraconazole. Clin Pharmacokinet 2010; 49:53-66.

Lejus C, Fautrel A, Mallédant Y, Guillouzo A. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 by propofol in human and porcine liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 64:1151-6.

Lemahieu W, Maes B, Verbeke K, Rutgeerts P, Geboes K, Vanrenterghem Y. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein activity and assimilation of tacrolimus in transplant patients with persistent diarrhea. Am J Transplant 2005; 5:1383-91.

Lemahieu WP, Hermann M, Asberg A et al. Combined therapy with atorvastatin and calcineurin inhibitors: no interactions with tacrolimus. Am J Transplant 2005; 5:2236-43.

Lemahieu WP, Maes BD, Ghoos Y, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y. Measurement of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4 and PGP activity by combined po + iv [14C]erythromycin breath and urine test. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2003; 285:470-82.

Lemahieu WP, Maes BD, Vanrenterghem Y. Different evolution of trough and dose levels during the first year after transplantation for tacrolimus versus cyclosporine. Transplant Proc 2005; 37:2051-3.

Lemahieu WP, Maes BD, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y. CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein activity in healthy controls and transplant patients on cyclosporin vs. tacrolimus vs. sirolimus. Am J Transplant 2004; 4:1514-22.

Lemahieu WP, Maes BD, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem YF. Alterations of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein activity in vivo with time in renal graft recipients. Kidney Int 2004; 66:433-40.

Lemahieu WP, Maes BD, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y. Impact of gastric acid suppressants on cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein: consequences for FK506 assimilation. Kidney Int 2005; 67:1152-60.

Lemaire G, Benod C, Nahoum V et al. Discovery of a highly active ligand of human pregnane x receptor: a case study from pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening to “in vivo” biological activity. Mol Pharmacol 2007; 72:572-81.

Lemaire G, de Sousa G, Rahmani R. A PXR reporter gene assay in a stable cell culture system: CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction by pesticides. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 68:2347-58.

Lemaire G, Mnif W, Pascussi JM et al. Identification of new human pregnane X receptor ligands among pesticides using a stable reporter cell system. Toxicol Sci 2006; 91:501-9.

Lennernäs H. Clinical pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:1141-60.

Lennestål R, Lakso HA, Nilsson M, Mjörndal T. Urine monitoring of diazepam abuse- new intake or not? J Anal Toxicol 2008; 32:402-7.

Lentz F, Tran A, Rey E, Pons G, Tréluyer JM. Pharmacogenomics of fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin in hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer: clinical implications. Am J Pharmacogenomics 2005; 5:21-33.

Leon J, Susce MT, Pan RM, Wedlund PJ, Orrego ML, Diaz FJ. A study of genetic (CYP2D6 and ABCB1) and environmental (drug inhibitors and inducers) variables that may influence plasma risperidone levels. Pharmacopsychiatry 2007; 40:93-102.

Lepper ER, Baker SD, Permenter M et al. Effect of common CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 variants on the pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P450 3A phenotyping probe midazolam in cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:7398-404.

Leskelä S, Honrado E, Montero-Conde C et al. Cytochrome P450 3A5 is highly expressed in normal prostate cells but absent in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 2007; 14:645-54.

Leskelä S, Jara C, Leandro-García LJ et al. Polymorphisms in cytochromes P450 2C8 and 3A5 are associated with paclitaxel neurotoxicity. Pharmacogenomics J 2011; 11:121-9.

Lessard E, Fortin A, Bélanger PM, Beaune P, Hamelin BA, Turgeon J. Role of CYP2D6 in the N-hydroxylation of procainamide. Pharmacogenetics 1997; 7:381-90.

Lévai F, Fejér E, Szeleczky G et al. In vitro formation of selegiline-N-oxide as a metabolite of selegiline in human, hamster, mouse, rat, guinea-pig, rabbit and dog. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004; 29:169-78.

Leveque D, Wisniewski S, Renault C et al. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of vinorelbine in the micropig. Anticancer Res 2003; 23:2741-4.

Levy RH. Cytochrome P450 isozymes and antiepileptic drug interactions. Epilepsia 1995; 36 Suppl 5:8-13.

Lewis CW, Smith JE, Anderson JG, Freshney RI. Increased cytotoxicity of food-borne mycotoxins toward human cell lines in vitro via enhanced cytochrome p450 expression using the MTT bioassay. Mycopathologia 1999; 148:97-102.

Lewis DF. Homology modelling of human cytochromes P450 involved in xenobiotic metabolism and rationalization of substrate selectivity. Exp Toxicol Pathol 1999; 51:369-74.

Lewis DF. On the recognition of mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 substrates and their characteristics: towards the prediction of human p450 substrate specificity and metabolism. Biochem Pharmacol 2000; 60:293-306.

Lewis DF, Eddershaw PJ, Goldfarb PS, Tarbit MH. Molecular modelling of CYP3A4 from an alignment with CYP102: identification of key interactions between putative active site residues and CYP3A-specific chemicals. Xenobiotica 1996; 26:1067-86.

Lewis DF, Ioannides C, Parke DV, Schulte-Hermann R. Quantitative structure-activity relationships in a series of endogenous and synthetic steroids exhibiting induction of CYP3A activity and hepatomegaly associated with increased DNA synthesis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2000; 74:179-85.

Lewis DF, Ito Y, Eddershaw PJ, Dickins M, Goldfarb PS. An evaluation of ondansetron binding interactions with human cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Drug Metab Lett 2010; 4:25-30.

Lewis DF, Lake BG. Molecular modelling and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on the interaction of omeprazole with cytochrome P450 isozymes. Toxicology 1998; 125:31-44.

Lewis DF, Lake BG, Dickins M. Quantitative structure-activity relationships within a homologous series of 7-alkoxyresorufins exhibiting activity towards CYP1A and CYP2B enzymes: molecular modelling studies on key members of the resorufin series with CYP2C5-derived models of human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:501-13.

Lewis DF, Lake BG, Dickins M, Goldfarb PS. Homology modelling of CYP3A4 from the CYP2C5 crystallographic template: analysis of typical CYP3A4 substrate interactions. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:549-69.

Lewis DF, Lake BG, Dickins M. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSars) in CYP3A4 inhibitors: the importance of lipophilic character and hydrogen bonding. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2006; 21:127-32.

Lewis DF, Modi S, Dickins M. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) within substrates of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug metabolism. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2001; 18:221-42.

Lewis DF, Ogg MS, Goldfarb PS, Gibson GG. Molecular modelling of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) by homology with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERalpha) LBD: quantitative structure-activity relationships within a series of CYP3A4 inducers where induction is mediated via hGR involvement. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2002; 82:195-9.

Lewis LD, Miller AA, Rosner GL et al. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel between African-American and Caucasian cancer patients: CALGB 9871. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:3302-11.

Lewis TA, Young MA, Arrington MP et al. Cetirizine and loratadine-based antihistamines with 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004; 14:5591-4.

Li AP, Jurima-Romet M. Applications of primary human hepatocytes in the evaluation of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions: evaluation of model drugs terfenadine and rifampin. Cell Biol Toxicol 1997; 13:365-74.

Li AP, Kaminski DL, Rasmussen A. Substrates of human hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4. Toxicology 1995; 104:1-8.

Li AP, Lu C, Brent JA et al. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes: characterization of drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and applications in higher throughput screening assays for hepatotoxicity, metabolic stability, and drug-drug interaction potential. Chem Biol Interact 1999; 121:17-35.

Li AP, Rasmussen A, Xu L, Kaminski DL. Rifampicin induction of lidocaine metabolism in cultured human hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274:673-7.

Li AP. Evaluation of luciferin-isopropyl acetal as a CYP3A4 substrate for human hepatocytes: effects of organic solvents, cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitors, and P450 inducers. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1598-603.

Li DN, Pritchard MP, Hanlon SP, Burchell B, Wolf CR, Friedberg T. Competition between cytochrome P-450 isozymes for NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase affects drug metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 289:661-7.

Li F, Wang L, Guo GL, Ma X. Metabolism-mediated drug interactions associated with ritonavir-boosted tipranavir in mice. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:871-8.

Li H, Asberom T, Bara TA et al. Discovery of 2,4,6-trisubstituted N-arylsulfonyl piperidines as gamma-secretase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007; 17:6290-4.

Li HY, Xu W, Zhang X, Zhang WD, Hu LW. Bufalin inhibits CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2009; 30:646-52.

Li J, Gödecke T, Chen SN et al. In vitro metabolic interactions between black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and tamoxifen via inhibition of cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4. Xenobiotica 2011. doi:10. 3109/00498254. 2011. 603385.

Li J, Liu Y, Zhang JW, Wei H, Yang L. Characterization of hepatic drug-metabolizing activities of Bama miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica): comparison with human enzyme analogs. Comp Med 2006; 56:286-90.

Li J, Zhao M, He P, Hidalgo M, Baker SD. Differential metabolism of gefitinib and erlotinib by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:3731-7.

Li KY, Li X, Cheng ZN, Li HD. Metabolic mechanism of quetiapine in vivo with clinical therapeutic dose. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2005; 27:83-6.

Li L, Stanton JD, Tolson AH, Luo Y, Wang H. Bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba extract induce the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes through pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways. Pharm Res 2009; 26:872-82.

Li Q, Huang HH, Dong Y, Zhong DF. Investigation on the hydroxylation metabolism of imrecoxib in vitro by using recombinant human CYPs. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2005; 40:912-5.

Li Q, Sai Y, Kato Y, Tamai I, Tsuji A. Influence of drugs and nutrients on transporter gene expression levels in Caco-2 and LS180 intestinal epithelial cell lines. Pharm Res 2003; 20:1119-24.

Li S, Hu ZH, Miao XH. Effects of chronic HBV infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2006; 86:2703-6.

Li S, Miao XH. Induction of CYP3A4 by 1alpha,25-dyhydroxyvitamin D3 in HepG2 cells. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2008; 16:220-3.

Li SX, Pequignot E, Panebianco D et al. Lack of effect of aprepitant on hydrodolasetron pharmacokinetics in CYP2D6 extensive and poor metabolizers. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46:792-801.

Li T, Chiang JY. Mechanism of rifampicin and pregnane X receptor inhibition of human cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene transcription. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2005; 288:74-84.

Li T, Chiang JY. Rifampicin induction of CYP3A4 requires pregnane X receptor cross talk with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha and coactivators, and suppression of small heterodimer partner gene expression. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:756-64.

Li W, Liu H, Luo X et al. Possible pathway(s) of metyrapone egress from the active site of cytochrome P450 3A4: a molecular dynamics simulation. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:689-96.

Li W, Liu Y, He YQ et al. Characterization of triptolide hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 in human and rat liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:1551-65.

Li X, Chen X, Li Q, Wang L, Zhong D. Validated method for rapid inhibition screening of six cytochrome P450 enzymes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 852:128-37.

Li X, He Y, Ruiz CH, Koenig M, Cameron MD, Vojkovsky T. Characterization of dasatinib and its structural analogs as CYP3A4 mechanism-based inactivators and the proposed bioactivation pathways. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1242-50.

Li X, Kamenecka TM, Cameron MD. Bioactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor gefitinib: implications for pulmonary and hepatic toxicities. Chem Res Toxicol 2009; 22:1736-42.

Li X, Kamenecka TM, Cameron MD. Cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib to a reactive electrophile. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1238-45.

Li X, Millson S, Coker R, Evans I. A sensitive bioassay for the mycotoxin aflatoxin B(1), which also responds to the mycotoxins aflatoxin G(1) and T-2 toxin, using engineered baker’s yeast. J Microbiol Methods 2009; 77:285-91.

Li X, Millson SH, Coker RD, Evans IH. Cloning and expression of Penicillium minioluteum dextranase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its exploitation as a reporter in the detection of mycotoxins. Biotechnol Lett 2006; 28:1955-64.

Li X, Yun JK, Choi JS. Effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics of etoposide in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2007; 28:151-6.

Li XQ, Andersson TB, Ahlström M, Weidolf L. Comparison of inhibitory effects of the proton pump-inhibiting drugs omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole on human cytochrome P450 activities. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:821-7.

Li XQ, Weidolf L, Simonsson R, Andersson TB. Enantiomer/enantiomer interactions between the S- and R- isomers of omeprazole in human cytochrome P450 enzymes: major role of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 315:777-87.

Li Y, Cui Y, Hart SN, Klaassen CD, Zhong XB. Dynamic patterns of histone methylation are associated with ontogenic expression of the Cyp3a genes during mouse liver maturation. Mol Pharmacol 2009; 75:1171-9.

Li Y, Ren G, Wang YX et al. Bioactivities of berberine metabolites after transformation through CYP450 isoenzymes. J Transl Med 2011; 9:62.

Li Y, Ross-Viola JS, Shay NF, Moore DD, Ricketts ML. Human CYP3A4 and murine Cyp3A11 are regulated by equol and genistein via the pregnane X receptor in a species-specific manner. J Nutr 2009; 139:898-904.

Li Y, Zhou D, Ferguson SS, Dorff P, Simpson TR, Grimm SW. In vitro assessment of metabolic drug–drug interaction potential of AZD2624, neurokinin-3 receptor antagonist, through cytochrome P(450) enzyme identification, inhibition, and induction studies. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:721-9.

Liangpunsakul S, Kolwankar D, Pinto A, Gorski JC, Hall SD, Chalasani N. Activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzymes in adults with moderate alcohol consumption: a comparison with nonalcoholics. Hepatology 2005; 41:1144-50.

Liao M, Faouzi S, Karyakin A, Correia MA. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: further characterization of cellular participants and structural determinants. Mol Pharmacol 2006; 69:1897-904.

Liao M, Zgoda VG, Murray BP, Correia MA. Vacuolar degradation of rat liver CYP2B1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: further validation of the yeast model and structural implications for the degradation of mammalian endoplasmic reticulum P450 proteins. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67:1460-9.

Lichti-Kaiser K, Staudinger JL. The traditional Chinese herbal remedy tian xian activates pregnane X receptor and induces CYP3A gene expression in hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1538-45.

Liddle C, Goodwin BJ, George J, Tapner M, Farrell GC. Separate and interactive regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by triiodothyronine, dexamethasone, and growth hormone in cultured hepatocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83:2411-6.

Lieber CS. Microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS): the first 30 years (1968-1998)-a review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1999; 23:991-1007.

Lieber CS. The discovery of the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and its physiologic and pathologic role. Drug Metab Rev 2004; 36:511-29.

Liederer BM, Phan KT, Ouyang H, Borchardt RT. Significant differences in the disposition of cyclic prodrugs of opioid peptides in rats and guinea pigs following IV administration. J Pharm Sci 2005; 94:2676-87.

Lieu C, Shi J, Donat F et al. Fondaparinux sodium is not metabolised in mammalian liver fractions and does not inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of concomitant drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41 Suppl 2:19-26.

Lilienfeld S. Galantamine-a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev 2002; 8:159-76.

Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam-probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81:833-9.

Lilja JJ, Kivistö KT, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of grapefruit juice dose on grapefruit juice-triazolam interaction: repeated consumption prolongs triazolam half-life. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56:411-5.

Lilja JJ, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice-simvastatin interaction: effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:477-83.

Lilja JJ, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Grapefruit juice increases serum concentrations of atorvastatin and has no effect on pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:118-27.

Lilja JJ, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Duration of effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate simvastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:384-90.

Lilja JJ, Neuvonen M, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of regular consumption of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 58:56-60.

Lill MA, Dobler M, Vedani A. Prediction of small-molecule binding to cytochrome P450 3A4: flexible docking combined with multidimensional QSAR. ChemMedChem 2006; 1:73-81.

Lillibridge JH, Liang BH, Kerr BM et al. Characterization of the selectivity and mechanism of human cytochrome P450 inhibition by the human immunodeficiency virus-protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:609-16.

Lim HK, Duczak N Jr, Brougham L, Elliot M, Patel K, Chan K. Automated screening with confirmation of mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2 in pooled human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1211-9.

Lim ML, Min SS, Eron JJ et al. Coadministration of lopinavir/ritonavir and phenytoin results in two-way drug interaction through cytochrome P-450 induction. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 36:1034-40.

Lim PL, Tan W, Latchoumycandane C et al. Molecular and functional characterization of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporter expression in the novel spontaneously immortalized human hepatocyte line HC-04. Toxicol In Vitro 2007; 21:1390-401.

Lim YP, Huang JD. Pregnane X receptor polymorphism affects CYP3A4 induction via a ligand-dependent interaction with steroid receptor coactivator-1. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2007; 17:369-82.

Lim YP, Kuo SC, Lai ML, Huang JD. Inhibition of CYP3A4 expression by ketoconazole is mediated by the disruption of pregnane X receptor, steroid receptor coactivator-1, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha interaction. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2009; 19:11-24.

Lim YP, Liu CH, Shyu LJ, Huang JD. Functional characterization of a novel polymorphism of pregnane X receptor, Q158K, in Chinese subjects. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005; 15:337-41.

Lim YW, Goh BC, Wang LZ et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel with or without ketoconazole modulation in chemonaive breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol 2010; 21:2175-82.

Limke KK, Shelton AR, Elliott ES. Fluvoxamine interaction with warfarin. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36:1890-2.

Lin CC, Fang C, Benetton S, Xu GF, Yeh LT. Metabolic activation of pradefovir by CYP3A4 and its potential as an inhibitor or inducer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50:2926-31.

Lin CC, Yeh LT, Vitarella D, Hong Z, Erion MD. Remofovir mesylate: a prodrug of PMEA with improved liver-targeting and safety in rats and monkeys. Antivir Chem Chemother 2004; 15:307-17.

Lin HL, Zhang H, Hollenberg PF. Metabolic activation of mifepristone [RU486; 17beta-hydroxy-11beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-17alpha-(1-propynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one] by mammalian cytochromes P450 and the mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2B6. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009; 329:26-37.

Lin JH. Drug-drug interaction mediated by inhibition and induction of P-glycoprotein. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2003; 55:53-81.

Lin JH, Chen IW, Chiba M, Nishime JA, Deluna FA. Route-dependent nonlinear pharmacokinetics of a novel HIV protease inhibitor: involvement of enzyme inactivation. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:460-6.

Lin JH, Chiba M, Balani SK et al. Species differences in the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of indinavir, a potent human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:1111-20.

Lin JH, Yamazaki M. Role of P-glycoprotein in pharmacokinetics: clinical implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:59-98.

Lin LS, Lanza T, Jewell JP et al. Discovery of N-{N-[(3-cyanophenyl)sulfonyl]-4(R)-cyclobutylamino-(L)-prolyl}-4-[(3’,5’-dichloroisonicotinoyl) amino]-(L)-phenylalanine (MK-0668), an extremely potent and orally active antagonist of very late antigen-4. J Med Chem 2009; 52:3449-52.

Lin T, Pan K, Mordenti J, Pan L. In vitro assessment of cytochrome P450 inhibition: strategies for increasing LC/MS-based assay throughput using a one-point IC(50) method and multiplexing high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Sci 2007; 96:2485-93.

Lin W, Wu J, Dong H, Bouck D, Zeng FY, Chen T. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 negatively regulates human pregnane X receptor-mediated CYP3A4 gene expression in HepG2 liver carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem 2008; 283:30650-7.

Lin Y, Anderson GD, Kantor E, Ojemann LM, Wilensky AJ. Differences in the urinary excretion of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol between Asian and Caucasian women. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:578-82.

Lin YH, Peng FC. Predicting the contribution of rat cytochrome P-450 3A1, 3A2 and human cytochrome P-450 3A4, 3A5 to territrem a 4beta-C hydroxylation using the relative activity factor. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2008; 71:1407-14.

Lin YK, Sheu MT, Tzen TZ, Ho HO. Biotransformation of sildenafil in the male rat: evaluation of drug interactions with testosterone and carbamazepine. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008; 34:1219-26.

Lin YS, Dowling AL, Quigley SD et al. Co-regulation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and contribution to hepatic and intestinal midazolam metabolism. Mol Pharmacol 2002; 62:162-72.

Lin YS, Yasuda K, Assem M et al. The major human pregnane X receptor (PXR) splice variant, PXR. 2, exhibits significantly diminished ligand-activated transcriptional regulation. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1295-304.

Lind JS, Dingemans AM, Groen HJ et al. A multicenter, phase II study of erlotinib and sorafenib in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16:3078-87.

Lindell M, Karlsson MO, Lennernäs H, Påhlman L, Lang MA. Variable expression of CYP and Pgp genes in the human small intestine. Eur J Clin Invest 2003; 33:493-9.

Lindh JD, Annas A, Meurling L, Dahl ML, AL-Shurbaji A. Effect of ketoconazole on venlafaxine plasma concentrations in extensive and poor metabolisers of debrisoquine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:401-6.

Lindley C, Hamilton G, McCune JS et al. The effect of cyclophosphamide with and without dexamethasone on cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2B6 in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:814-22.

Liou YH, Lin CT, Wu YJ, Wu LS. The high prevalence of the poor and ultrarapid metabolite alleles of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 in Taiwanese population. J Hum Genet 2006; 51:857-63.

Lipscomb JC, Garrett CM, Snawder JE. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of trichloroethylene: interindividual differences in humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997; 142:311-8.

Liptrott NJ, Khoo SH, Back DJ, Owen A. Detection of ABCC2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 2008; 339:270-4.

Liptrott NJ, Penny M, Bray Pg et al. The impact of cytokines on the expression of drug transporters, cytochrome P450 enzymes and chemokine receptors in human PBMC. Br J Pharmacol 2009; 156:497-508.

Litalien C, Théorêt Y, Faure C. Pharmacokinetics of proton pump inhibitors in children. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:441-66.

Liu CH, Peck K, Huang JD et al. Screening CYP3A single nucleotide polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population with a genotyping chip. Pharmacogenomics 2005; 6:731-47.

Liu D, Gao Y, Wang H et al. Evaluation of the effects of cytochrome P450 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms on tanshinol borneol ester metabolism and inhibition potential. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:2259-65.

Liu DQ, Karanam BV, Doss GA, Sidler RR, Vincent SH, Hop CE. In vitro metabolism of MK-0767 [(+/-)-5-[(2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-yl)methyl]-2-methoxy-N-[[(4-trifluoromethyl)-phenyl] methyl]benzamide], a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist. II. Identification of metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1023-31.

Liu DY, Zhu HJ, Zheng YF, Zhu XQ. Human pregnane X receptor-mediated transcriptional regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by some phytochemicals. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2006; 35:8-13.

Liu DY, Zhu HJ, Zheng YF, Zhu XQ. Kaempferol activates human steroid and xenobiotic receptor-mediated cytochrome P450 3A4 transcription. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2006; 35:14-7.

Liu FJ, Song X, Yang D, Deng R, Yan B. The far and distal enhancers in the CYP3A4 gene co-ordinate the proximal promoter in responding similarly to the pregnane X receptor but differentially to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha. Biochem J 2008; 409:243-50.

Liu KH, Kim MG, Lee DJ et al. Characterization of ebastine, hydroxyebastine, and carebastine metabolism by human liver microsomes and expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes: major roles for CYP2J2 and CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1793-7.

Liu KH, Kim MJ, Jeon BH et al. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 isoforms and NADPH-CYP reductase in vitro by 15 herbal medicines, including Epimedii herba. J Clin Pharm Ther 2006; 31:83-91.

Liu KH, Lee YM, Shon JH et al. Potential of pranlukast and zafirlukast in the inhibition of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:429-38.

Liu KH, Kim MJ, Shon JH et al. Stereoselective inhibition of cytochrome P450 forms by lansoprazole and omeprazole in vitro. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:27-38.

Liu L, Yang L, Zhang YC, Ai XF, Wang JX, Xiao ZJ. Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes genes in a Han Chinese population. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2009; 89:2675-81.

Liu P, Foster G, LaBadie RR, Gutierrez MJ, Sharma A. Pharmacokinetic interaction between voriconazole and efavirenz at steady state in healthy male subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 48:73-84.

Liu S, Frye RF, Branch RA, Venkataramanan R, Fung JJ, Burckart GJ. Effect of age and postoperative time on cytochrome p450 enzyme activity following liver transplantation. J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 45:666-73.

Liu Y, Ji W, Yin Y et al. The effects of splicing variant of PXR PAR-2 on CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA expressions. Clin Chim Acta 2009; 403:142-4.

Liu Y, Ma H, Zhang JW, Deng MC, Yang L. Influence of ginsenoside Rh1 and F1 on human cytochrome p450 enzymes. Planta Med 2006; 72:126-31.

Liu Y, Zeng BH, Shang HT, Cen YY, Wei H. Bama miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) as a model for drug evaluation for humans: comparison of in vitro metabolism and in vivo pharmacokinetics of lovastatin. Comp Med 2008; 58:580-7.

Liu Y, Zhang JW, Li W et al. Ginsenoside metabolites, rather than naturally occurring ginsenosides, lead to inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Toxicol Sci 2006; 91:356-64.

Liu YT, Hao HP, Liu CX, Wang GJ, Xie HG. Drugs as CYP3A probes, inducers, and inhibitors. Drug Metab Rev 2007; 39:699-721.

Liu Z, Mortimer O, Smith CA, Wolf CR, Rane A. Evidence for a role of cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 in ethylmorphine metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 39:77-80.

Liu ZQ, Shu Y, Huang SL, Wang LS, He N, Zhou HH. Effects of CYP2C19 genotype and CYP2C9 on fluoxetine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2001; 22:85-90.

Liu ZQ, Zhu B, Tan YF et al. O-Dealkylation of fluoxetine in relation to CYP2C19 gene dose and involvement of CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 300:105-11.

Liu ZW, Hu ZH, Cai YY. The combined effect of isoniazid and rifampicin on the activities of CYP4501A2 and CYP4503A4 in primary hepatocytes from healthy human adults. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2005; 28:785-8.

Locuson CW, Hutzler JM, Tracy TS. Visible spectra of type II cytochrome P450-drug complexes: evidence that “incomplete” heme coordination is common. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:614-22.

Loh PT, Lou HX, Zhao Y, Chin YM, Vathsala A. Significant impact of gene polymorphisms on tacrolimus but not cyclosporine dosing in Asian renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2008; 40:1690-5.

Loos WJ, de Wit R, Freedman SJ et al. Aprepitant when added to a standard antiemetic regimen consisting of ondansetron and dexamethasone does not affect vinorelbine pharmacokinetics in cancer patients. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2007; 59:407-12.

Lopes de Campos WR, Coopusamy D, Morris L, Mayosi BM, Khati M. Cytotoxicological analysis of a gp120 binding aptamer with cross-clade human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry inhibition properties: comparison to conventional antiretrovirals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:3056-64.

Lopes LF, Piccoli Fde S, Paixão VA et al. Association of CYP3A4 genotype with detection of Vgamma/Jbeta trans-rearrangements in the peripheral blood leukocytes of pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy for ALL. Leuk Res 2004; 28:1281-6.

Lorusso P, Heath EI, McGreivy J et al. Effect of coadministration of ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, on pharmacokinetics and tolerability of motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) in patients with advanced solid tumors. Invest New Drugs 2008; 26:455-62.

Loukola A, Chadha M, Penn SG et al. Comprehensive evaluation of the association between prostate cancer and genotypes/haplotypes in CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and SRD5A2. Eur J Hum Genet 2004; 12:321-32.

Low SK, Kiyotani K, Mushiroda T, Daigo Y, Nakamura Y, Zembutsu H. Association study of genetic polymorphism in ABCC4 with cyclophosphamide-induced adverse drug reactions in breast cancer patients. J Hum Genet 2009; 54:564-71.

Lown KS, Bailey DG, Fontana RJ et al. Grapefruit juice increases felodipine oral availability in humans by decreasing intestinal CYP3A protein expression. J Clin Invest 1997; 99:2545-53.

Lown KS, Ghosh M, Watkins PB. Sequences of intestinal and hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 cDNAs are identical. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:185-7.

Lown KS, Kolars JC, Thummel KE et al. Interpatient heterogeneity in expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in small bowel. Lack of prediction by the erythromycin breath test. Drug Metab Dispos 1994; 22:947-55.

Lown KS, Mayo RR, Leichtman AB et al. Role of intestinal P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in interpatient variation in the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:248-60.

Lown KS, Thummel KE, Benedict PE et al. The erythromycin breath test predicts the clearance of midazolam. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995; 57:16-24.

Lowry JA, Kearns GL, Abdel-Rahman SM et al. Cisapride: a potential model substrate to assess cytochrome P4503A4 activity in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 73:209-22.

Lu AH, Shu Y, Huang SL, Wang W, Ou-Yang DS, Zhou HH. In vitro proguanil activation to cycloguanil is mediated by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in adult Chinese liver microsomes. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2000; 21:747-52.

Lu C, Balani SK, Qian MG, Prakash SR, Ducray PS, von Moltke LL. Quantitative prediction and clinical observation of a CYP3A inhibitor-based drug-drug interactions with MLN3897, a potent C-C chemokine receptor-1 antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010; 332:562-8.

Lu C, Berg C, Prakash SR, Lee FW, Balani SK. Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions using human hepatocyte suspension in plasma and cytochrome P450 phenotypic data. III. In vitro-in vivo correlation with fluconazole. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1261-6.

Lu C, Gallegos R, Li P et al. Investigation of drug-drug interaction potential of bortezomib in vivo in female Sprague-Dawley rats and in vitro in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:702-8.

Lu C, Miwa GT, Prakash SR, Gan LS, Balani SK. A novel model for the prediction of drug-drug interactions in humans based on in vitro cytochrome p450 phenotypic data. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:79-85.

Lu H, Chen CS, Waxman DJ. Potentiation of methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin antitumor activity by P450 3A4 gene transfer. Cancer Gene Ther 2009; 16:393-404.

Lu H, Wang JJ, Chan KK, Philip PA. Stereoselectivity in metabolism of ifosfamide by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:367-85.

Lu H, Waxman DJ. Antitumor activity of methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin: potentiation by cytochrome P450 3A metabolism. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67:212-9.

Lu P, Lin Y, Rodrigues AD, Rushmore TH, Baillie TA, Shou M. Testosterone, 7-benzyloxyquinoline, and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin bind to different domains within the active site of cytochrome P450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1473-9.

Lu P, Schrag ML, Slaughter DE, Raab CE, Shou M, Rodrigues AD. Mechanism-based inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 1A2 by zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1352-60.

Lu T, Markotan T, Ballentine SK et al. Discovery and clinical evaluation of 1-{N-[2-(amidinoaminooxy)ethyl]amino}carbonylmethyl-6-methyl-3-[2,2-difluoro-2-phenylethylamino]pyrazinone (RWJ-671818), a thrombin inhibitor with an oxyguanidine P1 motif. J Med Chem 2010; 53:1843-56.

Lucas D, Ferrara R, Gonzalez E et al. Chlorzoxazone, a selective probe for phenotyping CYP2E1 in humans. Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9:377-88.

Lucas MC, Carter DS, Cai HY et al. Novel, achiral aminoheterocycles as selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:4630-3.

Lucas RA, Gilfillan DJ, Bergstrom RF. A pharmacokinetic interaction between carbamazepine and olanzapine: observations on possible mechanism. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:639-43.

Luke NS, Devito MJ, Shah I, El-Masri HA. Development of a quantitative model of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) mediated xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme induction. Bull Math Biol 2010; 72:1799-819.

Lukkari E, Juhakoski A, Aranko K, Neuvonen PJ. Itraconazole moderately increases serum concentrations of oxybutynin but does not affect those of the active metabolite. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 52:403-6.

Lukkari E, Taavitsainen P, Juhakoski A, Pelkonen O. Cytochrome P450 specificity of metabolism and interactions of oxybutynin in human liver microsomes. Pharmacol Toxicol 1998; 82:161-6.

Luo G, Cunningham M, Kim S et al. CYP3A4 induction by drugs: correlation between a pregnane X receptor reporter gene assay and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:795-804.

Luo G, Guenthner T, Gan LS, Humphreys WG. CYP3A4 induction by xenobiotics: biochemistry, experimental methods and impact on drug discovery and development. Curr Drug Metab 2004; 5:483-505.

Luo G, Lin J, Fiske WD et al. Concurrent induction and mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4 by an L-valinamide derivative. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1170-5.

Luo JP, Vashishtha SC, Hawes EM, McKay G, Midha KK, Fang J. In vitro identification of the human cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of loxapine. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2011; 32:398-407.

Luoma PV. Cytochrome P450 and gene activation-from pharmacology to cholesterol elimination and regression of atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:841-50.

Luque CA, Rey JA. Sibutramine: a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake-inhibitor for the treatment of obesity. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33:968-78.

Lütjohann D, Marinova M, Schneider B et al. 4beta-hydroxycholesterol as a marker of CYP3A4 inhibition in vivo – effects of itraconazole in man. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 47:709-15.

Lutz ES, Markling ME, Masimirembwa CM. Monolithic silica rod liquid chromatography with ultraviolet or fluorescence detection for metabolite analysis of cytochrome P450 marker reactions. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2002; 780:205-15.

Lutz U, Bittner N, Ufer M, Lutz WK. Quantification of cortisol and 6 beta-hydroxycortisol in human urine by LC-MS/MS, and gender-specific evaluation of the metabolic ratio as biomarker of CYP3A activity. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010; 878:97-101.

Luurila H, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:163-6.

Luurila H, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Lack of interaction of erythromycin with temazepam. Ther Drug Monit 1994; 16:548-51.

Luurila H, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Interaction between erythromycin and nitrazepam in healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Toxicol 1995; 76:255-8.

Lynch T, Price A. The effect of cytochrome P450 metabolism on drug response, interactions, and adverse effects. Am Fam Physician 2007; 76:391-6.

Lytton SD, Berg U, Nemeth A, Ingelman-Sundberg M. Autoantibodies against cytochrome P450s in sera of children treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Clin Exp Immunol 2002; 127:293-302.

Lytton SD, Helander A, Zhang-Gouillon ZQ et al. Autoantibodies against cytochromes P-4502E1 and P-4503A in alcoholics. Mol Pharmacol 1999; 55:223-33.

Ma B, Polsky-Fisher SL, Vickers S, Cui D, Rodrigues AD. Cytochrome P450 3A-dependent metabolism of a potent and selective gamma-aminobutyric acid Aalpha2/3 receptor agonist in vitro: involvement of cytochrome P450 3A5 displaying biphasic kinetics. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1301-7.

Ma B, Prueksaritanont T, Lin JH. Drug interactions with calcium channel blockers: possible involvement of metabolite-intermediate complexation with CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:125-30.

Ma MK, McLeod HL. Lessons learned from the irinotecan metabolic pathway. Curr Med Chem 2003; 10:41-9.

Ma Q, Forrest A, Rosenkranz SL et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between efavirenz and dual protease inhibitors in healthy volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2008; 29:91-101.

Ma X, Cheung C, Krausz KW et al. A double transgenic mouse model expressing human pregnane X receptor and cytochrome P450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2506-12.

Ma X, Shah YM, Guo GL et al. Rifaximin is a gut-specific human pregnane X receptor activator. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 322:391-8.

Ma Y, Sachdeva K, Liu J et al. Desmethoxyyangonin and dihydromethysticin are two major pharmacological kavalactones with marked activity on the induction of CYP3A23. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1317-24.

Macé K, Aguilar F, Wang JS et al. Aflatoxin B1-induced DNA adduct formation and p53 mutations in CYP450-expressing human liver cell lines. Carcinogenesis 1997; 18:1291-7.

Macé K, Bowman ED, Vautravers P, Shields PG, Harris CC, Pfeifer AM. Characterisation of xenobiotic-metabolising enzyme expression in human bronchial mucosa and peripheral lung tissues. Eur J Cancer 1998; 34:914-20.

Machinist JM, Mayer MD, Shet MS, Ferrero JL, Rodrigues AD. Identification of the human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of zileuton (ABT-077) and its N-dehydroxylated metabolite, Abbott-66193. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:1163-74.

Madabushi R, Frank B, Drewelow B, Derendorf H, Butterweck V. Hyperforin in St. John’s wort drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:225-33.

Madan A, Fisher A, Jin L, Chapman D, Bozigian HP. In vitro metabolism of indiplon and an assessment of its drug interaction potential. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:736-52.

Madan A, Graham RA, Carroll KM et al. Effects of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers on cytochrome P450 expression in cultured human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:421-31.

Madan A, Parkinson A, Faiman MD. Identification of the human and rat P450 enzymes responsible for the sulfoxidation of S-methyl N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate (DETC-ME). The terminal step in the bioactivation of disulfiram. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:1153-62.

Madan A, Parkinson A, Faiman MD. Identification of the human P-450 enzymes responsible for the sulfoxidation and thiono-oxidation of diethyldithiocarbamate methyl ester: role of P-450 enzymes in disulfiram bioactivation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998; 22:1212-9.

Madgula VL, Ali Z, Smillie T, Khan IA, Walker LA, Khan SI. Alkaloids and saponins as cytochrome P450 inhibitors from blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) in an in vitro assay. Planta Med 2009; 75:329-32.

Madgula VL, Avula B, Pawar RS et al. In vitro metabolic stability and intestinal transport of P57AS3 (P57) from Hoodia gordonii and its interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes. Planta Med 2008; 74:1269-75.

Madgula VL, Avula B, Pawar RS et al. Characterization of in vitro pharmacokinetic properties of hoodigogenin A from Hoodia gordonii. Planta Med 2010; 76:62-9.

Madsen H, Rasmussen BB, Brøsen K. Imipramine demethylation in vivo: impact of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 61:319-24.

Mae T, Hosoe K, Fujii K et al. In vitro metabolism of a rifamycin derivative by animal and human liver microsomes, whole blood and expressed human CYP3A isoform. Xenobiotica 1996; 26:793-802.

Mae T, Inaba T, Konishi E, Hosoe K, Hidaka T. Identification of enzymes responsible for rifalazil metabolism in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:565-74.

Maekawa K, Yoshimura T, Saito Y et al. Functional characterization of CYP3A4. 16: catalytic activities toward midazolam and carbamazepine. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:140-7.

Mäenpää J, Hall SD, Ring BJ, Strom SC, Wrighton SA. Human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated midazolam metabolism: the effect of assay conditions and regioselective stimulation by alpha-naphthoflavone, terfenadine and testosterone. Pharmacogenetics 1998; 8:137-55.

Mäenpää J, Pelkonen O, Cresteil T, Rane A. The role of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoform(s) in oxidative metabolism of testosterone and benzphetamine in human adult and fetal liver. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993; 44:61-7.

Maezawa K, Matsunaga T, Takezawa T, Kanai M, Ohira S, Ohmori S. Cytochrome P450 3As gene expression and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity in human fetal membranes and placenta at full term. Biol Pharm Bull 2010; 33:249-54.

Magnusson MO, Dahl ML, Cederberg J, Karlsson MO, Sandström R. Pharmacodynamics of carbamazepine-mediated induction of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and Pgp as assessed by probe substrates midazolam, caffeine, and digoxin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84:52-62.

Mahato RI, Narang AS, Thoma L, Miller DD. Emerging trends in oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2003; 20:153-214.

Mahatthanatrakul W, Nontaput T, Ridtitid W, Wongnawa M, Sunbhanich M. Rifampin, a cytochrome P450 3A inducer, decreases plasma concentrations of antipsychotic risperidone in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharm Ther 2007; 32:161-7.

Mahéo K, Morel F, Langouët S et al. Inhibition of cytochromes P-450 and induction of glutathione S-transferases by sulforaphane in primary human and rat hepatocytes. Cancer Res 1997; 57:3649-52.

Mahungu T, Smith C, Turner F et al. Cytochrome P450 2B6 516G→T is associated with plasma concentrations of nevirapine at both 200 mg twice daily and 400 mg once daily in an ethnically diverse population. HIV Med 2009; 10:310-7.

Maier A, Zimmermann C, Beglinger C, Drewe J, Gutmann H. Effects of budesonide on P-glycoprotein expression in intestinal cell lines. Br J Pharmacol 2007; 150:361-8.

Majumdar AK, McCrea JB, Panebianco DL et al. Effects of aprepitant on cytochrome P450 3A4 activity using midazolam as a probe. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 74:150-6.

Majumdar AK, Yan KX, Selverian DV et al. Effect of aprepitant on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous midazolam. J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 47:744-50.

Makino T, Mizuno F, Mizukami H. Does a kampo medicine containing schisandra fruit affect pharmacokinetics of nifedipine like grapefruit juice? Biol Pharm Bull 2006; 29:2065-9.

Malaty LI, Kuper JJ. Drug interactions of HIV protease inhibitors. Drug Saf 1999; 20:147-69.

Malhotra B, Guan Z, Wood N, Gandelman K. Pharmacokinetic profile of fesoterodine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 46:556-63.

Malhotra B, Sachse R, Wood N. Evaluation of drug-drug interactions with fesoterodine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65:551-60.

Malhotra BK, Wood N, Sachse R. Influence of age, gender, and race on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of fesoterodine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 47:570-8.

Malhotra S, Bailey DG, Paine MF, Watkins PB. Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69:14-23.

Malinowski JM. Atorvastatin: a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1998; 55:2253-67.

Malireddy SR, Pinto AG, Chalasani NP, Gorski JC, Hall SD. Altered first-pass effects in a liver transplant recipient explained intraindividual variation in calcineurin inhibitor concentrations: a case report. Transplant Proc 2008; 40:1789-91.

Mallolas J, Sarasa M, Nomdedeu M et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rifampicin and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in HIV-infected patients. HIV Med 2007; 8:131-4.

Malmström RE, Ostergren J, Jørgensen L, Hjemdahl P; CASTOR investigators. Influence of statin treatment on platelet inhibition by clopidogrel – a randomized comparison of rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin co-treatment. J Intern Med 2009; 266:457-66.

Mandlekar SV, Rose AV, Cornelius G et al. Development of an in vivo rat screen model to predict pharmacokinetic interactions of CYP3A4 substrates. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:923-42.

Manga N, Duffy JC, Rowe PH, Cronin MT. Structure-based methods for the prediction of the dominant P450 enzyme in human drug biotransformation: consideration of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2D6. SAR QSAR Environ Res 2005; 16:43-61.

Mangano NG, Cutuli VM, Caruso A, de Bernardis E, Amico-Roxas M. Grapefruit juice effects on the bioavailability of cyclosporin-A in rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2001; 5:1-6.

Mani S, Huang H, Sundarababu S et al. Activation of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (human pregnane X receptor) by nontaxane microtubule-stabilizing agents. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:6359-69.

Manimaran A, Sarkar SN, Sankar P. Influence of repeated preexposure to arsenic on acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress in liver of male rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48:605-10.

Mannel M. Drug interactions with St John’s wort: mechanisms and clinical implications. Drug Saf 2004; 27:773-97.

Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Klungel OH, Schalekamp T, Verschuren WM, Porsius AJ, de Boer A. Suboptimal choices and dosing of statins at start of therapy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:83-9.

Manthey JA, Buslig BS. Distribution of furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice fractions. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53:5158-63.

Manyike PT, Kharasch ED, Kalhorn TF, Slattery JT. Contribution of CYP2E1 and CYP3A to acetaminophen reactive metabolite formation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67:275-82.

Mao B, Gozalbes R, Barbosa F et al. QSAR modeling of in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4. J Chem Inf Model 2006; 46:2125-34.

Mao W, Rupasinghe S, Zangerl AR, Schuler MA, Berenbaum MR. Remarkable substrate-specificity of CYP6AB3 in Depressaria pastinacella, a highly specialized caterpillar. Insect Mol Biol 2006; 15:169-79.

Marathe P, Tang Y, Sleczka B et al. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and in vitro metabolism of BMS-690514, a potent inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR2. J Pharm Sci 2010; 99:3579-93.

Maréchal JD, Kemp CA, Roberts GC, Paine MJ, Wolf CR, Sutcliffe MJ. Insights into drug metabolism by cytochromes P450 from modelling studies of CYP2D6-drug interactions. Br J Pharmacol 2008; 153 Suppl 1:82-9.

Maréchal JD, Sutcliffe MJ. Insights into drug metabolism from modelling studies of cytochrome P450-drug interactions. Curr Top Med Chem 2006; 6:1619-26.

Marechal JD, Yu J, Brown S et al. In silico and in vitro screening for inhibition of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 by comedications commonly used by patients with cancer. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:534-8.

Margolis JM, O’Donnell JP, Mankowski DC, Ekins S, Obach RS. (R)-, (S)-, and racemic fluoxetine N-demethylation by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1187-91.

Marí M, Cederbaum AI. Induction of catalase, alpha, and microsomal glutathione S-transferase in CYP2E1 overexpressing HepG2 cells and protection against short-term oxidative stress. Hepatology 2001; 33:652-61.

MARIE-GENICA Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility for Menopausal Hormone Therapy Related Breast Cancer Risk. Genetic polymorphisms in phase I and phase II enzymes and breast cancer risk associated with menopausal hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010; 119:463-74.

Marill J, Cresteil T, Lanotte M, Chabot GG. Identification of human cytochrome P450s involved in the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid principal metabolites. Mol Pharmacol 2000; 58:1341-8.

Marinec PS, Lancia JK, Gestwicki JE. Bifunctional molecules evade cytochrome P(450) metabolism by forming protective complexes with FK506-binding protein. Mol Biosyst 2008; 4:571-8.

Marino MR, Vachharajani NN. Drug interactions with irbesartan. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:605-14.

Markowitz JS, Devane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Ruan Y, Donovan JL. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 74:170-7.

Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, Devane CL et al. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 74:536-42.

Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Sipkes L, Chavin KD. Multiple-dose administration of Ginkgo biloba did not affect cytochrome P-450 2D6 or 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003; 23:576-81.

Marques LP, Cavaco I, Pinheiro JP, Ribeiro V, Ferreira GN. Electrochemical DNA sensor for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003; 41:475-81.

Marques MP, Coelho EB, Dos Santos NA, Geleilete TJ, Lanchote VL. Dynamic and kinetic disposition of nisoldipine enantiomers in hypertensive patients presenting with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 58:607-14.

Marschall HU, Wagner M, Zollner G et al. Complementary stimulation of hepatobiliary transport and detoxification systems by rifampicin and ursodeoxycholic acid in humans. Gastroenterology 2005; 129:476-85.

Marsh S, Paul J, King CR, Gifford G, McLeod HL, Brown R. Pharmacogenetic assessment of toxicity and outcome after platinum plus taxane chemotherapy in ovarian cancer: the Scottish Randomised Trial in Ovarian Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:4528-35.

Marsh S, Somlo G, Li X et al. Pharmacogenetic analysis of paclitaxel transport and metabolism genes in breast cancer. Pharmacogenomics J 2007; 7:362-5.

Martens-Lobenhoffer J, Reiche I, Tröger U, Mönkemüller K, Malfertheiner P, Bode-Böger SM. Enantioselective quantification of omeprazole and its main metabolites in human serum by chiral HPLC-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 857:301-7.

Martin DE, Zussman BD, Everitt DE, Benincosa LJ, Etheredge RC, Jorkasky DK. Paroxetine does not affect the cardiac safety and pharmacokinetics of terfenadine in healthy adult men. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 17:451-9.

Martin H, Sarsat JP, Lerche-Langrand C et al. Morphological and biochemical integrity of human liver slices in long-term culture: effects of oxygen tension. Cell Biol Toxicol 2002; 18:73-85.

Martin J, Krum H. Cytochrome P450 drug interactions within the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor class: are they clinically relevant? Drug Saf 2003; 26:13-21.

Martin P, Riley R, Back DJ, Owen A. Comparison of the induction profile for drug disposition proteins by typical nuclear receptor activators in human hepatic and intestinal cells. Br J Pharmacol 2008; 153:805-19.

Martínez C, Albet C, Agúndez JA et al. Comparative in vitro and in vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A by H2-receptor antagonists. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 65:369-76.

Martínez C, García-Martín E, Pizarro RM, García-Gamito FJ, Agúndez JA. Expression of paclitaxel-inactivating CYP3A activity in human colorectal cancer: implications for drug therapy. Br J Cancer 2002; 87:681-6.

Martínez-Jiménez CP, Castell JV, Gómez-Lechón MJ, Jover R. Transcriptional activation of CYP2C9, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha requires coactivators peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha and steroid receptor coactivator 1. Mol Pharmacol 2006; 70:1681-92.

Martínez-Jiménez CP, Gómez-Lechón MJ, Castell JV, Jover R. Transcriptional regulation of the human hepatic CYP3A4: identification of a new distal enhancer region responsive to CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta isoforms (liver activating protein and liver inhibitory protein). Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67:2088-101.

Martínez-Jiménez CP, Jover R, Donato MT, Castell JV, Gómez-Lechón MJ. Transcriptional regulation and expression of CYP3A4 in hepatocytes. Curr Drug Metab 2007; 8:185-94.

Marull M, Rochat B. Fragmentation study of imatinib and characterization of new imatinib metabolites by liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole and linear ion trap mass spectrometers. J Mass Spectrom 2006; 41:390-404.

Maruyama M, Matsunaga T, Harada E, Ohmori S. Comparison of basal gene expression and induction of CYP3As in HepG2 and human fetal liver cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30:2091-7.

Masek V, Anzenbacherová E, Machová M, Brabec V, Anzenbacher P. Interaction of antitumor platinum complexes with human liver microsomal cytochromes P450. Anticancer Drugs 2009; 20:305-11.

Massaro AM, Lenz KL. Aprepitant: a novel antiemetic for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:77-85.

Massart F, Marcucci G, Brandi ML. Pharmacogenetics of bone treatments: the VDR and ERalpha gene story. Pharmacogenomics 2008; 9:733-46.

Masubuchi Y, Hosokawa S, Horie T et al. Cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in propranolol metabolism in human liver microsomes. The role of CYP2D6 as ring-hydroxylase and CYP1A2 as N-desisopropylase. Drug Metab Dispos 1994; 22:909-15.

Masubuchi Y, Nakano T, Ose A, Horie T. Differential selectivity in carbamazepine-induced inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat and human liver. Arch Toxicol 2001; 75:538-43.

Masubuchi Y, Ose A, Horie T. Diclofenac-induced inactivation of CYP3A4 and its stimulation by quinidine. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1143-8.

Masuda S, Goto M, Kiuchi T et al. Enhanced expression of enterocyte P-glycoprotein depresses cyclosporine bioavailability in a recipient of living donor liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2003; 9:1108-13.

Masuda S, Goto M, Okuda M et al. Initial dosage adjustment for oral administration of tacrolimus using the intestinal MDR1 level in living-donor liver transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2005; 37:1728-9.

Masuda S, Inui K. An up-date review on individualized dosage adjustment of calcineurin inhibitors in organ transplant patients. Pharmacol Ther 2006; 112:184-98.

Masuda S, Uemoto S, Goto M, Fujimoto Y, Tanaka K, Inui K. Tacrolimus therapy according to mucosal MDR1 levels in small-bowel transplant recipients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:352-61.

Masuda S, Uemoto S, Hashida T, Inomata Y, Tanaka K, Inui K. Effect of intestinal P-glycoprotein on daily tacrolimus trough level in a living-donor small bowel recipient. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:98-103.

Masui T, Kusumi I, Takahashi Y, Koyama T. Effect of carbamazepine on the single oral dose pharmacokinetics of perospirone and its active metabolite. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006; 30:1330-3.

Masui T, Kusumi I, Takahashi Y, Koyama T. Effects of itraconazole and tandospirone on the pharmacokinetics of perospirone. Ther Drug Monit 2006; 28:73-5.

Masuyama H, Hiramatsu Y, Kodama J, Kudo T. Expression and potential roles of pregnane X receptor in endometrial cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88:4446-54.

Masuyama H, Nakatsukasa H, Takamoto N, Hiramatsu Y. Down-regulation of pregnane X receptor contributes to cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by anticancer agents in endometrial cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol 2007; 72:1045-53.

Masuyama H, Suwaki N, Tateishi Y, Nakatsukasa H, Segawa T, Hiramatsu Y. The pregnane X receptor regulates gene expression in a ligand- and promoter-selective fashion. Mol Endocrinol 2005; 19:1170-80.

Mathew NT, Hettiarachchi J, Alderman J. Tolerability and safety of eletriptan in the treatment of migraine: a comprehensive review. Headache 2003; 43:962-74.

Mathews JM, Etheridge AS, Valentine JL et al. Pharmacokinetics and disposition of the kavalactone kawain: interaction with kava extract and kavalactones in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1555-63.

Mathijssen RH, de Jong FA, van Schaik RH et al. Prediction of irinotecan pharmacokinetics by use of cytochrome P450 3A4 phenotyping probes. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96:1585-92.

Mathijssen RH, Marsh S, Karlsson MO et al. Irinotecan pathway genotype analysis to predict pharmacokinetics. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9:3246-53.

Mathijssen RH, van Alphen RJ, Verweij J et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of irinotecan (CPT-11). Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7:2182-94.

Mathijssen RH, Verweij J, de Bruijn P, Loos WJ, Sparreboom A. Effects of St. John’s wort on irinotecan metabolism. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94:1247-9.

Matsubara T, Noracharttiyapot W, Toriyabe T, Yoshinari K, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y. Assessment of human pregnane X receptor involvement in pesticide-mediated activation of CYP3A4 gene. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:728-33.

Matsubara T, Yoshinari K, Aoyama K et al. Role of vitamin D receptor in the lithocholic acid-mediated CYP3A induction in vitro and in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2058-63.

Matsubara Y, Kanazawa T, Kojima Y et al. Pharmacokinetics and disposition of silodosin (KMD-3213). Yakugaku Zasshi 2006; 126:237-45.

Matsuda H, Kinoshita K, Sumida A et al. Taurine modulates induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 mRNA by rifampicin in the HepG2 cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002; 1593:93-8.

Matsumoto S, Yamazoe Y. Involvement of multiple human cytochromes P450 in the liver microsomal metabolism of astemizole and a comparison with terfenadine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:133-42.

Matsumura K, Saito T, Takahashi Y et al. Identification of a novel polymorphic enhancer of the human CYP3A4 gene. Mol Pharmacol 2004; 65:326-34.

Matsunaga T, Kishi N, Higuchi S, Watanabe K, Ohshima T, Yamamoto I. CYP3A4 is a major isoform responsible for oxidation of 7-hydroxy-Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol to 7-oxo-delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1291-6.

Matsunaga T, Maruyama M, Harada E et al. Expression and induction of CYP3As in human fetal hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 318:428-34.

Matsuoka-Kawano K, Yoshinari K, Nagayama S, Yamazoe Y. TSU-16, (Z)-3-[(2,4-dimethylpyrrol-5-yl)methylidenyl]-2-indolinone, is a potent activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and increases CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression in human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 2010; 185:33-41.

Matuskova Z, Tunkova A, Anzenbacherova E, Zidek Z, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H, Anzenbacher P. Influence of probiotics on rat liver biotransformation enzymes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2009; 30 Suppl 1:41-5.

Maxa JL, Melton LB, Ogu CC, Sills MN, Limanni A. Rhabdomyolysis after concomitant use of cyclosporine, simvastatin, gemfibrozil, and itraconazole. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36:820-3.

May K, Giessmann T, Wegner D et al. Oral absorption of propiverine solution and of the immediate and extended release dosage forms: influence of regioselective intestinal elimination. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:1085-92.

May K, Westphal K, Giessmann T et al. Disposition and antimuscarinic effects of the urinary bladder spasmolytics propiverine: influence of dosage forms and circadian-time rhythms. J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 48:570-9.

Mayhew BS, Jones DR, Hall SD. An in vitro model for predicting in vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by metabolic intermediate complex formation. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1031-7.

May-Manke A, Kroemer H, Hempel G et al. Investigation of the major human hepatic cytochrome P450 involved in 4-hydroxylation and N-dechloroethylation of trofosfamide. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1999; 44:327-34.

Mazoit JX, Dalens BJ. Pharmacokinetics of local anaesthetics in infants and children. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43:17-32.

Mazur A, Lichti CF, Prather PL et al. Characterization of human hepatic and extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes involved in the metabolism of classic cannabinoids. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1496-504.

Mazur CS, Kenneke JF. Cross-species comparison of conazole fungicide metabolites using rat and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) hepatic microsomes and purified human CYP 3A4. Environ Sci Technol 2008; 42:947-54.

Mazzu AL, Lasseter KC, Shamblen EC, Agarwal V, Lettieri J, Sundaresen P. Itraconazole alters the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin to a greater extent than either cerivastatin or pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:391-400.

McCarthy HO, Yakkundi A, McErlane V et al. Bioreductive GDEPT using cytochrome P450 3A4 in combination with AQ4N. Cancer Gene Ther 2003; 10:40-8.

McClue SJ, Stuart I. Metabolism of the trisubstituted purine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib (R-roscovitine) in vitro and in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:561-70.

McConn DJ 2nd, Lin YS, Allen K, Kunze KL, Thummel KE. Differences in the inhibition of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 by metabolite-inhibitor complex-forming drugs. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1083-91.

McCune JS, Hawke RL, LeCluyse EL et al. In vivo and in vitro induction of human cytochrome P4503A4 by dexamethasone. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:356-66.

McCune JS, Lindley C, Decker JL et al. Lack of gender differences and large intrasubject variability in cytochrome P450 activity measured by phenotyping with dextromethorphan. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41:723-31.

McCune JS, Risler LJ, Phillips BR, Thummel KE, Blough D, Shen DD. Contribution of CYP3A5 to hepatic and renal ifosfamide N-dechloroethylation. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1074-81.

McEnroe JD, Fleishaker JC. Clinical pharmacokinetics of almotriptan, a serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist for the treatment of migraine. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:237-46.

McGinnity DF, Berry AJ, Kenny JR, Grime K, Riley RJ. Evaluation of time-dependent cytochrome P450 inhibition using cultured human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1291-300.

McGinnity DF, Griffin SJ, Moody GC et al. Rapid characterization of the major drug-metabolizing human hepatic cytochrome P-450 enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1017-23.

McGinnity DF, Parker AJ, Soars M, Riley RJ. Automated definition of the enzymology of drug oxidation by the major human drug metabolizing cytochrome P450s. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1327-34.

McGinnity DF, Zhang G, Kenny JR et al. Evaluation of multiple in vitro systems for assessment of CYP3A4 induction in drug discovery: human hepatocytes, pregnane X receptor reporter gene, and Fa2N-4 and HepaRG cells. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1259-68.

McKillop D, Back DJ, McCormick AD, Evans JA, Tjia J. Preclinical and in vitro assessment of the potential of D0870, an antifungal agent, for producing clinical drug interactions. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:395-408.

McKillop D, McCormick AD, Millar A, Miles GS, Phillips PJ, Hutchison M. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of gefitinib. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:39-50.

McKillop D, Wild MJ, Butters CJ, Simcock C. Effects of propofol on human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 activities. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:845-53.

McKindley DS, Boulet J, Sachdeva K, Wang P, Chichester C. Endotoxic shock alters the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide. Shock 2002; 17:199-204.

McKinnon RA, Burgess WM, Hall PM, Roberts-Thomson SJ, Gonzalez FJ, McManus ME. Characterisation of CYP3A gene subfamily expression in human gastrointestinal tissues. Gut 1995; 36:259-67.

McKinnon RA, McManus ME. Function and localization of cytochromes P450 involved in the metabolic activation of food-derived heterocyclic amines. Princess Takamatsu Symp 1995; 23:145-53.

McKinnon RA, McManus ME. Localization of cytochromes P450 in human tissues: implications for chemical toxicity. Pathology 1996; 28:148-55.

McLaughlin LA, Dickmann LJ, Wolf CR, Henderson CJ. Functional expression and comparative characterization of nine murine cytochromes P450 by fluorescent inhibition screening. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1322-31.

McLellan RA, Drobitch RK, Monshouwer M, Renton KW. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics inhibit cytochrome P450-mediated microsomal drug metabolism in rat and human. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:1134-8.

McNulty J, Nair JJ, Singh M, Crankshaw DJ, Holloway AC, Bastida J. Selective cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:3233-7.

McNulty J, Nair JJ, Singh M, Crankshaw DJ, Holloway AC. Structure-activity studies on seco-pancratistatin analogs: potent inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 3A4. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:5607-12.

McNulty J, Nair JJ, Singh M, Crankshaw DJ, Holloway AC. Potent and selective inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by seco-pancratistatin structural analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010; 20:2335-9.

McRobie DJ, Glover DD, Tracy TS. Effects of gestational and overt diabetes on human placental cytochromes P450 and glutathione S-transferase. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:367-71.

Meadowcroft AM, Williamson KM, Patterson JH, Hinderliter AL, Pieper JA. The effects of fluvastatin, a CYP2C9 inhibitor, on losartan pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:418-24.

Mealey KL, Jabbes M, Spencer E, Akey JM. Differential expression of CYP3A12 and CYP3A26 mRNAs in canine liver and intestine. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:1305-12.

Medina PP, Carretero J, Ballestar E et al. Transcriptional targets of the chromatin-remodelling factor SMARCA4/BRG1 in lung cancer cells. Hum Mol Genet 2005; 14:973-82.

Medina-Díaz IM, Arteaga-Illán G, de León MB et al. Pregnane X receptor-dependent induction of the CYP3A4 gene by o,p’-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:95-102.

Medina-Díaz IM, Elizondo G. Transcriptional induction of CYP3A4 by o,p’-DDT in HepG2 cells. Toxicol Lett 2005; 157:41-7.

Medina-Díaz IM, Estrada-Muñiz E, Reyes-Hernández OD, Ramírez P, Vega L, Elizondo G. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMA(III) and DMA(III), modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 239:162-8.

Mei L, Zhang L, Dai R. An inhibition study of beauvericin on human and rat cytochrome P450 enzymes and its pharmacokinetics in rats. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2009; 24:753-62.

Mei Q, Tang C, Assang C et al. Role of a potent inhibitory monoclonal antibody to cytochrome P-450 3A4 in assessment of human drug metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 291:749-59.

Mei Q, Tang C, Lin Y, Rushmore TH, Shou M. Inhibition kinetics of monoclonal antibodies against cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:701-8.

Meibohm B, Beierle I, Derendorf H. How important are gender differences in pharmacokinetics? Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:329-42.

Meneses-Lorente G, Pattison C, Guyomard C et al. Utility of long-term cultured human hepatocytes as an in vitro model for cytochrome p450 induction. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:215-20.

Mensah-Osman EJ, Thomas DG, Tabb MM et al. Expression levels and activation of a PXR variant are directly related to drug resistance in osteosarcoma cell lines. Cancer 2007; 109:957-65.

Merino G, Álvarez AI, Prieto JG, Kim RB. The anthelminthic agent albendazole does not interact with p-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:365-9.

Merry C, Barry MG, Mulcahy F et al. Saquinavir pharmacokinetics alone and in combination with ritonavir in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1997; 11:29-33.

Mesdjian E, Sérée E, Charvet B et al. Metabolism of carbamazepine by CYP3A6: a model for in vitro drug interactions studies. Life Sci 1999; 64:827-35.

Meunier V, Bourrié M, Julian B et al. Expression and induction of CYP1A1/1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes: a 10-year follow-up. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:589-607.

Meyer MR, Peters FT, Maurer HH. Investigations on the human hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA) and benzodioxolyl-butanamine (BDB) enantiomers. Toxicol Lett 2009; 190:54-60.

Meyer MR, Peters FT, Maurer HH. Stereoselective differences in the cytochrome P450-dependent dealkylation and demethylenation of N-methyl-benzodioxolyl-butanamine (MBDB, Eden) enantiomers. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 77:1725-34.

Meyer MR, Peters FT, Maurer HH. The role of human hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of racemic 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine and its single enantiomers. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1152-6.

Meyer UA. Interaction of proton pump inhibitors with cytochromes P450: consequences for drug interactions. Yale J Biol Med 1996; 69:203-9.

Meyer UA. Metabolic interactions of the proton-pump inhibitors lansoprazole, omeprazole and pantoprazole with other drugs. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996; 8 Suppl 1:21-5.

Meyers NL, Hickling RI. Pharmacology and metabolism of renzapride: a novel therapeutic agent for the potential treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Drugs R D 2008; 9:37-63.

Miao J, Jin Y, Marunde RL et al. Association of genotypes of the CYP3A cluster with midazolam disposition in vivo. Pharmacogenomics J 2009; 9:319-26.

Miao Z, Kamel A, Prakash C. Characterization of a novel metabolite intermediate of ziprasidone in hepatic cytosolic fractions of rat, dog, and human by ESI-MS/MS, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and chemical derivatization. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:879-83.

Miceli JJ, Anziano RJ, Robarge L, Hansen RA, Laurent A. The effect of carbamazepine on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49 Suppl 1:65-70.

Miceli JJ, Smith M, Robarge L, Morse T, Laurent A. The effects of ketoconazole on ziprasidone pharmacokinetics-a placebo-controlled crossover study in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49 Suppl 1:71-6.

Michalets EL, Smith LK, van Tassel ED. Torsade de pointes resulting from the addition of droperidol to an existing cytochrome P450 drug interaction. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32:761-5.

Michalets EL, Williams CR. Drug interactions with cisapride: clinical implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 39:49-75.

Michaud V, Simard C, Turgeon J. Characterization of CYP3A isozymes involved in the metabolism of domperidone: Role of cytochrome b(5) and inhibition by ketoconazole. Drug Metab Lett 2010; 4:95-103.

Michaud V, Turgeon J. Assessment of competitive and mechanism-based inhibition by clarithromycin: Use of domperidone as a CYP3A probe-drug substrate and various enzymatic sources including a new cell-based assay with Freshly isolated human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Lett 2010; 4:69-76.

Micuda S, Mundlova L, Anzenbacherova E et al. Inhibitory effects of memantine on human cytochrome P450 activities: prediction of in vivo drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 60:583-9.

Micuda S, Sispera L, Hodac M et al. Diurnal variation of 6beta-hydroxycortisol in cardiac patients. Physiol Res 2007; 56:307-13.

Mie Y, Suzuki M, Komatsu Y. Electrochemically driven drug metabolism by membranes containing human cytochrome P450. J Am Chem Soc 2009; 131:6646-7.

Mielke S. Individualized pharmacotherapy with paclitaxel. Curr Opin Oncol 2007; 19:586-9.

Mihara K, Svensson US, Tybring G, Hai TN, Bertilsson L, Ashton M. Stereospecific analysis of omeprazole supports artemisinin as a potent inducer of CYP2C19. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1999; 13:671-5.

Mikhail N, Iskander E, Cope D. Rhabdomyolysis in an HIV-infected patient on anti-retroviral therapy precipitated by high-dose pravastatin. Curr Drug Saf 2009; 4:121-2.

Miki Y, Suzuki T, Tazawa C, Blumberg B, Sasano H. Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance gene 1 in human adult and fetal tissues. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2005; 231:75-85.

Mikus G, Schöwel V, Drzewinska M et al. Potent cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype-related interaction between voriconazole and the cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor ritonavir. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 80:126-35.

Milani CJ, Kobori H, Mullins JJ, Mitchell KD. Enhanced urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic rats with inducible ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension. Am J Med Sci 2010; 340:389-94.

Miller DB, Spence JD. Clinical pharmacokinetics of fibric acid derivatives (fibrates). Clin Pharmacokinet 1998; 34:155-62.

Miller KK, Cai J, Ripp SL, Pierce WM Jr, Rushmore TH, Prough RA. Stereo- and regioselectivity account for the diversity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolites produced by liver microsomal cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:305-13.

Miller VP, Stresser DM, Blanchard AP, Turner S, Crespi CL. Fluorometric high-throughput screening for inhibitors of cytochrome P450. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 919:26-32.

Milligan PA, Marshall SF, Karlsson MO. A population pharmacokinetic analysis of sildenafil citrate in patients with erectile dysfunction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53 Suppl 1:45-52.

Millington DJ, Villanueva C, Obirek J, Kaufman J, Smith C. Safety pharmacology, acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics of SCP-123 and acetaminophen. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2010; 107:701.

Mills JB, Rose KA, Sadagopan N, Sahi J, de Morais SM. Induction of drug metabolism enzymes and MDR1 using a novel human hepatocyte cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 309:303-9.

Mimura N, Kobayashi K, Nakamura Y, Shimada N, Hosokawa M, Chiba K. Metabolism of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) via CYP enzymes in vitro and effect of MPA on bleeding time in female rats in dependence on CYP activity in vivo. Life Sci 2003; 73:3201-12.

Min DI, Ellingrod VL. Association of the CYP3A4*1B 5’-flanking region polymorphism with cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Ther Drug Monit 2003; 25:305-9.

Min DI, Ku YM, Vichiendilokkul A, Fleckenstein LL. A urine metabolic ratio of dextromethorphan and 3-methoxymorphinan as a probe for CYP3A activity and prediction of cyclosporine clearance in healthy volunteers. Pharmacotherapy 1999; 19:753-9.

Min KH, Xia Y, Kim EK et al. A novel class of highly potent multidrug resistance reversal agents: disubstituted adamantyl derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:5376-9.

Minamiyama Y, Takemura S, Akiyama T et al. Isoforms of cytochrome P450 on organic nitrate-derived nitric oxide release in human heart vessels. FEBS Lett 1999; 452:165-9.

Minato K, Suzuki R, Asagarasu A, Matsui T, Sato M. Biotransformation of 3-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-{4-[4-(quinolin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butyl}quinazolin-4(3H)-one (TZB-30878), a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A agonist/5-HT3 antagonist, in human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:831-40.

Minematsu T, Lee J, Zha J et al. Time-dependent inhibitory effects of (1R,9S,12S,13R,14S,17R,18E,21S,23S,24R,25S,27R)-1,14-dihydroxy-12-(E)-2-[(1R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl]-1-methylvinyl-23,25-dimethoxy-13,19,21,27-tetramethyl-17-(2-oxopropyl)-11,28-dioxa-4-azatricyclo[22. 3. 1. 0(4. 9)]octacos-18-ene-2,3,10,16-tetrone (FK1706), a novel nonimmunosuppressive immunophilin ligand, on CYP3A4/5 activity in humans in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:249-59.

Minoda Y, Kharasch ED. Halothane-dependent lipid peroxidation in human liver microsomes is catalyzed by cytochrome P4502A6 (CYP2A6). Anesthesiology 2001; 95:509-14.

Minov C. Risk of QTc prolongation due to combination of ziprasidone and quetiapine. Psychiatr Prax 2004; 31 Suppl 1:142-4.

Minuzzo M, Ceribelli M, Pitarque-Martì M et al. Selective effects of the anticancer drug Yondelis (ET-743) on cell-cycle promoters. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 68:1496-503.

Miranda SR, Meyer SA. Cytotoxicity of chloroacetanilide herbicide alachlor in HepG2 cells independent of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. Food Chem Toxicol 2007; 45:871-7.

Mirghani RA, Ericsson O, Tybring G, Gustafsson LL, Bertilsson L. Quinine 3-hydroxylation as a biomarker reaction for the activity of CYP3A4 in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:23-8.

Mirghani RA, Hellgren U, Bertilsson L, Gustafsson LL, Ericsson O. Metabolism and elimination of quinine in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:423-7.

Mirghani RA, Hellgren U, Westerberg PA, Ericsson O, Bertilsson L, Gustafsson LL. The roles of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 1A2 in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:454-60.

Mirghani RA, Sayi J, Aklillu E et al. CYP3A5 genotype has significant effect on quinine 3-hydroxylation in Tanzanians, who have lower total CYP3A activity than a Swedish population. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:637-45.

Mirghani RA, Yasar U, Zheng T et al. Enzyme kinetics for the formation of 3-hydroxyquinine and three new metabolites of quinine in vitro; 3-hydroxylation by CYP3A4 is indeed the major metabolic pathway. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1368-71.

Mirkov S, Komoroski BJ, Ramírez J et al. Effects of green tea compounds on irinotecan metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:228-33.

Mismetti P, Laporte S. Rivaroxaban: clinical pharmacology. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2008; 27 Suppl 3:16-21.

Mitchell MD, Elrick MM, Walgren JL, Mueller RA, Morris DL, Thompson DC. Peptide-based in vitro assay for the detection of reactive metabolites. Chem Res Toxicol 2008; 21:859-68.

Mitin T, von Moltke LL, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. Levothyroxine up-regulates P-glycoprotein independent of the pregnane X receptor. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:779-82.

Mitra AK, Thummel KE, Kalhorn TF, Kharasch ED, Unadkat JD, Slattery JT. Metabolism of dapsone to its hydroxylamine by CYP2E1 in vitro and in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995; 58:556-66.

Miura M. Enantioselective disposition of lansoprazole and rabeprazole in human plasma. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006; 126:395-402.

Miura M, Inoue K, Kagaya H, Saito M, Habuchi T, Satoh S. Inter-individual difference determinant of prednisolone pharmacokinetics for Japanese renal transplant recipients in the maintenance stage. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:939-45.

Miura M, Inoue K, Satoh S et al. Influence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole enantiomers in CYP2C19 extensive metaboliser renal transplant recipients. Clin Drug Investig 2007; 27:251-8.

Miura M, Kagaya H, Tada H et al. Intestinal CYP3A4 is not involved in the enantioselective disposition of lansoprazole. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:95-102.

Miura M, Ohkubo T. In vitro metabolism of quazepam in human liver and intestine and assessment of drug interactions. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:1001-11.

Miura M, Otani K, Ohkubo T. Identification of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the formation of 4-hydroxyestazolam from estazolam. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:455-65.

Miura M, Satoh S, Tada H, Habuchi T, Suzuki T. Stereoselective metabolism of rabeprazole-thioether to rabeprazole by human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:113-7.

Miura M, Tada H, Yasui-Furukori N et al. Effect of clarithromycin on the enantioselective disposition of lansoprazole in relation to CYP2C19 genotypes. Chirality 2005; 17:338-44.

Miura M, Uno T, Tateishi T, Suzuki T. Pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine enantiomers in healthy subjects. Chirality 2007; 19:223-7.

Miwatashi S, Arikawa Y, Kotani E et al. Novel inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase as an anti-TNF-alpha drug: discovery of N-[4-[2-ethyl-4-(3-methylphenyl)-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]-2-pyridyl]benzamide (TAK-715) as a potent and orally active anti-rheumatoid arthritis agent. J Med Chem 2005; 48:5966-79.

Miyajima S, Nemoto K, Sekimoto M et al. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms by nicardipine at therapeutic doses in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Toxicol Sci 2007; 32:79-90.

Miyakawa H, Kitazawa E, Kikuchi K et al. Immunoreactivity to various human cytochrome P450 proteins of sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis, chronic hepatitis B, and chronic hepatitis C. Autoimmunity 2000; 33:23-32.

Miyata A, Yokoyama C, Ihara H et al. Characterization of the human gene (TBXAS1) encoding thromboxane synthase. Eur J Biochem 1994; 224:273-9.

Miyata M, Yasuda K, Burioka N et al. The influence of granisetron on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel in Asian lung cancer patients. Cancer J 2006; 12:69-72.

Miyata N, Taniguchi K, Seki T et al. HET0016, a potent and selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesizing enzyme. Br J Pharmacol 2001; 133:325-9.

Miyazaki M, Maekawa C, Iwanaga K, Morimoto K, Kakemi M. Bioavailability assessment of disopyramide using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling in the rat. Biol Pharm Bull 2000; 23:1363-9.

Miyazaki M, Nakamura K, Fujita Y, Guengerich FP, Horiuchi R, Yamamoto K. Defective activity of recombinant cytochromes P450 3A4. 2 and 3A4. 16 in oxidation of midazolam, nifedipine, and testosterone. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2287-91.

Miyazaki M, Sugawara E, Yoshimura T, Yamazaki H, Kamataki T. Mutagenic activation of betel quid-specific N-nitrosamines catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 coexpressed with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Salmonella typhimurium YG7108. Mutat Res 2005; 581:165-71.

Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T. Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonenes to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:602-7.

Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T. Oxidation of 1,8-cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether originated from eucalyptus polybractea, by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:200-5.

Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T. Roles of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in the 2-hydroxylation of 1,4-cineole, a monoterpene cyclic ether, by rat and human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2001; 31:713-23.

Miyoshi Y, Ando A, Takamura Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S. Prediction of response to docetaxel by CYP3A4 mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues. Int J Cancer 2002; 97:129-32.

Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Kim SJ, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S. Prediction of response to docetaxel by immunohistochemical analysis of CYP3A4 expression in human breast cancers. Breast Cancer 2005; 12:11-5.

Mizerovska J, Dracinska H, Arlt VM, Schmeiser HH, Frei E, Stiborova M. Oxidation of 3-aminobenzanthrone, a human metabolite of carcinogenic environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone, by cytochromes P450 – similarity between human and rat enzymes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2009; 30 Suppl 1:52-9.

Mizuno K, Katoh M, Okumura H et al. Metabolic activation of benzodiazepines by CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:345-51.

Mizuno Y, Tani N, Komuro S, Kanamaru H, Nakatsuka I. In vitro metabolism of perospirone in rat, monkey and human liver microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 28:59-65.

Mizushima H, Takanaka K, Abe K, Fukazawa I, Ishizuka H. Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin in vitro and in vivo. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:59-73.

Mizutani T. PM frequencies of major CYPs in Asians and Caucasians. Drug Metab Rev 2003; 35:99-106.

Mizutani T. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner. J Environ Public Health 2009. doi:10. 1155/2009/953952.

Mnif W, Pascussi JM, Pillon A et al. Estrogens and antiestrogens activate hPXR. Toxicol Lett 2007; 170:19-29.

Mo SL, Liu YH, Duan W, Wei MQ, Kanwar JR, Zhou SF. Substrate Specificity, Regulation, and Polymorphism of Human Cytochrome P450 2B6. Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:730-53.

Mochizuki N, Matsumoto K, Ohno K et al. Effects of hepatic CYP3A4 activity on disposition of micafungin in liver transplant recipients with markedly small-for-size grafts. Transplant Proc 2006; 38:3649-50.

Modarai M, Silva E, Suter A, Heinrich M, Kortenkamp A. Safety of herbal medicinal products: Echinacea and selected alkylamides do not induce CYP3A4 mRNA expression. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009. doi:10. 1093/ecam/nep174.

Modarai M, Yang M, Suter A, Kortenkamp A, Heinrich M. Metabolomic profiling of liquid Echinacea medicinal products with in vitro inhibitory effects on Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Planta Med 2010; 76:378-85.

Modrianský M, Ulrichová J, Bachleda P et al. Human hepatocyte-a model for toxicological studies. Functional and biochemical characterization. Gen Physiol Biophys 2000; 19:223-35.

Modugno F, Knoll C, Kanbour-Shakir A, Romkes M. A potential role for the estrogen-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in human breast carcinogenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2003; 82:191-7.

Moisés EC, Duarte Lde B, Cavalli Rde C et al. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and its metabolite in peridural anesthesia administered to pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:1189-96.

Molden E, Andersson KS. Simvastatin-associated rhabdomyolysis after coadministration of macrolide antibiotics in two patients. Pharmacotherapy 2007; 27:603-7.

Molden E, Asberg A, Christensen H. CYP2D6 is involved in O-demethylation of diltiazem. An in vitro study with transfected human liver cells. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56:575-9.

Molden E, Asberg A. Metabolic interactions with statins. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2001; 121:189-93.

Molden E, Asberg A, Christensen H. Desacetyl-diltiazem displays severalfold higher affinity to CYP2D6 compared with CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1-3.

Molden E, Garcia BH, Braathen P, Eggen AE. Co-prescription of cytochrome P450 2D6/3A4 inhibitor-substrate pairs in clinical practice. A retrospective analysis of data from Norwegian primary pharmacies. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:119-25.

Molden E, Lunde H, Lunder N, Refsum H. Pharmacokinetic variability of aripiprazole and the active metabolite dehydroaripiprazole in psychiatric patients. Ther Drug Monit 2006; 28:744-9.

Molden E, Skovlund E, Braathen P. Risk management of simvastatin or atorvastatin interactions with CYP3A4 inhibitors. Drug Saf 2008; 31:587-96.

Moltó J, Valle M, Clotet B. Pharmacological interactions with darunavir. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2008; 26 Suppl 10:43-50.

Momary KM, Dorsch MP, Bates ER. Genetic causes of clopidogrel nonresponsiveness: which ones really count? Pharmacotherapy 2010; 30:265-74.

Monera TG, Wolfe AR, Maponga CC, Benet LZ, Guglielmo J. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4. J Infect Dev Ctries 2008; 2:379-83.

Monostory K, Hazai E, Vereczkey L. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes participating in p-nitrophenol hydroxylation by drugs known as CYP2E1 inhibitors. Chem Biol Interact 2004; 147:331-40.

Monostory K, Pascussi JM, Szabó P et al. Drug interaction potential of 2-((3,4-dichlorophenethyl)(propyl)amino)-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethanol (LK-935), the novel nonstatin-type cholesterol-lowering agent. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:375-85.

Monroe KR, Murphy SP, Kolonel LN, Pike MC. Prospective study of grapefruit intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 2007; 97:440-5.

Monsarrat B, Chatelut E, Royer I et al. Modification of paclitaxel metabolism in a cancer patient by induction of cytochrome P450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:229-33.

Monsarrat B, Royer I, Wright M, Cresteil T. Biotransformation of taxoids by human cytochromes P450: structure-activity relationship. Bull Cancer 1997; 84:125-33.

Moody DE, Chang Y, Huang W, McCance-Katz EF. The in vivo response of novel buprenorphine metabolites, M1 and M3, to antiretroviral inducers and inhibitors of buprenorphine metabolism. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2009; 105:211-5.

Moody DE, Walsh SL, Rollins DE, Neff JA, Huang W. Ketoconazole, a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor, markedly increases concentrations of levo-acetyl-alpha-methadol in opioid-naive individuals. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:154-66.

Moody GC, Griffin SJ, Mather AN, McGinnity DF, Riley RJ. Fully automated analysis of activities catalysed by the major human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: assessment of human CYP inhibition potential. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:53-75.

Moon Y, Kim SY, Ji HY et al. Characterization of cytochrome P450s mediating ipriflavone metabolism in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:246-59.

Moore A, Pinkerton R. Vincristine: Can its therapeutic index be enhanced? Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009; 53:1180-7.

Moore CD, Reilly CA, Yost GS. CYP3A4-mediated oxygenation versus dehydrogenation of raloxifene. Biochemistry 2010; 49:4466-75.

Moore KH, Leese PT, McNeal S et al. The pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan when administered with clarithromycin in healthy volunteers. Clin Ther 2002; 24:583-94.

Moore LB, Goodwin B, Jones SA et al. St. John’s wort induces hepatic drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97:7500-2.

Moore TD, Nawarskas JJ, Anderson JR. Eplerenone: a selective aldosterone receptor antagonist for hypertension and heart failure. Heart Dis 2003; 5:354-63.

Moorjani M, Zhang X, Chen Y et al. 2,6-Diaryl-4-phenacylaminopyrimidines as potent and selective adenosine A(2A) antagonists with reduced hERG liability. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:1269-73.

Morales-Olivas FJ, Estañ L. Solifenacin pharmacology. Arch Esp Urol 2010; 63:43-52.

Moreau A, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ, Pascussi JM. Constitutive androstane receptor-vitamin D receptor crosstalk: consequence on CYP24 gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 360:76-82.

Morel O, Ohlmann P, Jesel L et al. Variable extent of platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel inhibition: “clopidogrel resistance”? Ann Cardiol Angeiol 2005; 54:194-200.

Mori T, Itoh S, Ohgiya S, Ishizaki K, Kamataki T. Regulation of CYP1A and CYP3A mRNAs by ascorbic acid in guinea pigs. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 348:268-77.

Morioka Y, Nishimura M, Imai T et al. Assessment of induction of cytochrome P450 by NO-1886 (ibrolipim), a lipoprotein lipase-promoting agent, in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in female rat liver. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2006; 21:19-28.

Morioka Y, Otsu M, Naito S, Imai T. Phosphonate O-deethylation of [4-(4-bromo-2-cyano-phenylcarbamoyl) benzyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester, a lipoprotein lipase-promoting agent, catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2C8 and 3A4 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:301-6.

Morita K, Maeda Y, Masuda M et al. Strain differences in CYP3A-mediated C-8 hydroxylation (1,3,7-trimethyluric acid formation) of caffeine in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats. Rapid metabolism of caffeine in debrisoquine poor metabolizer model rats. Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:1405-11.

Moriyama B, Elinoff J, Danner RL et al. Accelerated metabolism of voriconazole and its partial reversal by cimetidine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:1712-4.

Morse MA, Lu J, Stoner GD, Murphy SE, Peterson LA. Metabolism of N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine by human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. J Toxicol Environ Health A 1999; 58:397-411.

Moton A, Ma L, Krishna G, Martinho M, Seiberling M, McLeod J. Effects of oral posaconazole on the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25:701-7.

Motsinger AA, Ritchie MD, Shafer RW et al. Multilocus genetic interactions and response to efavirenz-containing regimens: an adult AIDS clinical trials group study. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:837-45.

Moubarak AS, Rosenkrans CF Jr, Johnson ZB. Modulation of cytochrome P450 metabolism by ergonovine and dihydroergotamine. Vet Hum Toxicol 2003; 45:6-9.

Mouly S, Lown KS, Kornhauser D et al. Hepatic but not intestinal CYP3A4 displays dose-dependent induction by efavirenz in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:1-9.

Mouly S, Meune C, Bergmann JF. Mini-series: I. Basic science. Uncertainty and inaccuracy of predicting CYP-mediated in vivo drug interactions in the ICU from in vitro models: focus on CYP3A4. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35:417-29.

Mouly S, Rizzo-Padoin N, Simoneau G et al. Effect of widely used combinations of antiretroviral therapy on liver CYP3A4 activity in HIV-infected patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:200-9.

Mouly SJ, Matheny C, Paine MF et al. Variation in oral clearance of saquinavir is predicted by CYP3A5*1 genotype but not by enterocyte content of cytochrome P450 3A5. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78:605-18.

Mouly SJ, Paine MF, Watkins PB. Contributions of CYP3A4, P-glycoprotein, and serum protein binding to the intestinal first-pass extraction of saquinavir. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 308:941-8.

Mountfield RJ, Senepin S, Schleimer M, Walter I, Bittner B. Potential inhibitory effects of formulation ingredients on intestinal cytochrome P450. Int J Pharm 2000; 211:89-92.

Mück W. Clinical pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 39:99-116.

Mück W, Ochmann K, Rohde G, Unger S, Kuhlmann J. Influence of erythromycin pre- and co-treatment on single-dose pharmacokinetics of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor cerivastatin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 53:469-73.

Mugundu GM, Hariparsad N, Desai PB. Impact of ritonavir, atazanavir and their combination on the CYP3A4 induction potential of efavirenz in primary human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Lett 2010; 4:45-50.

Muirhead GJ, Faulkner S, Harness JA, Taubel J. The effects of steady-state erythromycin and azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53 Suppl 1:37-43.

Muirhead GJ, Wulff MB, Fielding A, Kleinermans D, Buss N. Pharmacokinetic interactions between sildenafil and saquinavir/ritonavir. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 50:99-107.

Mukherjee D, Kline-Rogers E, Fang J, Munir K, Eagle KA. Lack of clopidogrel-CYP3A4 statin interaction in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Heart 2005; 91:23-6.

Mukonzo JK, Waako P, Ogwal-Okeng J, Gustafsson LL, Aklillu E. Genetic variations in ABCB1 and CYP3A5 as well as sex influence quinine disposition among Ugandans. Ther Drug Monit 2010; 32:346-52.

Müller-Enoch D. Investigations on the role of cytochrome b5 and divalent cations in the maximal nifedipine oxidase activity of human liver. Arzneimittelforschung 1999; 49:470-5.

Müller-Enoch D, Gruler H. Complexation of membrane-bound enzyme systems. Z Naturforsch C 2000; 55:747-52.

Muntané-Relat J, Ourlin JC, Domergue J, Maurel P. Differential effects of cytokines on the inducible expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes in primary culture. Hepatology 1995; 22:1143-53.

Murai K, Yamazaki H, Nakagawa K, Kawai R, Kamataki T. Deactivation of anti-cancer drug letrozole to a carbinol metabolite by polymorphic cytochrome P450 2A6 in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:795-802.

Murayama N, Imai N, Nakane T, Shimizu M, Yamazaki H. Roles of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 in methyl hydroxylated and N-oxidized metabolite formation from voriconazole, a new anti-fungal agent, in human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 73:2020-6.

Murayama N, Minoshima M, Shimizu M, Guengerich FP, Yamazaki H. Involvement of human cytochrome P450 2B6 in the omega- and 4-hydroxylation of the anesthetic agent propofol. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:717-24.

Murayama N, Nakamura T, Saeki M et al. CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms influence testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:150-6.

Murphy M, Antia U, Chang HY et al. Party pills and drug-drug interactions. N Z Med J 2009; 122:3564.

Murphy MJ, Dominiczak MH. Efficacy of statin therapy: possible effect of phenytoin. Postgrad Med J 1999; 75:359-60.

Murray BP, Correia MA. Ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasomal pathway: a role in the degradation of native human liver CYP3A4 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae? Arch Biochem Biophys 2001; 393:106-16.

Murray BP, Zgoda VG, Correia MA. Native CYP2C11: heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a role for vacuolar proteases rather than the proteasome system in the degradation of this endoplasmic reticulum protein. Mol Pharmacol 2002; 61:1146-53.

Murray GI, McFadyen MC, Mitchell RT, Cheung YL, Kerr AC, Melvin WT. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in human renal cell cancer. Br J Cancer 1999; 79:1836-42.

Murray M. Altered CYP expression and function in response to dietary factors: potential roles in disease pathogenesis. Curr Drug Metab 2006; 7:67-81.

Murray S, Odupitan AO, Murray BP, Boobis AR, Edwards RJ. Inhibition of human CYP1A2 activity in vitro by methylxanthines: potent competitive inhibition by 8-phenyltheophylline. Xenobiotica 2001; 31:135-51.

Murry DJ, Cherrick I, Salama V et al. Influence of phenytoin on the disposition of irinotecan: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2002; 24:130-3.

Muscatello MR, Bruno A, Pandolfo G, Micò U, Settineri S, Zoccali R. Emerging treatments in the management of schizophrenia – focus on sertindole. Drug Des Devel Ther 2010; 4:187-201.

Muschler E, Lal J, Jetter A et al. The role of human CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 variants in pioglitazone metabolism in vitro. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2009; 105:374-9.

Mushiroda T, Douya R, Takahara E, Nagata O. The involvement of flavin-containing monooxygenase but not CYP3A4 in metabolism of itopride hydrochloride, a gastroprokinetic agent: comparison with cisapride and mosapride citrate. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1231-7.

Mushiroda T, Yokoi T, Itoh K et al. The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus): a unique animal with extremely low level of expression of mRNAs for CYP3A and flavin-containing monooxygenase. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2000; 126:225-34.

Mustajoki P, Mustajoki S, Rautio A, Arvela P, Pelkonen O. Effects of heme arginate on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of drugs in patients with variegate porphyria and in healthy men. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994; 56:9-13.

Mutch E, Daly AK, Leathart JB, Blain PG, Williams FM. Do multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms contribute to parathion metabolism in man? Arch Toxicol 2003; 77:313-20.

Mutch E, Williams FM. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion are metabolised by multiple cytochromes P450 in human liver. Toxicology 2006; 224:22-32.

Muto S, Fujita K, Yamazaki Y, Kamataki T. Inhibition by green tea catechins of metabolic activation of procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450. Mutat Res 2001; 479:197-206.

Myrand SP, Sekiguchi K, Man MZ et al. Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84:347-61.

Naesens M, Kuypers DR, Sarwal M. Calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4:481-508.

Naesens M, Lerut E, de Jonge H, van Damme B, Vanrenterghem Y, Kuypers DR. Donor age and renal P-glycoprotein expression associate with chronic histological damage in renal allografts. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:2468-80.

Nagai F, Hiyoshi Y, Sugimachi K, Tamura HO. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression in human myeloblastic and lymphoid cell lines. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25:383-5.

Nagai F, Kato E, Tamura HO. Oxidative stress induces GSTP1 and CYP3A4 expression in the human erythroleukemia cell line, K562. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27:492-5.

Nagai F, Shimizu M, Sakamoto T, Kobayashi T, Tamura H. Changes in the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in hemin-induced differentiated K562 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30:1954-7.

Naganuma M, Shiga T, Nishikata K, Tsuchiya T, Kasanuki H, Fujii E. Role of desethylamiodarone in the anticoagulant effect of concurrent amiodarone and warfarin therapy. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2001; 6:363-7.

Nagaoka R, Iwasaki T, Rokutanda N et al. Tamoxifen activates CYP3A4 and MDR1 genes through steroid and xenobiotic receptor in breast cancer cells. Endocrine 2006; 30:261-8.

Nagashima S, Hondo T, Nagata H et al. Novel 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives as potent and orally active STAT6 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem 2009; 17:6926-36.

Nagata T, Takahashi Y, Ishii Y et al. Profiling of genes differentially expressed between fetal liver and postnatal liver using high-density oligonucleotide DNA array. Int J Mol Med 2003; 11:713-21.

Nagy J, Schipper HG, Koopmans RP, Butter JJ, van Boxtel CJ, Kager PA. Effect of grapefruit juice or cimetidine coadministration on albendazole bioavailability. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2002; 66:260-3.

Nahrstedt A, Butterweck V. Lessons Learned from Herbal Medicinal Products: The Example of St. John’s Wort (perpendicular). J Nat Prod 2010; 73:1015-21.

Nair DR, Morris HH. Potential fluconazole-induced carbamazepine toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33:790-2.

Nair VD, Foster BC, Thor Arnason J, Mills EJ, Kanfer I. In vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein-mediated metabolism of some phytochemicals in extracts and formulations of African potato. Phytomedicine 2007; 14:498-507.

Naito T, Takashina Y, Yamamoto K et al. CYP3A5*3 affects plasma disposition of noroxycodone and dose escalation in cancer patients receiving oxycodone. J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 51:1529-38.

Najib J. Eszopiclone, a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic agent for the treatment of transient and chronic insomnia. Clin Ther 2006; 28:491-516.

Nakade S, Yamauchi A, Komaba J et al. Effect of clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of pranlukast in healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2008; 23:428-33.

Nakajima H, Nakanishi T, Naba H et al. Studies on the metabolic fate of M17055, a novel diuretic (6). Assessment for drug-drug interactions of M17055 in metabolism, distribution and excretion. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:1161-72.

Nakajima H, Nakanishi T, Nakai K et al. Studies on the metabolic fate of M17055, a novel diuretic (4): species difference in metabolic pathway and identification of human CYP isoform responsible for the metabolism of M17055. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:60-74.

Nakajima M, Fujiki Y, Kyo S et al. Pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel in ovarian cancer patients and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and MDR1. J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 45:674-82.

Nakajima M, Kobayashi K, Oshima K et al. Activation of phenacetin O-deethylase activity by alpha-naphthoflavone in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:885-98.

Nakajima M, Nakamura S, Tokudome S, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Azelastine N-demethylation by cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes: evaluation of approach to predict the contribution of multiple CYPs. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1381-91.

Nakajima M, Ohyama K, Nakamura S, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Inhibitory effects of azelastine and its metabolites on drug oxidation catalyzed by human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:792-7.

Nakajima M, Suzuki M, Yamaji R et al. Isoform selective inhibition and inactivation of human cytochrome P450s by methylenedioxyphenyl compounds. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:1191-202.

Nakajima M, Suzuki T, Sasaki T et al. Effects of chronic administration of glucocorticoid on midazolam pharmacokinetics in humans. Ther Drug Monit 1999; 21:507-13.

Nakajima M, Tane K, Nakamura S, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Evaluation of approach to predict the contribution of multiple cytochrome P450s in drug metabolism using relative activity factor: effects of the differences in expression levels of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b(5) in the expression system and the differences in the marker activities. J Pharm Sci 2002; 91:952-63.

Nakajima M, Yoshida R, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Inhibition and inactivation of human cytochrome P450 isoforms by phenethyl isothiocyanate. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1110-3.

Nakajima T, Elovaara E, Gonzalez FJ et al. Styrene metabolism by cDNA-expressed human hepatic and pulmonary cytochromes P450. Chem Res Toxicol 1994; 7:891-6.

Nakajima T, Elovaara E, Gonzalez FJ, Gelboin HV, Vainio H, Aoyama T. Characterization of the human cytochrome P450 isozymes responsible for styrene metabolism. IARC Sci Publ 1993; 127:101-8.

Nakajima T, Wang RS, Elovaara E et al. Toluene metabolism by cDNA-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450. Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 53:271-7.

Nakajima Y, Yoshitani T, Fukushima-Uesaka H et al. Impact of the haplotype CYP3A4*16B harboring the Thr185Ser substitution on paclitaxel metabolism in Japanese patients with cancer. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 80:179-91.

Nakamura A, Hirota T, Morino A et al. Cytochrome P450 isoforms responsible for the N-deethylation and cyclohexane-hydroxylation of NS-21. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:243-52.

Nakamura A, Tougou K, Kitazumi H et al. Effects of etodolac on P450 isoform-specific activities in human hepatic microsomes. Arzneimittelforschung 2005; 55:744-8.

Nakamura A, Tougou K, Kitazumi H et al. Effects of irsogladine on P450-isoform specific activities in human hepatic microsomes. Arzneimittelforschung 2006; 56:547-52.

Nakamura H, Ariyoshi N, Okada K, Nakasa H, Nakazawa K, Kitada M. CYP1A1 is a major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of granisetron in human liver microsomes. Curr Drug Metab 2005; 6:469-80.

Nakamura H, Nakasa H, Ishii I et al. Effects of endogenous steroids on CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism by human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:534-40.

Nakamura H, Ohtsuka T, Enomoto H et al. Effect of levofloxacin on theophylline clearance during theophylline and clarithromycin combination therapy. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35:691-3.

Nakamura H, Torimoto N, Ishii I et al. CYP3A4 and CYP3A7-mediated carbamazepine 10,11-epoxidation are activated by differential endogenous steroids. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:432-8.

Nakamura K, Ariyoshi N, Iwatsubo T et al. Inhibitory effects of nicardipine to cytochrome P450 (CYP) in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:882-5.

Nakamura K, Watanabe A, Okudaira N, Okazaki O, Sudo K. Effect of ion suppression on judgment of enzyme inhibition and avoidance of error by utilizing a stable isotope-labeled probe substrate: example of CYP3A4 inhibition with [13C4,15N] labeled midazolam as a substrate. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:113-8.

Nakamura M, Tanaka E, Misawa S, Shimada T, Imaoka S, Funae Y. Trimethadione metabolism, a useful indicator for assessing hepatic drug-oxidizing capacity. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47:247-51.

Nakamura T, Sakaeda T, Horinouchi M et al. Effect of the mutation (C3435T) at exon 26 of the MDR1 gene on expression level of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in duodenal enterocytes of healthy Japanese subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:297-303.

Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S et al. Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:177-83.

Nakashima A, Kawashita H, Masuda N et al. Identification of cytochrome P450 forms involved in the 4-hydroxylation of valsartan, a potent and specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:589-602.

Nakatsuka A, Nagai M, Yabe H et al. Effect of clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of cabergoline in healthy controls and in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Pharmacol Sci 2006; 100:59-64.

Nalda-Molina R, Valenzuela B, Ramon-Lopez A, Miguel-Lillo B, Soto-Matos A, Perez-Ruixo JJ. Population pharmacokinetics meta-analysis of plitidepsin (Aplidin) in cancer subjects. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009; 64:97-108.

Nallani SC, Genter MB, Desai PB. Increased activity of CYP3A enzyme in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes treated with docetaxel: comparative evaluation with paclitaxel. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001; 48:115-22.

Nallani SC, Glauser TA, Hariparsad N et al. Dose-dependent induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and activation of pregnane X receptor by topiramate. Epilepsia 2003; 44:1521-8.

Nallani SC, Goodwin B, Buckley AR, Buckley DJ, Desai PB. Differences in the induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 by taxane anticancer drugs, docetaxel and paclitaxel, assessed employing primary human hepatocytes. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2004; 54:219-29.

Nam RK, Zhang WW, Trachtenberg J et al. Comprehensive assessment of candidate genes and serological markers for the detection of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12:1429-37.

Nannelli A, Chirulli V, Longo V, Gervasi PG. Expression and induction by rifampicin of CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP2B and CYP3A in liver, kidney and airways of pig. Toxicology 2008; 252:105-12.

Naoe T, Takeyama K, Yokozawa T et al. Analysis of genetic polymorphism in NQO1, GST-M1, GST-T1, and CYP3A4 in 469 Japanese patients with therapy-related leukemia/ myelodysplastic syndrome and de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6:4091-5.

Naraharisetti SB, Lin YS, Rieder M et al. Human Liver Expression of CYP2C8: gender, age and genotype effects. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:889-93.

Narimatsu S, Masubuchi Y, Hosokawa S, Ohmori S, Kitada M, Suzuki T. Involvement of a cytochrome P4502D subfamily in human liver microsomal bunitrolol 4-hydroxylation. Biol Pharm Bull 1994; 17:803-7.

Narimatsu S, Takemi C, Tsuzuki D et al. Stereoselective metabolism of bufuralol racemate and enantiomers in human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 303:172-8.

Narimatsu S, Yonemoto R, Saito K et al. Oxidative metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (Foxy) by human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol 2006; 71:1377-85.

Naritomi Y, Terashita S, Kagayama A. Identification and relative contributions of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of glibenclamide and lansoprazole: evaluation of an approach based on the in vitro substrate disappearance rate. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:415-27.

Nassar AE, King I, Paris BL et al. An in vitro evaluation of the victim and perpetrator potential of the anticancer agent laromustine (VNP40101M), based on reaction phenotyping and inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1922-30.

Nassr N, Huennemeyer A, Herzog R et al. Effects of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68:580-7.

Nassr N, Lahu G, von Richter O et al. Lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between steady-state roflumilast and single-dose midazolam in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:365-70.

Nath A, Atkins W. Principal component analysis of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 probe substrate/inhibitor panels. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2151-5.

Nath A, Fernández C, Lampe JN, Atkins WM. Spectral resolution of a second binding site for Nile Red on cytochrome P4503A4. Arch Biochem Biophys 2008; 474:198-204.

Nath A, Grinkova YV, Sligar SG, Atkins WM. Ligand binding to cytochrome P450 3A4 in phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs: the effect of model membranes. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:28309-20.

Natsui K, Mizuno Y, Tani N, Yabuki M, Komuro S. Identification of CYP3A4 as the primary cytochrome P450 responsible for the metabolism of tandospirone by human liver microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 32:233-40.

Navari RM. Aprepitant: a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2004; 4:715-24.

Negredo E, Moltó J, Puig J et al. Ezetimibe, a promising lipid-lowering agent for the treatment of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected patients with poor response to statins. AIDS 2006; 20:2159-64.

Nekvindová J, Masek V, Veinlichová A et al. Inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activities by adefovir and tenofovir. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:1165-77.

Nelson MH, Dolder CR. A review of lapatinib ditosylate in the treatment of refractory or advanced breast cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2007; 3:665-73.

Netsch MI, Gutmann H, Schmidlin CB, Aydogan C, Drewe J. Induction of CYP1A by green tea extract in human intestinal cell lines. Planta Med 2006; 72:514-20.

Neubauer H, Günesdogan B, Hanefeld C, Spiecker M, Mügge A. Lipophilic statins interfere with the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel on platelet function-a flow cytometry study. Eur Heart J 2003; 24:1744-9.

Neubauer H, Mügge A. Thienopyridines and statins: assessing a potential drug-drug interaction. Curr Pharm Des 2006; 12:1271-80.

Neuvonen PJ, Jalava KM. Itraconazole drastically increases plasma concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60:54-61.

Neuvonen PJ, Kantola T, Kivistö KT. Simvastatin but not pravastatin is very susceptible to interaction with the CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63:332-41.

Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT. Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 80:565-81.

Newman MJ, Dixon R, Toyonaga B. OC144-093, a novel P glycoprotein inhibitor for the enhancement of anti-epileptic therapy. Novartis Found Symp 2002; 243:213-35.

Newton DJ, Wang RW, Lu AY. Cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Evaluation of specificities in the in vitro metabolism of therapeutic agents by human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:154-8.

Ng MC, Young RP, Critchley JA, Leung NW, Lau JW, Li AK. Urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion in Hong Kong Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and other chronic liver diseases. Cancer 1996; 77:1427-33.

Ngui JS, Chen Q, Shou M et al. In vitro stimulation of warfarin metabolism by quinidine: increases in the formation of 4’- and 10-hydroxywarfarin. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:877-86.

Ngui JS, Tang W, Stearns RA et al. Cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated interaction of diclofenac and quinidine. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1043-50.

Nguyen TA, Diodati JG, Pharand C. Resistance to clopidogrel: a review of the evidence. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45:1157-64.

Nicandro JP, Tsourounis C, Frassetto L, Guglielmo BJ. In vivo effect of I’m-Yunity on hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4. J Herb Pharmacother 2007; 7:39-56.

Nicolas JM, Collart P, Gerin B et al. In vitro evaluation of potential drug interactions with levetiracetam, a new antiepileptic agent. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:250-4.

Nicolas JM, Whomsley R, Collart P, Roba J. In vitro inhibition of human liver drug metabolizing enzymes by second generation antihistamines. Chem Biol Interact 1999; 123:63-79.

Nicoli R, Bartolini M, Rudaz S, Andrisano V, Veuthey JL. Development of immobilized enzyme reactors based on human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes for phase I drug metabolism studies. J Chromatogr A 2008; 1206:2-10.

Nicolo C, Flück CE, Mullis PE, Pandey AV. Restoration of mutant cytochrome P450 reductase activity by external flavin. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010; 321:245-52.

Niel E, Scherrmann JM. Colchicine today. Joint Bone Spine 2006; 73:672-8.

Nielsen KK, Flinois JP, Beaune P, Brøsen K. The biotransformation of clomipramine in vitro, identification of the cytochrome P450s responsible for the separate metabolic pathways. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 277:1659-64.

Nielsen TL, Rasmussen BB, Flinois JP, Beaune P, Brosen K. In vitro metabolism of quinidine: the (3S)-3-hydroxylation of quinidine is a specific marker reaction for cytochrome P-4503A4 activity in human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 289:31-7.

Niemelä O, Parkkila S, Juvonen RO, Viitala K, Gelboin HV, Pasanen M. Cytochromes P450 2A6, 2E1, and 3A and production of protein-aldehyde adducts in the liver of patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. J Hepatol 2000; 33:893-901.

Niemi M, Backman JT, Fromm MF, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Pharmacokinetic interactions with rifampicin: clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:819-50.

Niemi M, Backman JT, Juntti-Patinen L, Neuvonen M, Neuvonen PJ. Coadministration of gemfibrozil and itraconazole has only a minor effect on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 substrate nateglinide. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:208-17.

Niemi M, Backman JT, Neuvonen M, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Rifampin decreases the plasma concentrations and effects of repaglinide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:495-500.

Niemi M, Kivistö KT, Diczfalusy U et al. Effect of SLCO1B1 polymorphism on induction of CYP3A4 by rifampicin. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:565-8.

Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. The cytochrome P4503A4 inhibitor clarithromycin increases the plasma concentrations and effects of repaglinide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:58-65.

Niemi M, Tornio A, Pasanen MK, Fredrikson H, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. Itraconazole, gemfibrozil and their combination markedly raise the plasma concentrations of loperamide. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:463-72.

Nieminen TH, Hagelberg NM, Saari TI et al. Grapefruit juice enhances the exposure to oral oxycodone. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2010; 107:782-8.

Niemira M, Wiśniewska A, Mazerska Z. Polymorphism and the level of P450 gene expression in xenobiotic metabolism. Postepy Biochem 2009; 55:279-89.

Nieto N, Friedman SL, Cederbaum AI. Stimulation and proliferation of primary rat hepatic stellate cells by cytochrome P450 2E1-derived reactive oxygen species. Hepatology 2002; 35:62-73.

Nieto N, Friedman SL, Cederbaum AI. Cytochrome P450 2E1-derived reactive oxygen species mediate paracrine stimulation of collagen I protein synthesis by hepatic stellate cells. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:9853-64.

Niioka T, Uno T, Yasui-Furukori N, Shimizu M, Sugawara K, Tateishi T. Identification of the time-point which gives a plasma rabeprazole concentration that adequately reflects the area under the concentration-time curve. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:855-61.

Niioka T, Yasui-Furukori N, Uno T, Sugawara K, Kaneko S, Tateishi T. Identification of a single time-point for plasma lansoprazole measurement that adequately reflects area under the concentration-time curve. Ther Drug Monit 2006; 28:321-5.

Nishi K, Ishii T, Wada M et al. The expression of intestinal CYP3A4 in the piglet model. Transplant Proc 2004; 36:361-3.

Nishida H, Hirai H, Emoto C, Iwasaki K. Metabolism of CJ-036878, N-(3-phenethoxybenzyl)-4-hydroxybenzamide, in liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes: metabolite identification by LC-UV/MS(n) and (1)H-NMR. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:1394-407.

Nishigaki R, Totsuka Y, Takamura-Enya T, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. Identification of cytochrome P-450s involved in the formation of APNH from norharman with aniline. Mutat Res 2004; 562:19-25.

Nishikawa H, Inoue T, Izumi T, Koyama T. Synergistic effects of tandospirone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the contextual conditioned fear stress response in rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2007; 17:643-50.

Nishikawa H, Inoue T, Masui T, Izumi T, Koyama T. Effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibitors on the anxiolytic action of tandospirone in rat contextual conditioned fear. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007; 31:926-31.

Nishikawa H, Inoue T, Masui T, Izumi T, Nakagawa S, Koyama T. Pharmacokinetic interaction between tandospirone and fluvoxamine in the rat contextual conditioned fear stress model and its functional consequence: Involvement of cytochrome P450 3A4. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2008; 62:591-6.

Nishikawa M, Ariyoshi N, Kotani A et al. Effects of continuous ingestion of green tea or grape seed extracts on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004; 19:280-9.

Nishimura M, Imai T, Morioka Y, Kuribayashi S, Kamataki T, Naito S. Effects of NO-1886 (Ibrolipim), a lipoprotein lipase-promoting agent, on gene induction of cytochrome P450s, carboxylesterases, and sulfotransferases in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004; 19:422-9.

Nishimura M, Koeda A, Suganuma Y et al. Comparison of inducibility of CYP1A and CYP3A mRNAs by prototypical inducers in primary cultures of human, cynomolgus monkey, and rat hepatocytes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:178-86.

Nishimura M, Naito S, Yokoi T. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiles of human nuclear receptor subfamilies. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004; 19:135-49.

Nishimura M, Narimatsu S, Naito S. Evaluation of induction potency of new drug candidates on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 using real-time one-step RT-PCR in primary cultures of cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2009; 24:446-50.

Nishimura M, Ueda N, Naito S. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the gene induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms, UGT-dependent glucuronosyl transferase isoforms, and ABCB1 in primary culture of human hepatocytes. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26:1052-6.

Nishimura M, Yaguti H, Yoshitsugu H, Naito S, Satoh T. Tissue distribution of mRNA expression of human cytochrome P450 isoforms assessed by high-sensitivity real-time reverse transcription PCR. Yakugaku Zasshi 2003; 123:369-75.

Nishimura M, Yokoi T, Tateno C et al. Induction of human CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in primary culture of hepatocytes from chimeric mice with humanized liver. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2005; 20:121-6.

Nishimura M, Yoshitsugu H, Naito S, Hiraoka I. Evaluation of gene induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in primary culture of human hepatocytes using high-sensitivity real-time reverse transcription PCR. Yakugaku Zasshi 2002; 122:339-61.

Nishio S, Watanabe H, Kosuge K, Uchida S, Hayashi H, Ohashi K. Interaction between amlodipine and simvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Hypertens Res 2005; 28:223-7.

Nishiya Y, Nakamura K, Okudaira N, Abe K, Kobayashi N, Okazaki O. Effects of organic solvents on the time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by diazepam. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:1-8.

Nivoix Y, Levêque D, Herbrecht R, Koffel JC, Beretz L, Ubeaud-Sequier G. The enzymatic basis of drug-drug interactions with systemic triazole antifungals. Clin Pharmacokinet 2008; 47:779-92.

Niwa T, Inoue S, Shiraga T, Takagi A. No inhibition of cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes by sulpiride, an antipsychotic drug. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:188-91.

Niwa T, Murayama N, Emoto C, Yamazaki H. Comparison of kinetic parameters for drug oxidation rates and substrate inhibition potential mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:20-33.

Niwa T, Murayama N, Yamazaki H. Heterotropic cooperativity in oxidation mediated by cytochrome p450. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:453-62.

Niwa T, Murayama N, Yamazaki H. Oxidation of endobiotics mediated by Xenobiotic-metabolizing forms of human cytochrome P450. Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:700-12.

Niwa T, Sato R, Yabusaki Y, Ishibashi F, Katagiri M. Contribution of human hepatic cytochrome P450s and steroidogenic CYP17 to the N-demethylation of aminopyrine. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:187-93.

Niwa T, Shiraga T, Hashimoto T, Kagayama A. Effect of cefixime and cefdinir, oral cephalosporins, on cytochrome P450 activities in human hepatic microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27:97-9.

Niwa T, Shiraga T, Hashimoto T, Kagayama A. Effect of nilvadipine, a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, on cytochrome P450 activities in human hepatic microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27:415-7.

Niwa T, Shiraga T, Ishii I, Kagayama A, Takagi A. Contribution of human hepatic cytochrome p450 isoforms to the metabolism of psychotropic drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:1711-6.

Niwa T, Shiraga T, Mitani Y, Terakawa M, Tokuma Y, Kagayama A. Stereoselective metabolism of cibenzoline, an antiarrhythmic drug, by human and rat liver microsomes: possible involvement of CYP2D and CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1128-34.

Niwa T, Shiraga T, Takagi A. Drug-drug interaction of antifungal drugs. Yakugaku Zasshi 2005; 125:795-805.

Niwa T, Shiraga T, Takagi A. Effect of antifungal drugs on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 activities in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:1805-8.

Niwa T, Shiraga T, Yamasaki S, Ishibashi K, Ohno Y, Kagayama A. In vitro activation of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation and nifedipine oxidation in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:717-29.

Niwa T, Yabusaki Y, Honma K et al. Contribution of human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms to regioselective hydroxylation of steroid hormones. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:539-47.

Niwa T, Yamamoto S, Saito M et al. Effects of serotonin-3 receptor antagonists on cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2006; 29:1931-5.

Niwa T, Yamamoto S, Saito M, Shiraga T, Takagi A. Effect of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on cytochrome p450 activities in human liver microsomes. Yakugaku Zasshi 2007; 127:209-16.

Nock NL, Tang D, Rundle A et al. Associations between smoking, polymorphisms in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and conjugation genes and PAH-DNA adducts in prostate tumors differ by race. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16:1236-45.

Nogal A, Coelho A, Catarino R, Morais A, Lobo F, Medeiros R. The CYP3A4 *1B polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility in a Portuguese population. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2007; 177:149-52.

Noguchi S. Predictive factors for response to docetaxel in human breast cancers. Cancer Sci 2006; 97:813-20.

Nolin TD, Appiah K, Kendrick SA, Le P, McMonagle E, Himmelfarb J. Hemodialysis acutely improves hepatic CYP3A4 metabolic activity. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17:2363-7.

Nolting A, Abramowitz W. Lack of interaction between citalopram and the CYP3A4 substrate triazolam. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20:750-5.

Nomoto M, Nakatsuka A, Nagai M et al. Inter- and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variations in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2005; 45:895-8.

Noracharttiyapot W, Nagai Y, Matsubara T et al. Construction of several human-derived stable cell lines displaying distinct profiles of CYP3A4 induction. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2006; 21:99-108.

Noreault TL, Kostrubsky VE, Wood SG et al. Arsenite decreases CYP3A4 and RXRalpha in primary human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:993-1003.

Nowak SN, Edwards DJ, Clarke A, Anderson GD, Jaber LA. Pioglitazone: effect on CYP3A4 activity. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 42:1299-302.

Nygren P, Hande K, Petty KJ et al. Lack of effect of aprepitant on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in cancer patients. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2005; 55:609-16.

Nyunt MM, Becker S, MacFarland RT et al. Pharmacokinetic effect of AMD070, an Oral CXCR4 antagonist, on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates midazolam and dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008; 47:559-65.

Obach RS. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents of St. John’s Wort, an herbal preparation used in the treatment of depression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 294:88-95.

Obach RS. Mechanism of cytochrome P4503A4- and 2D6-catalyzed dehydrogenation of ezlopitant as probed with isotope effects using five deuterated analogs. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1599-607.

Obach RS. Predicting drug-drug interactions from in vitro drug metabolism data: challenges and recent advances. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 2009; 12:81-9.

Obach RS, Cox LM, Tremaine LM. Sertraline is metabolized by multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes, monoamine oxidases, and glucuronyl transferases in human: an in vitro study. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:262-70.

Obach RS, Margolis JM, Logman MJ. In vitro metabolism of CP-122,721 ((2S,3S)-2-phenyl-3-[(5-trifluoromethoxy-2-methoxy)benzylamino]piperidine), a non-peptide antagonist of the substance P receptor. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:336-49.

Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE. Measurement of Michaelis constants for cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation reactions using a substrate depletion approach. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:831-7.

Obach RS, Ryder TF. Metabolism of ramelteon in human liver microsomes and correlation with the effect of fluvoxamine on ramelteon pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1381-91.

Obach RS, Zhang QY, Dunbar D, Kaminsky LS. Metabolic characterization of the major human small intestinal cytochrome p450s. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:347-52.

O’Brien SG, Meinhardt P, Bond E et al. Effects of imatinib mesylate (STI571, Glivec) on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin, a cytochrome p450 3A4 substrate, in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Br J Cancer 2003; 89:1855-9.

O’Bryant CL, Lieu CH, Leong S et al. A dose-ranging study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug (SAAND), OSI-461, in patients with advanced cancer, in the fasted and fed state. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009; 63:477-89.

Ociepa-Zawal M, Rubiś B, Filas V, Breborowicz J, Trzeciak WH. Studies on CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms in breast cancer patients. Ginekol Pol 2009; 80:819-23.

O’Connor JE, Martínez A, Castell JV, Gómez-Lechón MJ. Multiparametric characterization by flow cytometry of flow-sorted subpopulations of a human hepatoma cell line useful for drug research. Cytometry A 2005; 63:48-58.

Oda K, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshimura T, Wada K, Nishizono N. Synthetic models related to furanocoumarin-CYP 3A4 interactions. comparison of furanocoumarin, coumarin, and benzofuran dimers as potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 activity. Chem Pharm Bull 2007; 55:1419-21.

Oda M, Kotegawa T, Tsutsumi K, Ohtani Y, Kuwatani K, Nakano S. The effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bromazepam in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:615-9.

Oda Y, Furuichi K, Tanaka K et al. Metabolism of a new local anesthetic, ropivacaine, by human hepatic cytochrome P450. Anesthesiology 1995; 82:214-20.

Oda Y, Hirayama T, Watanabe T. Genotoxic activation of the environmental pollutant 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene in Salmonella typhimurium umu strains expressing human cytochrome P450 and N-acetyltransferase. Toxicol Lett 2009; 188:258-62.

Oda Y, Kharasch ED. Metabolism of levo-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) by human liver cytochrome P450: involvement of CYP3A4 characterized by atypical kinetics with two binding sites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 297:410-22.

Oda Y, Kharasch ED. Metabolism of methadone and levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) by human intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4): potential contribution of intestinal metabolism to presystemic clearance and bioactivation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 298:1021-32.

Oda Y, Mizutani K, Hase I, Nakamoto T, Hamaoka N, Asada A. Fentanyl inhibits metabolism of midazolam: competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 in vitro. Br J Anaesth 1999; 82:900-3.

Oda Y, Watanabe T, Terao Y, Nukaya H, Wakabayashi K. Genotoxic activation of 2-phenylbenzotriazole-type compounds by human cytochrome P4501A1 and N-acetyltransferase expressed in Salmonella typhimurium umu strains. Mutat Res 2008; 654:52-7.

O’Donnell CJ, Grime K, Courtney P, Slee D, Riley RJ. The development of a cocktail CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP3A5 inhibition assay and a preliminary assessment of utility in a drug discovery setting. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:381-5.

Oesterheld JR. A review of developmental aspects of cytochrome P450. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1998; 8:161-74.

Offman EM, Freeman DJ, Dresser GK, Munoz C, Bend JR, Bailey DG. Red wine-cisapride interaction: comparison with grapefruit juice. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:17-23.

Oganesian A, Shilling AD, Young-Sciame R et al. Desvenlafaxine and venlafaxine exert minimal in vitro inhibition of human cytochrome p450 and p-glycoprotein activities. Psychopharmacol Bull 2009; 42:47-63.

Ogasawara A, Kume T, Kazama E. Effect of oral ketoconazole on intestinal first-pass effect of midazolam and fexofenadine in cynomolgus monkeys. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:410-8.

Ogg MS, Gray TJ, Gibson GG. Development of an in vitro reporter gene assay to assess xenobiotic induction of the human CYP3A4 gene. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1997; 22:311-3.

Ogg MS, Williams JM, Tarbit M, Goldfarb PS, Gray TJ, Gibson GG. A reporter gene assay to assess the molecular mechanisms of xenobiotic-dependent induction of the human CYP3A4 gene in vitro. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:269-79.

Ogino M, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y. Selective suppressions of human CYP3A forms, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7, by troglitazone in HepG2 cells. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:42-6.

Oh WS, Kim DN, Jung J, Cho KH, No KT. New combined model for the prediction of regioselectivity in cytochrome P450/3A4 mediated metabolism. J Chem Inf Model 2008; 48:591-601.

Ohe T, Hirobe M, Mashino T. Novel metabolic pathway of estrone and 17beta-estradiol catalyzed by cytochrome P-450. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:110-2.

Ohhira S, Enomoto M, Matsui H. In vitro metabolism of tributyltin and triphenyltin by human cytochrome P-450 isoforms. Toxicology 2006; 228:171-7.

Ohkura K, Kawaguchi Y, Watanabe Y, Masubuchi Y, Shinohara Y, Hori H. Flexible structure of cytochrome P450: promiscuity of ligand binding in the CYP3A4 heme pocket. Anticancer Res 2009; 29:935-42.

Ohmori S, Nakasa H, Asanome K et al. Differential catalytic properties in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substrates among CYP3A enzymes expressed in COS-7 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1380:297-304.

Ohnishi A, Matsuo H, Yamada S et al. Effect of furanocoumarin derivatives in grapefruit juice on the uptake of vinblastine by Caco-2 cells and on the activity of cytochrome P450 3A4. Br J Pharmacol 2000; 130:1369-77.

Ohno M, Motojima K, Okano T, Taniguchi A. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by phenobarbital in layered co-culture of a human liver cell line and endothelial cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009; 32:813-7.

Ohno T, Nakade S, Nakayama K et al. Absolute bioavailability of imidafenacin after oral administration to healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65:197-202.

Ohno T, Nakayama K, Nakade S et al. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of imidafenacin in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 48:330-4.

Ohno Y, Hisaka A, Suzuki H. General framework for the quantitative prediction of CYP3A4-mediated oral drug interactions based on the AUC increase by coadministration of standard drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:681-96.

Ohno Y, Hisaka A, Ueno M, Suzuki H. General framework for the prediction of oral drug interactions caused by CYP3A4 induction from in vivo information. Clin Pharmacokinet 2008; 47:669-80.

Ohta T, Nagahashi M, Hosoi S, Tsukamoto S. Dihydroxybergamottin caproate as a potent and stable CYP3A4 inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem 2002; 10:969-73.

Ohyama K, Nakajima M, Nakamura S, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. A significant role of human cytochrome P450 2C8 in amiodarone N-deethylation: an approach to predict the contribution with relative activity factor. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1303-10.

Ohyama K, Nakajima M, Suzuki M, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T. Inhibitory effects of amiodarone and its N-deethylated metabolite on human cytochrome P450 activities: prediction of in vivo drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49:244-53.

Ohyama Y, Yamasaki T. Eight cytochrome P450s catalyze vitamin D metabolism. Front Biosci 2004; 9:3007-18.

Oldham HG, Clarke SE. In vitro identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of R(+)- and S(-)-carvedilol. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:970-7.

Olesen OV, Linnet K. Studies on the stereoselective metabolism of citalopram by human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes. Pharmacology 1999; 59:298-309.

Olesen OV, Linnet K. Fluvoxamine-Clozapine drug interaction: inhibition in vitro of five cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in clozapine metabolism. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20:35-42.

Olesen OV, Linnet K. Identification of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms mediating in vitro N-dealkylation of perphenazine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 50:563-71.

Olesen OV, Linnet K. Contributions of five human cytochrome P450 isoforms to the N-demethylation of clozapine in vitro at low and high concentrations. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41:823-32.

Olinga P, Elferink MG, Draaisma AL et al. Coordinated induction of drug transporters and phase I and II metabolism in human liver slices. Eur J Pharm Sci 2008; 33:380-9.

Oliveira E, Marsh S, van Booven DJ, Amorim A, Prata MJ, McLeod HL. Pharmacogenetically relevant polymorphisms in Portugal. Pharmacogenomics 2007; 8:703-12.

Oliveira E, Pereira R, Amorim A, McLeod H, Prata MJ. Patterns of pharmacogenetic diversity in African populations: role of ancient and recent history. Pharmacogenomics 2009; 10:1413-22.

Oliver P, Luvomirov R, Carcas A. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, pregnane/steroid X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor in 207 healthy Spanish volunteers. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010; 48:635-9.

Olkkola KT, Ahonen J. Midazolam and other benzodiazepines. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2008; 335-60.

Olkkola KT, Isohanni MH, Hamunen K, Neuvonen PJ. The effect of erythromycin and fluvoxamine on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous lidocaine. Anesth Analg 2005; 100:1352-6.

Olsen AK, Hansen KT, Friis C. Pig hepatocytes as an in vitro model to study the regulation of human CYP3A4: prediction of drug-drug interactions with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol. Chem Biol Interact 1997; 107:93-108.

Olubodun JO, Ochs HR, von Moltke LL et al. Pharmacokinetic properties of zolpidem in elderly and young adults: possible modulation by testosterone in men. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56:297-304.

Olver I, Shelukar S, Thompson KC. Nanomedicines in the treatment of emesis during chemotherapy: focus on aprepitant. Int J Nanomedicine 2007; 2:13-8.

Olyaei AJ, deMattos AM, Norman DJ, Bennett WM. Interaction between tacrolimus and nefazodone in a stable renal transplant recipient. Pharmacotherapy 1998; 18:1356-9.

Omasa T, Kim K, Hiramatsu S et al. Construction and evaluation of drug-metabolizing cell line for bioartificial liver support system. Biotechnol Prog 2005; 21:161-7.

Onaivi ES. Cannabinoid receptors in brain: pharmacogenetics, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology, and potential therapeutic applications. Int Rev Neurobiol 2009; 88:335-69.

Oneda B, Crettol S, Sirot EJ, Bochud M, Ansermot N, Eap CB. The P450 oxidoreductase genotype is associated with CYP3A activity in vivo as measured by the midazolam phenotyping test. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2009; 19:877-83.

Ono S, Hatanaka T, Miyazawa S et al. Human liver microsomal diazepam metabolism using cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s: role of CYP2B6, 2C19 and the 3A subfamily. Xenobiotica 1996; 26:1155-66.

Ooi JP, Kuroyanagi M, Sulaiman SF, Muhammad TS, Tan ML. Andrographolide and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide inhibit cytochrome P450s in HepG2 hepatoma cells. Life Sci 2011; 88:447-54.

Oostendorp RL, Huitema A, Rosing H et al. Coadministration of ritonavir strongly enhances the apparent oral bioavailability of docetaxel in patients with solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:4228-33.

Oostendorp RL, Marchetti S, Beijnen JH, Mazzanti R, Schellens JH. The effect of hydroxyurea on P-glycoprotein/BCRP-mediated transport and CYP3A metabolism of imatinib mesylate. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2007; 59:855-60.

Op den Buijsch RA, Christiaans MH, Stolk LM et al. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics: influence of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) and cytochrome (CYP) 3A polymorphisms. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2007; 21:427-35.

Oparil S. Newly emerging pharmacologic differences in angiotensin II receptor blockers. Am J Hypertens 2000; 13:18-24.

Ordovás Baines JP, Climent Grana E, Jover Botella A, Valero García I. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the new oral anticoagulants dabigatran and rivaroxaban. Farm Hosp 2009; 33:125-33.

Orlando R, Piccoli P, de Martin S, Padrini R, Palatini P. Effect of the CYP3A4 inhibitor erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of lignocaine and its pharmacologically active metabolites in subjects with normal and impaired liver function. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55:86-93.

Osaka Y, Inomata S, Tanaka E et al. Effect of propofol on ropivacaine metabolism in human liver microsomes. J Anesth 2006; 20:60-3.

Osanai T, Ohkubo T, Yasui N, Kondo T, Kaneko S. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single oral dose of brotizolam. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 58:476-81.

Ostberg T, Bertilsson G, Jendeberg L, Berkenstam A, Uppenberg J. Identification of residues in the PXR ligand binding domain critical for species specific and constitutive activation. Eur J Biochem 2002; 269:4896-904.

Oudard S, Legrier ME, Boyé K et al. Activity of docetaxel with or without estramustine phosphate versus mitoxantrone in androgen dependent and independent human prostate cancer xenografts. J Urol 2003; 169:1729-34.

Ouellet D, Bramson C, Roman D et al. Effects of three cytochrome P450 inhibitors, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and paroxetine, on the pharmacokinetics of lasofoxifene. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:59-66.

Ourlin JC, Baader M, Fraser D, Halpert JR, Meyer UA. Cloning and functional expression of a first inducible avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP3A subfamily (CYP3A37). Arch Biochem Biophys 2000; 373:375-84.

Ourlin JC, Jounaïdi Y, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Role of the liver-enriched transcription factors C/EBP alpha and DBP in the expression of human CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. J Hepatol 1997; 26 Suppl 2:54-62.

Owen A, Chandler B, Back DJ, Khoo SH. Expression of pregnane-X-receptor transcript in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and correlation with MDR1 mRNA. Antivir Ther 2004; 9:819-21.

Owen A, Pirmohamed M, Tettey JN, Morgan P, Chadwick D, Park BK. Carbamazepine is not a substrate for P-glycoprotein. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:345-9.

Owen JR, Nemeroff CB. New antidepressants and the cytochrome P450 system: focus on venlafaxine, nefazodone, and mirtazapine. Depress Anxiety 1998; 7 Suppl 1:24-32.

Owen RT. Extended-release paliperidone: efficacy, safety and tolerability profile of a new atypical antipsychotic. Drugs Today 2007; 43:249-58.

Ozaki H, Ishikawa CT, Ishii T et al. Clearance rates of cerivastatin metabolites in a patient with cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. J Clin Pharm Ther 2005; 30:189-92.

Ozawa S. Drug-drug interaction in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Rinsho Byori 2002; 50:146-50.

Ozawa S, Ohta K, Miyajima A et al. Metabolic activation of o-phenylphenol to a major cytotoxic metabolite, phenylhydroquinone: role of human CYP1A2 and rat CYP2C11/CYP2E1. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:1005-17.

Ozdemir M, Aktan Y, Boydag BS, Cingi MI, Musmul A. Interaction between grapefruit juice and diazepam in humans. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1998; 23:55-9.

Ozdemir V, Kalow W, Tang BK et al. Evaluation of the genetic component of variability in CYP3A4 activity: a repeated drug administration method. Pharmacogenetics 2000; 10:373-88.

Ozsvár Z, Solymossi Z, Monostory K. Methyldopa-induced acute reactive hepatitis in pregnancy, drug-metabolizing capacity of the liver. Orv Hetil 2010; 151:457-61.

Oztekin S, Mavioglu O, Elar Z, Guven H, Kalkan S, Gurpinar T. The effects of gender and menopause on serum lidocaine levels in smokers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2005; 30:231-4.

Paakkari I. Cardiotoxicity of new antihistamines and cisapride. Toxicol Lett 2002; 127:279-84.

Pabarcus MK, Hoe N, Sadeghi S, Patterson C, Wiertz E, Correia MA. CYP3A4 ubiquitination by gp78 (the tumor autocrine motility factor receptor, AMFR) and CHIP E3 ligases. Arch Biochem Biophys 2009; 483:66-74.

Padhi D, Harris R. Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of cinacalcet hydrochloride. Clin Pharmacokinet 2009; 48:303-11.

Paek IB, Kim SY, Kim MS, Kim J, Lee G, Lee HS. Characterization of human liver cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the O-demethylation of a new P-glycoprotein inhibitor HM-30181. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2007; 70:1356-64.

Page RL 2nd, Klem PM, Rogers C. Potential elevation of tacrolimus trough concentrations with concomitant metronidazole therapy. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:1109-13.

Pai AB, Norenberg J, Boyd A, Raj D, Chan LN. Effect of intravenous iron supplementation on hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 activity in hemodialysis patients: a prospective, open-label study. Clin Ther 2007; 29:2699-705.

Paine MF, Criss AB, Watkins PB. Two major grapefruit juice components differ in intestinal CYP3A4 inhibition kinetic and binding properties. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1146-53.

Paine MF, Criss AB, Watkins PB. Two major grapefruit juice components differ in time to onset of intestinal CYP3A4 inhibition. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312:1151-60.

Paine MF, Hart HL, Ludington SS, Haining RL, Rettie AE, Zeldin DC. The human intestinal cytochrome P450 “pie”. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:880-6.

Paine MF, Leung LY, Lim HK et al. Identification of a novel route of extraction of sirolimus in human small intestine: roles of metabolism and secretion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 301:174-86.

Paine MF, Ludington SS, Chen ML, Stewart PW, Huang SM, Watkins PB. Do men and women differ in proximal small intestinal CYP3A or P-glycoprotein expression? Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:426-33.

Paine MF, Schmiedlin-Ren P, Watkins PB. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 expression in human small bowel: interindividual variation and inhibition by ketoconazole. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:360-4.

Paine MF, Shen DD, Kunze KL et al. First-pass metabolism of midazolam by the human intestine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60:14-24.

Paine MF, Wagner DA, Hoffmaster KA, Watkins PB. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein mediate the interaction between an oral erythromycin breath test and rifampin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:524-35.

Paine MF, Widmer WW, Hart HL et al. A furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice establishes furanocoumarins as the mediators of the grapefruit juice-felodipine interaction. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83:1097-105.

Paine MF, Widmer WW, Pusek SN et al. Further characterization of a furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice on drug disposition: studies with cyclosporine. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87:863-71.

Pal D, Mitra AK. MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2006; 1:323-39.

Pal D, Mitra AK. MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-herbal interactions. Life Sci 2006; 78:2131-45.

Palamanda JR, Casciano CN, Norton LA et al. Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2D6 by 5-fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:863-7.

Palovaara S, Kivistö KT, Tapanainen P, Manninen P, Neuvonen PJ, Laine K. Effect of an oral contraceptive preparation containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene on CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam 1’-hydroxylation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 50:333-7.

Palovaara S, Tybring G, Laine K. The effect of ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel on the CYP2C19-mediated metabolism of omeprazole in healthy female subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56:232-7.

Pan L, Belpaire FM. In vitro study on the involvement of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:599-604.

Pan LP, de Vriendt C, Belpaire FM. In-vitro characterization of the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the back oxidation and N-dealkylation of reduced haloperidol. Pharmacogenetics 1998; 8:383-9.

Pan LP, Wijnant P, de Vriendt C, Rosseel MT, Belpaire FM. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the in vitro N-dealkylation of haloperidol. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:557-64.

Pan Y, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z et al. In vitro determination of the effect of Andrographis paniculata extracts and andrographolide on human hepatic cytochrome P450 activities. J Nat Med 2011; 65:440-7.

Pan Y, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z et al. In vitro effects of active constituents and extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus on the activities of three major human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes. Chem Biol Interact 2011; 190:1-8.

Pan YZ, Gao W, Yu AM. MicroRNAs regulate CYP3A4 expression via direct and indirect targeting. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:2112-7.

Pan-Zhou XR, Cretton-Scott E, Zhou XJ, Yang MX, Lasker JM, Sommadossi JP. Role of human liver P450s and cytochrome b5 in the reductive metabolism of 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine (AZT) to 3’-amino-3’-deoxythymidine. Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:757-66.

Parathyras J, Gebhardt S, Hillermann-Rebello R, Grobbelaar N, Venter M, Warnich L. A pharmacogenetic study of CD4 recovery in response to HIV antiretroviral therapy in two South African population groups. J Hum Genet 2009; 54:261-5.

Parimoo B, Mishin VM, Busch CM, Thomas PE. Identification of epitopes on cytochrome P450 3A4/5 recognized by monoclonal antibodies. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003; 414:244-54.

Paris BL, Ogilvie BW, Scheinkoenig JA, Ndikum-Moffor F, Gibson R, Parkinson A. In vitro inhibition and induction of human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by milnacipran. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:2045-54.

Paris PL, Kupelian PA, Hall JM et al. Association between a CYP3A4 genetic variant and clinical presentation in African-American prostate cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8:901-5.

Park EJ, Cho HY, Lee YB. Effect of cimetidine and phenobarbital on metabolite kinetics of omeprazole in rats. Arch Pharm Res 2005; 28:1196-202.

Park H, Lee S, Suh J. Structural and dynamical basis of broad substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4. J Am Chem Soc 2005; 127:13634-42.

Park JE, Kim KB, Bae SK, Moon BS, Liu KH, Shin JG. Contribution of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 to the metabolism of atorvastatin. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:1240-51.

Park JM, Lin YS, Calamia JC et al. Transiently altered acetaminophen metabolism after liver transplantation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 73:545-53.

Park JY, Kim KA, Kim SL. Chloramphenicol is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003; 47:3464-9.

Park JY, Kim KA. Inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil on human cytochrome P(450) isoforms in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 59:407-9.

Park JY, Shon JH, Kim KA et al. Combined effects of itraconazole and CYP2D6*10 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of haloperidol in healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 26:135-42.

Park PW, Seo YH, Ahn JY, Kim KA, Park JY. Effect of CYP3A5*3 genotype on serum carbamazepine concentrations at steady-state in Korean epileptic patients. J Clin Pharm Ther 2009; 34:569-74.

Parker RS, Sontag TJ, Swanson JE, McCormick CC. Discovery, characterization, and significance of the cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase pathway of vitamin E catabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1031:13-21.

Parkinson A, Kazmi F, Buckley DB, Yerino P, Ogilvie BW, Paris BL. System-dependent outcomes during the evaluation of drug candidates as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes: human hepatocytes versus liver microsomes versus recombinant enzymes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2010; 25:16-27.

Parkinson A, Mudra DR, Johnson C, Dwyer A, Carroll KM. The effects of gender, age, ethnicity, and liver cirrhosis on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes and inducibility in cultured human hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004; 199:193-209.

Partanen J, Jalava KM, Neuvonen PJ. Itraconazole increases serum digoxin concentration. Pharmacol Toxicol 1996; 79:274-6.

Parte P, Kupfer D. Oxidation of tamoxifen by human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 1 and FMO3 to tamoxifen-N-oxide and its novel reduction back to tamoxifen by human cytochromes P450 and hemoglobin. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1446-52.

Pascussi JM, Drocourt L, Fabre JM, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Dexamethasone induces pregnane X receptor and retinoid X receptor-alpha expression in human hepatocytes: synergistic increase of CYP3A4 induction by pregnane X receptor activators. Mol Pharmacol 2000; 58:361-72.

Pascussi JM, Drocourt L, Gerbal-Chaloin S, Fabre JM, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Dual effect of dexamethasone on CYP3A4 gene expression in human hepatocytes. Sequential role of glucocorticoid receptor and pregnane X receptor. Eur J Biochem 2001; 268:6346-58.

Pascussi JM, Gerbal-Chaloin S, Drocourt L, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. The expression of CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 genes: a tangle of networks of nuclear and steroid receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta 2003; 1619:243-53.

Pascussi JM, Gerbal-Chaloin S, Fabre JM, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Dexamethasone enhances constitutive androstane receptor expression in human hepatocytes: consequences on cytochrome P450 gene regulation. Mol Pharmacol 2000; 58:1441-50.

Pascussi JM, Gerbal-Chaloin S, Pichard-Garcia L et al. Interleukin-6 negatively regulates the expression of pregnane X receptor and constitutively activated receptor in primary human hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 274:707-13.

Pascussi JM, Jounaidi Y, Drocourt L, Domergue J, Balabaud C, Maurel P, Vilarem MJ. Evidence for the presence of a functional pregnane X receptor response element in the CYP3A7 promoter gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999; 260:377-81.

Patel J, Buddha B, Dey S, Pal D, Mitra AK. In vitro interaction of the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir with herbal constituents: changes in P-gp and CYP3A4 activity. Am J Ther 2004; 11:262-77.

Patel J, Mitra AK. Strategies to overcome simultaneous P-glycoprotein mediated efflux and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of drugs. Pharmacogenomics 2001; 2:401-15.

Patki KC, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. In vitro metabolism of midazolam, triazolam, nifedipine, and testosterone by human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochromes p450: role of cyp3a4 and cyp3a5. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:938-44.

Patterson LH, McKeown SR, Robson T, Gallagher R, Raleigh SM, Orr S. Antitumour prodrug development using cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated activation. Anticancer Drug Des 1999; 14:473-86.

Pauli-Magnus C, Rekersbrink S, Klotz U, Fromm MF. Interaction of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole with P-glycoprotein. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2001; 364:551-7.

Paulose T, Hernández-Ochoa I, Basavarajappa MS, Peretz J, Flaws JA. Increased sensitivity of estrogen receptor alpha overexpressing antral follicles to methoxychlor and its metabolites. Toxicol Sci 2011; 120:447-59.

Paulussen A, Lavrijsen K, Bohets H et al. Two linked mutations in transcriptional regulatory elements of the CYP3A5 gene constitute the major genetic determinant of polymorphic activity in humans. Pharmacogenetics 2000; 10:415-24.

Pautus S, Yee SW, Jayne M, Coogan MP, Simons C. Synthesis and CYP26A1 inhibitory activity of 1-[benzofuran-2-yl-(4-alkyl/aryl-phenyl)-methyl]-1H-triazoles. Bioorg Med Chem 2006; 14:3643-53.

Pavek P, Cerveny L, Svecova L et al. Examination of Glucocorticoid receptor alpha-mediated transcriptional regulation of P-glycoprotein, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9 genes in placental trophoblast cell lines. Placenta 2007; 28:1004-11.

Pavek P, Pospechova K, Svecova L et al. Intestinal cell-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 gene. Biochem Pharmacol 2010; 79:277-87.

Pea F, Baccarani U, Tavio M et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between everolimus and antifungal triazoles in a liver transplant patient. Ann Pharmacother 2008; 42:1711-6.

Pea F, Furlanut M. Pharmacokinetic aspects of treating infections in the intensive care unit: focus on drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:833-68.

Pearce CL, Near AM, van den Berg DJ et al. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Br J Cancer 2009; 100:412-20.

Pearce RE, Gotschall RR, Kearns GL, Leeder JS. Cytochrome P450 Involvement in the biotransformation of cisapride and racemic norcisapride in vitro: differential activity of individual human CYP3A isoforms. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1548-54.

Pearce RE, Leeder JS, Kearns GL. Biotransformation of fluticasone: in vitro characterization. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1035-40.

Pearce RE, Lu W, Wang Y, Uetrecht JP, Correia MA, Leeder JS. Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro. III. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1637-49.

Pearce RE, McIntyre CJ, Madan A et al. Effects of freezing, thawing, and storing human liver microsomes on cytochrome P450 activity. Arch Biochem Biophys 1996; 331:145-69.

Pearce RE, Rodrigues AD, Goldstein JA, Parkinson A. Identification of the human P450 enzymes involved in lansoprazole metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 277:805-16.

Pearce RE, Uetrecht JP, Leeder JS. Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro: II. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2-hydroxyiminostilbene. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1819-26.

Pearce RE, Vakkalagadda GR, Leeder JS. Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro I. Characterization of human cytochromes P450 responsible for the formation of 2- and 3-hydroxylated metabolites. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1170-9.

Pearson JT, Hill JJ, Swank J, Isoherranen N, Kunze KL, Atkins WM. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of antifungal azoles binding to CYP3A4 with kinetic resolution of multiple binding orientations. Biochemistry 2006; 45:6341-53.

Pearson JT, Wahlstrom JL, Dickmann LJ et al. Differential time-dependent inactivation of P450 3A4 and P450 3A5 by raloxifene: a key role for C239 in quenching reactive intermediates. Chem Res Toxicol 2007; 20:1778-86.

Pearson MM, Rogers PD, Cleary JD, Chapman SW. Voriconazole: a new triazole antifungal agent. Ann Pharmacother 2003; 37:420-32.

Peet CF, Enos T, Nave R, Zech K, Hall M. Identification of enzymes involved in phase I metabolism of ciclesonide by human liver microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2005; 30:275-86.

Pegolo S, Giantin M, Dacasto M, Montesissa C, Capolongo F. Testosterone hydroxylation in bovine liver: enzyme kinetic and inhibition study. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:255-61.

Pekol T, Daniels JS, Labutti J et al. Human metabolism of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib: identification of circulating metabolites. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:771-7.

Pekthong D, Blanchard N, Abadie C et al. Effects of Andrographis paniculata extract and Andrographolide on hepatic cytochrome P450 mRNA expression and monooxygenase activities after in vivo administration to rats and in vitro in rat and human hepatocyte cultures. Chem Biol Interact 2009; 179:247-55.

Pekthong D, Martin H, Abadie C et al. Differential inhibition of rat and human hepatic cytochrome P450 by Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 115:432-40.

Pelkonen O, Myllynen P, Taavitsainen P et al. Carbamazepine: a ‘blind’ assessment of CVP-associated metabolism and interactions in human liver-derived in vitro systems. Xenobiotica 2001; 31:321-43.

Peng B, Lloyd P, Schran H. Clinical pharmacokinetics of imatinib. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:879-94.

Peng CC, Pearson JT, Rock DA, Joswig-Jones CA, Jones JP. The effects of type II binding on metabolic stability and binding affinity in cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. Arch Biochem Biophys 2010; 497:68-81.

Peng FC, Chaing HH, Tang SH, Chen PC, Lu SC. NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase is involved in flunitrazepam reductive metabolism in Hep G2 and Hep 3B cells. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2004; 67:109-24.

Peng FC, Chang CC, Yang CY, Edwards RJ, Doehmer J. Territrems B and C metabolism in human liver microsomes: major role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Toxicology 2006; 218:172-85.

Peng FC, Tseng HY, Tsai JC, Lin C, Doehmer J. Role of human hepatic cytochrome P-450s in territrem A metabolism. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2003; 66:1237-48.

Peng WX, Li HD, Zhou HH. Mechanism of mono-hydroxylation of daidzein in human liver microsomes. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2004; 39:892-6.

Peng WX, Wang LS, Li HD, Abd El-Aty AM, Chen GL, Zhou HH. Evidence for the involvement of human liver microsomes CYP1A2 in the mono-hydroxylation of daidzein. Clin Chim Acta 2003; 334:77-85.

Penzak SR, Acosta EP, Turner M et al. Effect of Seville orange juice and grapefruit juice on indinavir pharmacokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 42:1165-70.

Penzak SR, Chuck SK. Management of protease inhibitor-associated hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2002; 2:91-106.

Penzak SR, Gubbins PO, Gurley BJ, Wang PL, Saccente M. Grapefruit juice decreases the systemic availability of itraconazole capsules in healthy volunteers. Ther Drug Monit 1999; 21:304-9.

Penzak SR, Kabuye G, Mugyenyi P et al. Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) G516T influences nevirapine plasma concentrations in HIV-infected patients in Uganda. HIV Med 2007; 8:86-91.

Perera MA, Thirumaran RK, Cox NJ et al. Prediction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity using haplotype tag SNPs in African Americans. Pharmacogenomics J 2009; 9:49-60.

Perera MA. The missing linkage: what pharmacogenetic associations are left to find in CYP3A? Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2010; 6:17-28.

Pérez VE, Sánchez-Parra C, Villar SS. Etravirine drug interactions. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2009; 27 Suppl 2:27-31.

Pérez-Castrillón JL, Abad Manteca L, Vega G, del Pino Montes J, de Luis D, Dueñas Laita A. Vitamin D levels and lipid response to atorvastatin. Int J Endocrinol 2010; doi:10. 1155/2010/320721.

Perloff ES, Mason AK, Dehal SS et al. Validation of cytochrome P450 time-dependent inhibition assays: a two-time point IC50 shift approach facilitates kinact assay design. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:99-112.

Perloff MD, Störmer E, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. Rapid assessment of P-glycoprotein inhibition and induction in vitro. Pharm Res 2003; 20:1177-83.

Perrett HF, Barter ZE, Jones BC, Yamazaki H, Tucker GT, Rostami-Hodjegan A. Disparity in holoprotein/apoprotein ratios of different standards used for immunoquantification of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1733-6.

Perrin L, Aninat C, Hamon V et al. Metabolism of phenylahistin enantiomers by cytochromes P450: a possible explanation for their different cytotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2381-92.

Persiani S, D’Amato M, Jakate A et al. Pharmacokinetic profile of dexloxiglumide. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45:1177-88.

Persson H, Kvist A, Vallon-Christersson J, Medstrand P, Borg A, Rovira C. The non-coding RNA of the multidrug resistance-linked vault particle encodes multiple regulatory small RNAs. Nat Cell Biol 2009; 11:1268-71.

Perucca E, Cloyd J, Critchley D, Fuseau E. Rufinamide: clinical pharmacokinetics and concentration-response relationships in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2008; 49:1123-41.

Petain A, Kattygnarath D, Azard J et al. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of imatinib in children and adults. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:7102-9.

Peters EJ, Slager SL, Kraft JB et al. Pharmacokinetic genes do not influence response or tolerance to citalopram in the STAR*D sample. PLoS One 2008. doi:10. 1371/journal. pone. 0001872.

Peters JU, Hunziker D, Fischer H et al. An aminomethylpyrimidine DPP-IV inhibitor with improved properties. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004; 14:3575-8.

Petersen MS, Halling J, Damkier P et al. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2007; 224:202-6.

Petsalo A, Turpeinen M, Pelkonen O, Tolonen A. Analysis of nine drugs and their cytochrome P450-specific probe metabolites from urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry utilizing sub 2 microm particle size column. J Chromatogr A 2008; 1215:107-15.

Peyronneau MA, Renaud JP, Truan G, Urban P, Pompon D, Mansuy D. Optimization of yeast-expressed human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 catalytic activities by coexpressing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5. Eur J Biochem 1992; 207:109-16.

Pfister M, Labbé L, Lu JF et al. Effect of coadministration of nelfinavir, indinavir, and saquinavir on the pharmacokinetics of amprenavir. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:133-41.

Pfrunder A, Gutmann H, Beglinger C, Drewe J. Gene expression of CYP3A4, ABC-transporters (MDR1 and MRP1-MRP5) and hPXR in three different human colon carcinoma cell lines. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003; 55:59-66.

Pham PA, Hendrix CW, Barditch-Crovo P et al. Amprenavir and lopinavir pharmacokinetics following coadministration of amprenavir or fosamprenavir with lopinavir/ritonavir, with or without efavirenz. Antivir Ther 2007; 12:963-9.

Philip PA, Ali-Sadat S, Doehmer J et al. Use of V79 cells with stably transfected cytochrome P450 cDNAs in studying the metabolism and effects of cytotoxic drugs. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1999; 43:59-67.

Philip PA, Kaklamanis L, Ryley N et al. Expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by primary and secondary hepatic tumors in man. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1994; 29:277-83.

Phimmasone S, Kharasch ED. A pilot evaluation of alfentanil-induced miosis as a noninvasive probe for hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:505-17.

Piao YJ, Choi JS. Effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics of nicardipine after oral and intravenous administration of nicardipine in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2008; 60:625-9.

Picado C. Rupatadine: pharmacological profile and its use in the treatment of allergic disorders. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2006; 7:1989-2001.

Picard N, Cresteil T, Prémaud A, Marquet P. Characterization of a phase 1 metabolite of mycophenolic acid produced by CYP3A4/5. Ther Drug Monit 2004; 26:600-8.

Picard N, Djebli N, Sauvage FL, Marquet P. Metabolism of sirolimus in the presence or absence of cyclosporine by genotyped human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:350-5.

Pichard L, Domergue J, Fourtanier G, Koch P, Schran HF, Maurel P. Metabolism of the new immunosuppressor cyclosporin G by human liver cytochromes P450. Biochem Pharmacol 1996; 51:591-8.

Pichard L, Gillet G, Bonfils C, Domergue J, Thénot JP, Maurel P. Oxidative metabolism of zolpidem by human liver cytochrome P450S. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:1253-62.

Pichard-Garcia L, Hyland R, Baulieu J, Fabre JM, Milton A, Maurel P. Human hepatocytes in primary culture predict lack of cytochrome P-450 3A4 induction by eletriptan in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:51-7.

Pichard-Garcia L, Weaver RJ, Eckett N et al. The olivacine derivative s 16020 (9-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-6H-pyrido(4,3-B)-carbazole-1-carboxamide) induces CYP1A and its own metabolism in human hepatocytes in primary culture. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:80-8.

Pienimäki P, Lampela E, Hakkola J, Arvela P, Raunio H, Vähäkangas K. Pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine in human placenta. Epilepsia 1997; 38:309-16.

Pike MG, Mays DC, Macomber DW, Lipsky JJ. Metabolism of a disulfiram metabolite, S-methyl N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, by flavin monooxygenase in human renal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:127-32.

Pikuleva IA. Cholesterol-metabolizing cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:513-20.

Pikuleva IA. Cytochrome P450s and cholesterol homeostasis. Pharmacol Ther 2006; 112:761-73.

Pillai U, Muzaffar J, Sen S, Yancey A. Grapefruit juice and verapamil: a toxic cocktail. South Med J 2009; 102:308-9.

Pillot GA, Read WL, Hennenfent KL et al. A phase II study of irinotecan and carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer with pharmacogenomic analysis: final report. J Thorac Oncol 2006; 1:972-8.

Pinto AG, Horlander J, Chalasani N et al. Diltiazem inhibits human intestinal cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity in vivo without altering the expression of intestinal mRNA or protein. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 59:440-6.

Pinto AG, Wang YH, Chalasani N et al. Inhibition of human intestinal wall metabolism by macrolide antibiotics: effect of clarithromycin on cytochrome P450 3A4/5 activity and expression. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 77:178-88.

Pinto-Bazurco Mendieta MA, Negri M, Hu Q et al. CYP17 inhibitors. Annulations of additional rings in methylene imidazole substituted biphenyls: synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling. Arch Pharm 2008; 341:597-609.

Pinto-Bazurco Mendieta MA, Negri M, Jagusch C et al. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling studies of novel ACD- and ABD-ring steroidomimetics as inhibitors of CYP17. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:267-73.

Pinto-Bazurco Mendieta MA, Negri M, Jagusch C et al. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of abiraterone analogues: novel CYP17 inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer. J Med Chem 2008; 51:5009-18.

Piquette RK. Torsade de pointes induced by cisapride/clarithromycin interaction. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33:22-6.

Pithavala YK, Tong W, Mount J et al. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of axitinib in healthy volunteers. Invest New Drugs 2010. doi:10. 1007/s10637-010-9511-6.

Pithavala YK, Tortorici M, Toh M et al. Effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of Axitinib (AG-013736) in Japanese and Caucasian healthy volunteers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2010; 65:563-70.

Piver B, Berthou F, Dreano Y, Lucas D. Inhibition of CYP3A, CYP1A and CYP2E1 activities by resveratrol and other non volatile red wine components. Toxicol Lett 2001; 125:83-91.

Piver B, Berthou F, Dreano Y, Lucas D. Differential inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by epsilon-viniferin, the dimer of resveratrol: comparison with resveratrol and polyphenols from alcoholized beverages. Life Sci 2003; 73:1199-213.

Plant NJ, Gibson GG. Evaluation of the toxicological relevance of CYP3A4 induction. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 2003; 6:50-6.

Plosker GL, Figgitt DP. Repaglinide: a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacoeconomics 2004; 22:389-411.

Plosker GL, Scott LJ. Saquinavir: a review of its use in boosted regimens for treating HIV infection. Drugs 2003; 63:1299-324.

Plummer SJ, Conti DV, Paris PL, Curran AP, Casey G, Witte JS. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genotypes, haplotypes, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12:928-32.

Polasek TM, Elliot DJ, Lewis BC, Miners JO. Mechanism-based inactivation of human cytochrome P4502C8 by drugs in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 311:996-1007.

Polasek TM, Miners JO. Quantitative prediction of macrolide drug-drug interaction potential from in vitro studies using testosterone as the human cytochrome P4503A substrate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:203-8.

Polasek TM, Miners JO. Time-dependent inhibition of human drug metabolizing cytochromes P450 by tricyclic antidepressants. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65:87-97.

Polasek TM, Sadagopal JS, Elliot DJ, Miners JO. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of zolpidem as a perpetrator of metabolic interactions involving CYP3A. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:275-83.

Polena S, Gupta MP, Shaikh H et al. Platelet aggregation inhibition in patients receiving statins either fully or partially metabolized by CYP3A4. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2008; 51:60-2.

Pollack TM, McCoy C, Stead W. Clinically significant adverse events from a drug interaction between quetiapine and atazanavir-ritonavir in two patients. Pharmacotherapy 2009; 29:1386-91.

Pondugula SR, Brimer-Cline C, Wu J, Schuetz EG, Tyagi RK, Chen T. A phosphomimetic mutation at threonine-57 abolishes transactivation activity and alters nuclear localization pattern of human pregnane x receptor. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:719-30.

Ponnusankar S, Pandit S, Babu R, Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee PK. Cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of Triphala-a Rasayana from Ayurveda. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 133:120-5.

Pope CN, Karanth S, Liu J, Yan B. Comparative carboxylesterase activities in infant and adult liver and their in vitro sensitivity to chlorpyrifos oxon. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2005; 42:64-9.

Portmann S, Kwan HY, Theurillat R, Schmitz A, Mevissen M, Thormann W. Enantioselective capillary electrophoresis for identification and characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes which metabolize ketamine and norketamine in vitro. J Chromatogr A 2010; 1217:7942-8.

Portolés A, Calvo A, Terleira A et al. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between omeprazole or lansoprazole and ivabradine in healthy volunteers: an open-label, randomized, crossover, pharmacokinetic interaction clinical trial. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46:1195-203.

Portolés A, Terleira A, Calvo A, Martínez I, Resplandy G. Effects of Hypericum perforatum on ivabradine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: an open-label, pharmacokinetic interaction clinical trial. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46:1188-94.

Postlind H, Danielson A, Lindgren A, Andersson SH. Tolterodine, a new muscarinic receptor antagonist, is metabolized by cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:289-93.

Powell IJ, Zhou J, Sun Y et al. CYP3A4 genetic variant and disease-free survival among white and black men after radical prostatectomy. J Urol 2004; 172:1848-52.

Powell NA, Clay EH, Holsworth DD et al. Benzyl ether structure-activity relationships in a series of ketopiperazine-based renin inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005; 15:4713-6.

Prabhu S, Fackett A, Lloyd S et al. Identification of glutathione conjugates of troglitazone in human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 2002; 142:83-97.

Prakash C, Kamel A, Cui D, Whalen RD, Miceli JJ, Tweedie D. Identification of the major human liver cytochrome P450 isoform(s) responsible for the formation of the primary metabolites of ziprasidone and prediction of possible drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49 Suppl 1:35-42.

Prakash C, Wang W, O’Connell T, Johnson KA. CYP2C8- and CYP3A-mediated C-demethylation of (3-{[(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (CP-533,536), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist: characterization of metabolites by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-nuclear magnetic resonance. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2093-103.

Prakash J, Velpandian T, Pande JN, Gupta SK. Serum rifampicin levels in patients with tuberculosis: Effect of P-Glycoprotein and CYP3A4 blockers on its absorption. Clin Drug Investig 2003; 23:463-72.

Prasad JV, Boyer FE, Domagala JM et al. Nonpeptidic HIV protease inhibitors possessing excellent antiviral activities and therapeutic indices. PD 178390: a lead HIV protease inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem 1999; 7:2775-800.

Preiningerova J. Oral laquinimod therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2009; 18:985-9.

Press RR, Ploeger BA, den Hartigh J et al. Explaining variability in ciclosporin exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:579-90.

Price RJ, Giddings AM, Scott MP et al. Effect of Pyrethrins on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Toxicology 2008; 243:84-95.

Price RJ, Scott MP, Giddings AM et al. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes. Xenobiotica 2008; 38:574-86.

Price S, Bordogna W, Braganza R et al. Identification and optimisation of a series of substituted 5-pyridin-2-yl-thiophene-2-hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007; 17:363-9.

Prior TI, Baker GB. Interactions between the cytochrome P450 system and the second-generation antipsychotics. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2003; 28:99-112.

Prior TI, Chue PS, Tibbo P, Baker GB. Drug metabolism and atypical antipsychotics. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1999; 9:301-9.

Priskorn M, Sidhu JS, Larsen F, Davis JD, Khan AZ, Rolan PE. Investigation of multiple dose citalopram on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic warfarin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:199-202.

Pritchard MP, Ossetian R, Li DN et al. A general strategy for the expression of recombinant human cytochrome P450s in Escherichia coli using bacterial signal peptides: expression of CYP3A4, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 345:342-54.

Projean D, Baune B, Farinotti R et al. In vitro metabolism of chloroquine: identification of CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6 as the main isoforms catalyzing N-desethylchloroquine formation. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:748-54.

Projean D, Morin PE, Tu TM, Ducharme J. Identification of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 as the major cytochrome P450 s responsible for morphine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:841-54.

Prosser DE, Jones G. Enzymes involved in the activation and inactivation of vitamin D. Trends Biochem Sci 2004; 29:664-73.

Prost F, Thormann W. Capillary electrophoresis to assess drug metabolism induced in vitro using single CYP450 enzymes (Supersomes): application to the chiral metabolism of mephenytoin and methadone. Electrophoresis 2003; 24:2577-87.

Prost F, Thormann W. Assessment of the stereoselective metabolism of methaqualone in man by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 2003; 24:2598-607.

Prueksaritanont T, Gorham LM, Ma B et al. In vitro metabolism of simvastatin in humans [SBT]identification of metabolizing enzymes and effect of the drug on hepatic P450s. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:1191-9.

Prueksaritanont T, Kuo Y, Tang C et al. In vitro and in vivo CYP3A64 induction and inhibition studies in rhesus monkeys: a preclinical approach for CYP3A-mediated drug interaction studies. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1546-55.

Prueksaritanont T, Lu P, Gorham L, Sternfeld F, Vyas KP. Interspecies comparison and role of human cytochrome P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase in hepatic metabolism of L-775,606, a potent 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:47-59.

Prueksaritanont T, Ma B, Tang C et al. Metabolic interactions between mibefradil and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: an in vitro investigation with human liver preparations. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47:291-8.

Prueksaritanont T, Ma B, Yu N. The human hepatic metabolism of simvastatin hydroxy acid is mediated primarily by CYP3A, and not CYP2D6. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56:120-4.

Prueksaritanont T, Richards KM, Qiu Y et al. Comparative effects of fibrates on drug metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes. Pharm Res 2005; 22:71-8.

Prueksaritanont T, Tang C, Qiu Y, Mu L, Subramanian R, Lin JH. Effects of fibrates on metabolism of statins in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1280-7.

Prueksaritanont T, Vega JM, Rogers JD et al. Simvastatin does not affect CYP3A activity, quantified by the erythromycin breath test and oral midazolam pharmacokinetics, in healthy male subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 40:1274-9.

Prueksaritanont T, Zhao JJ, Ma B et al. Mechanistic studies on metabolic interactions between gemfibrozil and statins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 301:1042-51.

Puisset F, Chatelut E, Dalenc F et al. Dexamethasone as a probe for docetaxel clearance. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2004; 54:265-72.

Puisset F, Chatelut E, Sparreboom A et al. Dexamethasone as a probe for CYP3A4 metabolism: evidence of gender effect. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2007; 60:305-8.

Pujol JL, Viens P, Rebattu P et al. Gefitinib (IRESSA) with vinorelbine or vinorelbine/cisplatin for chemotherapy-naive non-small cell lung cancer patients. J Thorac Oncol 2006; 1:417-24.

Puntarulo S, Cederbaum AI. Production of reactive oxygen species by microsomes enriched in specific human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Free Radic Biol Med 1998; 24:1324-30.

Puozzo C, Lens S, Reh C et al. Lack of interaction of milnacipran with the cytochrome p450 isoenzymes frequently involved in the metabolism of antidepressants. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:977-88.

Purkins L, Wood N, Ghahramani P, Kleinermans D, Layton G, Nichols D. No clinically significant effect of erythromycin or azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in healthy male volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56 Suppl 1:30-6.

Purkins L, Wood N, Ghahramani P, Love ER, Eve MD, Fielding A. Coadministration of voriconazole and phenytoin: pharmacokinetic interaction, safety, and toleration. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56 Suppl 1:37-44.

Purkins L, Wood N, Kleinermans D, Nichols D. Histamine H2-receptor antagonists have no clinically significant effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of voriconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56 Suppl 1:51-5.

Pursche S, Schleyer E, von Bonin M et al. Influence of enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs on trough level of imatinib in glioblastoma patients. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2008; 3:198-203.

Qiu F, Zhang R, Sun J et al. Inhibitory effects of seven components of danshen extract on catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1308-14.

Qiu H, Mathäs M, Nestler S et al. The unique complexity of the CYP3A4 upstream region suggests a nongenetic explanation of its expression variability. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2010; 20:167-78.

Qiu H, Taudien S, Herlyn H et al. CYP3 phylogenomics: evidence for positive selection of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:53-66.

Qiu XY, Jiao Z, Zhang M et al. Association of MDR1, CYP3A4*18B, and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms with cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:1069-84.

Quinn DI, Nemunaitis J, Fuloria J et al. Effect of the cytochrome P450 2C19 inhibitor omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of bortezomib in patients with advanced solid tumours, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Clin Pharmacokinet 2009; 48:199-209.

Quinn JA, Jiang SX, Reardon DA et al. Phase 1 trial of temozolomide plus irinotecan plus O6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. Cancer 2009; 115:2964-70.

Quinney SK, Galinsky RE, Jiyamapa-Serna VA et al. Hydroxyitraconazole, formed during intestinal first-pass metabolism of itraconazole, controls the time course of hepatic CYP3A inhibition and the bioavailability of itraconazole in rats. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1097-101.

Quintieri L, Geroni C, Fantin M et al. Formation and antitumor activity of PNU-159682, a major metabolite of nemorubicin in human liver microsomes. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:1608-17.

Quintieri L, Palatini P, Nassi A, Ruzza P, Floreani M. Flavonoids diosmetin and luteolin inhibit midazolam metabolism by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP 3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 75:1426-37.

Raaska K, Neuvonen PJ. Serum concentrations of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine are unaffected by the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:167-70.

Raaska K, Niemi M, Neuvonen M, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Plasma concentrations of inhaled budesonide and its effects on plasma cortisol are increased by the cytochrome P4503A4 inhibitor itraconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:362-9.

Rademaker M. Do women have more adverse drug reactions? Am J Clin Dermatol 2001; 2:349-51.

Rae JM, Johnson MD, Lippman ME, Flockhart DA. Rifampin is a selective, pleiotropic inducer of drug metabolism genes in human hepatocytes: studies with cDNA and oligonucleotide expression arrays. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 299:849-57.

Rae JM, Soukhova NV, Flockhart DA, Desta Z. Triethylenethiophosphoramide is a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2B6: implications for cyclophosphamide metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:525-30.

Raeissi SD, Guo Z, Dobson GL, Artursson P, Hidalgo IJ. Comparison of CYP3A activities in a subclone of Caco-2 cells (TC7) and human intestine. Pharm Res 1997; 14:1019-25.

Raeissi SD, Hidalgo IJ, Segura-Aguilar J, Artursson P. Interplay between CYP3A-mediated metabolism and polarized efflux of terfenadine and its metabolites in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 (TC7) cell monolayers. Pharm Res 1999; 16:625-32.

Ragin CC, Langevin S, Rubin S, Taioli E. Review of studies on metabolic genes and cancer in populations of African descent. Genet Med 2010; 12:12-8.

Ragueneau-Majlessi I, Levy RH, Bergen D et al. Carbamazepine pharmacokinetics are not affected by zonisamide: in vitro mechanistic study and in vivo clinical study in epileptic patients. Epilepsy Res 2004; 62:1-11.

Rais N, Chawla YK, Kohli KK. CYP3A phenotypes and genotypes in North Indians. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:417-22.

Rajendran P, Jaggi M, Singh MK, Mukherjee R, Burman AC. Pharmacological evaluation of C-3 modified Betulinic acid derivatives with potent anticancer activity. Invest New Drugs 2008; 26:25-34.

Rajnarayana K, Reddy MS, Vidyasagar J, Krishna DR. Study on the influence of silymarin pretreatment on metabolism and disposition of metronidazole. Arzneimittelforschung 2004; 54:109-13.

Rakhit A, Pantze MP, Fettner S et al. The effects of CYP3A4 inhibition on erlotinib pharmacokinetics: computer-based simulation (SimCYP) predicts in vivo metabolic inhibition. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:31-41.

Ramanathan R, McKenzie DL, Tugnait M, Siebenaler K. Application of semi-automated metabolite identification software in the drug discovery process for rapid identification of metabolites and the cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for their formation. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2002; 28:945-51.

Ramírez J, Innocenti F, Schuetz EG et al. CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 are responsible for the in vitro N-demethylation of meperidine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:930-6.

Rao N. The clinical pharmacokinetics of escitalopram. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:281-90.

Rapaka RS, Coates PM. Dietary supplements and related products: a brief summary. Life Sci 2006; 78:2026-32.

Rasmussen BB, Brøsen K. Is therapeutic drug monitoring a case for optimizing clinical outcome and avoiding interactions of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? Ther Drug Monit 2000; 22:143-54.

Rasmussen BB, Nielsen TL, Brøsen K. Fluvoxamine inhibits the CYP2C19-catalysed metabolism of proguanil in vitro. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:735-40.

Rasmussen BB, Nielsen TL, Brøsen K. Fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of the metabolism of caffeine in vitro. Pharmacol Toxicol 1998; 83:240-5.

Rasmussen E, Eriksson B, Oberg K, Bondesson U, Rane A. Selective effects of somatostatin analogs on human drug-metabolizing enzymes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:150-9.

Rathkopf D, Carducci MA, Morris MJ et al. Phase II trial of docetaxel with rapid androgen cycling for progressive noncastrate prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26:2959-65.

Rätz Bravo AE, Tchambaz L, Krähenbühl-Melcher A, Hess L, Schlienger RG, Krähenbühl S. Prevalence of potentially severe drug-drug interactions in ambulatory patients with dyslipidaemia receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. Drug Saf 2005; 28:263-75.

Raucy J, Warfe L, Yueh MF, Allen SW. A cell-based reporter gene assay for determining induction of CYP3A4 in a high-volume system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 303:412-23.

Raucy JL. Regulation of CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes by pharmaceuticals and natural products. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:533-9.

Raucy JL, Mueller L, Duan K, Allen SW, Strom S, Lasker JM. Expression and induction of CYP2C P450 enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 302:475-82.

Raunio H, Hakkola J, Hukkanen J et al. Expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing CYPs in human pulmonary tissue. Exp Toxicol Pathol 1999; 51:412-7.

Raunio H, Hakkola J, Pelkonen O. Regulation of CYP3A genes in the human respiratory tract. Chem Biol Interact 2005; 151:53-62.

Rauschenbach R, Gieschen H, Husemann M, Salomon B, Hildebrand M. Stable expression of human cytochrome P450 3A4 in V79 cells and its application for metabolic profiling of ergot derivatives. Eur J Pharmacol 1995; 293:183-90.

Rawden HC, Kokwaro GO, Ward SA, Edwards G. Relative contribution of cytochromes P-450 and flavin-containing monoxygenases to the metabolism of albendazole by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49:313-22.

Reardon DA, Desjardins A, Vredenburgh JJ et al. Safety and pharmacokinetics of dose-intensive imatinib mesylate plus temozolomide: phase 1 trial in adults with malignant glioma. Neuro Oncol 2008; 10:330-40.

Reardon DA, Quinn JA, Rich JN et al. Phase 2 trial of BCNU plus irinotecan in adults with malignant glioma. Neuro Oncol 2004; 6:134-44.

Reardon DA, Quinn JA, Rich JN et al. Phase I trial of irinotecan plus temozolomide in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. Cancer 2005; 104:1478-86.

Rebbeck TR, Jaffe JM, Walker AH, Wein AJ, Malkowicz SB. Modification of clinical presentation of prostate tumors by a novel genetic variant in CYP3A4. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90:1225-9.

Rebbeck TR, Rennert H, Walker AH et al. Joint effects of inflammation and androgen metabolism on prostate cancer severity. Int J Cancer 2008; 123:1385-9.

Rebbeck TR, Troxel AB, Norman S et al. Pharmacogenetic modulation of combined hormone replacement therapy by progesterone-metabolism genotypes in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166:1392-9.

Rebbeck TR, Troxel AB, Walker AH et al. Pairwise combinations of estrogen metabolism genotypes in postmenopausal breast cancer etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16:444-50.

Rebbeck TR, Troxel AB, Wang Y et al. Estrogen sulfation genes, hormone replacement therapy, and endometrial cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98:1311-20.

Reding KW, Li CI, Weiss NS et al. Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor and metabolism pathways and hormone therapy in relation to breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 2009; 170:1241-9.

Redlich G, Zanger UM, Riedmaier S et al. Distinction between human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and identification of new phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res 2008; 7:4678-88.

Reed M, Wall GC, Shah NP, Heun JM, Hicklin GA. Verapamil toxicity resulting from a probable interaction with telithromycin. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:357-60.

Regan CF, Guo Z, Chen Y et al. Zwitterionic uracil derivatives as potent GnRH receptor antagonists with improved pharmaceutical properties. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:4503-7.

Reger TS, Zunic J, Stock N et al. Heterocycle-substituted proline dipeptides as potent VLA-4 antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010; 20:1173-6.

Regev-Shoshani G, Shoseyov O, Kerem Z. Influence of lipophilicity on the interactions of hydroxy stilbenes with cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 323:668-73.

Rehmel JL, Eckstein JA, Farid NA et al. Interactions of two major metabolites of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, with the cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:600-7.

Reichel C, Block W, Skodra T et al. Relationship between cytochrome P-450 induction by rifampicin, hepatic volume and portal blood flow in man. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 9:975-9.

Reichel C, Skodra T, Nacke A, Spengler U, Sauerbruch T. The lignocaine metabolite (MEGX) liver function test and P-450 induction in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 46:535-9.

Reichmuth D, Lockey RF. Present and potential therapy for allergic rhinitis: a review. BioDrugs 2000; 14:371-87.

Reid JM, Kuffel MJ, Ruben SL et al. Rat and human liver cytochrome P-450 isoform metabolism of ecteinascidin 743 does not predict gender-dependent toxicity in humans. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8:2952-62.

Reid JM, Walker DL, Miller JK et al. The metabolism of pyrazoloacridine (NSC 366140) by cytochromes p450 and flavin monooxygenase in human liver microsomes. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10:1471-80.

Reilly PE, Mason SR, Read MA. Human, rat and crocodile liver microsomal monooxygenase activities measured using diazepam and nifedipine: effects of CYP3A inhibitors and relationship to immunochemically detected CYP3A apoprotein. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 1999; 122:197-204.

Reinach B, de Sousa G, Dostert P, Ings R, Gugenheim J, Rahmani R. Comparative effects of rifabutin and rifampicin on cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases expression in fresh and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 1999; 121:37-48.

Relling MV, Nemec J, Schuetz EG, Schuetz JD, Gonzalez FJ, Korzekwa KR. O-demethylation of epipodophyllotoxins is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A4. Mol Pharmacol 1994; 45:352-8.

Remmel RP, Crews BC, Kozak KR, Kalgutkar AS, Marnett LJ. Studies on the metabolism of the novel, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor indomethacin phenethylamide in rat, mouse, and human liver microsomes: identification of active metabolites. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:113-22.

Ren S, Yang JS, Kalhorn TF, Slattery JT. Oxidation of cyclophosphamide to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and deschloroethylcyclophosphamide in human liver microsomes. Cancer Res 1997; 57:4229-35.

Ren X, Mao X, Si L et al. Pharmaceutical excipients inhibit cytochrome P450 activity in cell free systems and after systemic administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 70:279-88.

Renbarger JL, McCammack KC, Rouse CE, Hall SD. Effect of race on vincristine-associated neurotoxicity in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008; 50:769-71.

Rencurel F, Foretz M, Kaufmann MR et al. Stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by phenobarbital in human and mouse liver. Mol Pharmacol 2006; 70:1925-34.

Rendic S, Nolteernsting E, Schänzer W. Metabolism of anabolic steroids by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of metabolites. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 1999; 735:73-83.

Renwick AB, Lewis DF, Fulford S et al. Metabolism of 2,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin by human hepatic CYP isoforms: evidence for selectivity towards CYP3A4. Xenobiotica 2001; 31:187-204.

Renwick AB, Mistry H, Ball SE, Walters DG, Kao J, Lake BG. Metabolism of Zaleplon by human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 isoforms. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:337-48.

Renwick AB, Surry D, Price RJ, Lake BG, Evans DC. Metabolism of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin by human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:955-69.

Renwick AB, Watts PS, Edwards RJ et al. Differential maintenance of cytochrome P450 enzymes in cultured precision-cut human liver slices. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1202-9.

Restrepo JG, García-Martín E, Martínez C, Agúndez JA. Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:236-46.

Rey E, Tréluyer JM, Pons G. Drug disposition in cystic fibrosis. Clin Pharmacokinet 1998; 35:313-29.

Reyes-Hernández OD, Lares-Asseff I, Sosa-Macias M, Vega L, Albores A, Elizondo G. A comparative study of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindian and Mestizo populations. Pharmacology 2008; 81:97-103.

Rezaï K, Lokiec F, Grandjean I et al. Impact of imatinib on the pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy of etoposide and/or ifosfamide. BMC Pharmacol 2007; 7:13.

Rheeders M, Bouwer M, Goosen TC. Drug-drug interaction after single oral doses of the furanocoumarin methoxsalen and cyclosporine. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46:768-75.

Ribrag V, Koscielny S, Casasnovas O et al. Pharmacogenetic study in Hodgkin lymphomas reveals the impact of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on patient prognosis. Blood 2009; 113:3307-13.

Ricaurte B, Guirguis A, Taylor HC, Zabriskie D. Simvastatin-amiodarone interaction resulting in rhabdomyolysis, azotemia, and possible hepatotoxicity. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40:753-7.

Richards DB, Walker GA, Mandagere A, Magee MH, Henderson LS. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetic profile of ambrisentan. J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 49:719-24.

Richelson E. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of new antidepressants: a review of the effects on the metabolism of other drugs. Mayo Clin Proc 1997; 72:835-47.

Richert L, Abadie C, Bonet A et al. Inter-laboratory evaluation of the response of primary human hepatocyte cultures to model CYP inducers – a European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) – funded pre-validation study. Toxicol In Vitro 2010; 24:335-45.

Richert L, Tuschl G, Abadie C et al. Use of mRNA expression to detect the induction of drug metabolising enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 235:86-96.

Ridtitid W, Ratsamemonthon K, Mahatthanatrakul W, Wongnawa M. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ketoconazole and praziquantel in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharm Ther 2007; 32:585-93.

Ridtitid W, Wongnawa M, Mahatthanatrakul W, Chaipol P, Sunbhanich M. Effect of rifampin on plasma concentrations of mefloquine in healthy volunteers. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000; 52:1265-9.

Ridtitid W, Wongnawa M, Mahatthanatrakul W, Punyo J, Sunbhanich M. Rifampin markedly decreases plasma concentrations of praziquantel in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72:505-13.

Ridtitid W, Wongnawa M, Mahatthanatrakul W, Raungsri N, Sunbhanich M. Ketoconazole increases plasma concentrations of antimalarial mefloquine in healthy human volunteers. J Clin Pharm Ther 2005; 30:285-90.

Riffel AK, Schuenemann E, Vyhlidal CA. Regulation of the CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 promoters by members of the nuclear factor I transcription factor family. Mol Pharmacol 2009; 76:1104-14.

Rihs HP, Pesch B, Kappler M et al. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in German industries: association between exogenous exposure and urinary metabolites and its modulation by enzyme polymorphisms. Toxicol Lett 2005; 157:241-55.

Riley RJ, Howbrook D. In vitro analysis of the activity of the major human hepatic CYP enzyme (CYP3A4) using [N-methyl-14C]-erythromycin. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1997; 38:189-93.

Riley RJ, Parker AJ, Trigg S, Manners CN. Development of a generalized, quantitative physicochemical model of CYP3A4 inhibition for use in early drug discovery. Pharm Res 2001; 18:652-5.

Ring BJ, Gillespie JS, Binkley SN, Campanale KM, Wrighton SA. The interactions of a selective protein kinase C beta inhibitor with the human cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:957-61.

Ripp SL, Mills JB, Fahmi OA et al. Use of immortalized human hepatocytes to predict the magnitude of clinical drug-drug interactions caused by CYP3A4 induction. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1742-8.

Ritchie MD, Haas DW, Motsinger AA et al. Drug transporter and metabolizing enzyme gene variants and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor hepatotoxicity. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:779-82.

Ritchie TJ, Macdonald SJ. The impact of aromatic ring count on compound developability-are too many aromatic rings a liability in drug design? Drug Discov Today 2009; 14:1011-20.

Rittweger M, Arastéh K. Clinical pharmacokinetics of darunavir. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:739-56.

Rivory LP, Qin H, Clarke SJ et al. Frequency of cytochrome P450 3A4 variant genotype in transplant population and lack of association with cyclosporin clearance. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56:395-8.

Rivory LP, Slaviero K, Seale JP et al. Optimizing the erythromycin breath test for use in cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6:3480-5.

Roach M 3rd, de Silvio M, Rebbick T et al. Racial differences in CYP3A4 genotype and survival among men treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: a phase III randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 69:79-87.

Robert M, Salvà M, Segarra R et al. The prokinetic cinitapride has no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interaction and effect on QT during coadministration with ketoconazole. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1149-56.

Roberts AG, Atkins WM. Energetics of heterotropic cooperativity between alpha-naphthoflavone and testosterone binding to CYP3A4. Arch Biochem Biophys 2007; 463:89-101.

Roberts AG, Campbell AP, Atkins WM. The thermodynamic landscape of testosterone binding to cytochrome P450 3A4: ligand binding and spin state equilibria. Biochemistry 2005; 44:1353-66.

Robertson GR, Field J, Goodwin B et al. Transgenic mouse models of human CYP3A4 gene regulation. Mol Pharmacol 2003; 64:42-50.

Robertson GR, Liddle C, Clarke SJ. Inflammation and altered drug clearance in cancer: transcriptional repression of a human CYP3A4 transgene in tumor-bearing mice. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83:894-7.

Robertson P Jr, Hellriegel ET, Arora S, Nelson M. Effect of modafinil on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and triazolam in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:46-56.

Robertson P Jr, Hellriegel ET. Clinical pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:123-37.

Robertson P, DeCory HH, Madan A, Parkinson A. In vitro inhibition and induction of human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by modafinil. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:664-71.

Robertson SM, Davey RT, Voell J, Formentini E, Alfaro RM, Penzak SR. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on lopinavir, midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24:591-9.

Robinson JG. Simvastatin: present and future perspectives. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007; 8:2159-27.

Roby CA, Anderson GD, Kantor E, Dryer DA, Burstein AH. St John’s Wort: effect on CYP3A4 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67:451-7.

Rochat B, Amey M, Gillet M, Meyer UA, Baumann P. Identification of three cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in N-demethylation of citalopram enantiomers in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenetics 1997; 7:1-10.

Rochat B, Zoete V, Grosdidier A, von Grünigen S, Marull M, Michielin O. In vitro biotransformation of imatinib by the tumor expressed CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2008; 29:103-18.

Rock EP, Goodman V, Jiang JX et al. Food and Drug Administration drug approval summary: Sunitinib malate for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Oncologist 2007; 12:107-13.

Rodrigues AD, Kukulka MJ, Roberts EM, Ouellet D, Rodgers TR. [O-methyl 14C]naproxen O-demethylase activity in human liver microsomes: evidence for the involvement of cytochrome P4501A2 and P4502C9/10. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:126-36.

Rodrigues AD. Integrated cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping: attempting to bridge the gap between cDNA-expressed cytochromes P450 and native human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1999; 57:465-80

Rodrigues AD. Impact of CYP2C9 genotype on pharmacokinetics: are all cyclooxygenase inhibitors the same? Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1567-75.

Rodrigues AD. Prioritization of clinical drug interaction studies using in vitro cytochrome P450 data: proposed refinement and expansion of the “rank order” approach. Drug Metab Lett 2007; 1:31-5.

Rodrigues AD, Mulford DJ, Lee RD et al. In vitro metabolism of terfenadine by a purified recombinant fusion protein containing cytochrome P4503A4 and NADPH-P450 reductase. Comparison to human liver microsomes and precision-cut liver tissue slices. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:765-75.

Rodrigues AD, Roberts EM, Mulford DJ, Yao Y, Ouellet D. Oxidative metabolism of clarithromycin in the presence of human liver microsomes. Major role for the cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) subfamily. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:623-30.

Rodríguez-Antona C, Bort R, Jover R et al. Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 gamma. Mol Pharmacol 2003; 63:1180-9.

Rodríguez-Antona C, Donato MT, Pareja E, Gómez-Lechón MJ, Castell JV. Cytochrome P-450 mRNA expression in human liver and its relationship with enzyme activity. Arch Biochem Biophys 2001; 393:308-15.

Rodríguez-Antona C, Leskelä S, Zajac M et al. Expression of CYP3A4 as a predictor of response to chemotherapy in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Blood 2007; 110:3345-51.

Rodríguez-Antona C, Sayi JG, Gustafsson LL, Bertilsson L, Ingelman-Sundberg M. Phenotype-genotype variability in the human CYP3A locus as assessed by the probe drug quinine and analyses of variant CYP3A4 alleles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 338:299-305.

Rodríguez-Nóvoa S, Barreiro P, Jiménez-Nácher I, Soriano V. Overview of the pharmacogenetics of HIV therapy. Pharmacogenomics J 2006; 6:234-45.

Roedler R, Neuhauser MM, Penzak SR. Does metronidazole interact with CYP3A substrates by inhibiting their metabolism through this metabolic pathway? Or should other mechanisms be considered? Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:653-8.

Rogers JD, Zhao J, Liu L et al. Grapefruit juice has minimal effects on plasma concentrations of lovastatin-derived 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:358-66.

Roh HK, Chung JY, Oh DY et al. Plasma concentrations of haloperidol are related to CYP2D6 genotype at low, but not high doses of haloperidol in Korean schizophrenic patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 52:265-71.

Rohatagi S, Barrett JS, Sawyers W, Yu K, Morales RJ. Pharmacokinetics of ipriflavone and metabolites after oral administration of a corn-oil suspension relative to the Osteofix tablet. Am J Ther 1997; 4:229-38.

Rohatagi S, Gillen M, Aubeneau M et al. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of ebastine after single and repeated dosing in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 39:126-34.

Rolan P, Sargentini-Maier ML, Pigeolet E, Stockis A. The pharmacokinetics, CNS pharmacodynamics and adverse event profile of brivaracetam after multiple increasing oral doses in healthy men. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 66:71-5.

Rosso Felipe C, de Sandes TV, Sampaio EL, Park SI, Silva HT Jr, Medina Pestana JO. Clinical impact of polymorphisms of transport proteins and enzymes involved in the metabolism of immunosuppressive drugs. Transplant Proc 2009; 41:1441-55.

Rost KL, Fuhr U, Thomsen T et al. Omeprazole weakly inhibits CYP1A2 activity in man. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 37:567-74.

Rostami-Hodjegan A, Wolff K, Hay AW, Raistrick D, Calvert R, Tucker GT. Population pharmacokinetics of methadone in opiate users: characterization of time-dependent changes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:43-52.

Roten L, Schoenenberger RA, Krähenbühl S, Schlienger RG. Rhabdomyolysis in association with simvastatin and amiodarone. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38:978-81.

Rotzinger S, Baker GB. Human CYP3A4 and the metabolism of nefazodone and hydroxynefazodone by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed enzymes. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2002; 12:91-100.

Rotzinger S, Fang J, Baker GB. Trazodone is metabolized to m-chlorophenylpiperazine by CYP3A4 from human sources. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:572-5.

Rouits E, Boisdron-Celle M, Morel A, Gamelin E. Simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of urinary free cortisol and 6beta-hydroxycortisol in routine practice. For CYP 3A4 activity evaluation in basal conditions and after grapefruit juice intake. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2003; 793:357-66.

Rouits E, Charasson V, Pétain A et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants of the activity and toxicity of irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Br J Cancer 2008; 99:1239-45.

Roussel F, Khan KK, Halpert JR. The importance of SRS-1 residues in catalytic specificity of human cytochrome P450 3A4. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000; 374:269-78.

Row E, Brown SA, Stachulski AV, Lennard MS. Development of novel furanocoumarin dimers as potent and selective inhibitors of CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:324-30.

Row EC, Brown SA, Stachulski AV, Lennard MS. Synthesis of 8-geranyloxypsoralen analogues and their evaluation as inhibitors of CYP3A4. Bioorg Med Chem 2006; 14:3865-71.

Row EC, Brown SA, Stachulski AV, Lennard MS. Design, synthesis and evaluation of furanocoumarin monomers as inhibitors of CYP3A4. Org Biomol Chem 2006; 4:1604-10.

Rowan C, Brinker AD, Nourjah P et al. Rhabdomyolysis reports show interaction between simvastatin and CYP3A4 inhibitors. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009; 18:301-9.

Rowland Yeo K, Jamei M, Yang J, Tucker GT, Rostami-Hodjegan A. Physiologically based mechanistic modelling to predict complex drug-drug interactions involving simultaneous competitive and time-dependent enzyme inhibition by parent compound and its metabolite in both liver and gut-The effect of diltiazem on the time-course of exposure to triazolam. Eur J Pharm Sci 2009; 39:298-309.

Roy JN, Barama A, Poirier C, Vinet B, Roger M. Cyp3A4, Cyp3A5, and MDR-1 genetic influences on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:659-65.

Roy K, Pratim Roy P. Comparative chemometric modeling of cytochrome 3A4 inhibitory activity of structurally diverse compounds using stepwise MLR, FA-MLR, PLS, GFA, G/PLS and ANN techniques. Eur J Med Chem 2009; 44:2913-22.

Roy P, Tretyakov O, Wright J, Waxman DJ. Stereoselective metabolism of ifosfamide by human P-450s 3A4 and 2B6. Favorable metabolic properties of R-enantiomer. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1309-18.

Roy P, Yu LJ, Crespi CL, Waxman DJ. Development of a substrate-activity based approach to identify the major human liver P-450 catalysts of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide activation based on cDNA-expressed activities and liver microsomal P-450 profiles. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:655-66.

Roy SK, Korzekwa KR, Gonzalez FJ, Moschel RC, Dolan ME. Human liver oxidative metabolism of O6-benzylguanine. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 50:1385-9.

Roymans D, van Looveren C, Leone A et al. Determination of cytochrome P450 1A2 and cytochrome P450 3A4 induction in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 67:427-37.

Rudek MA, Zhao M, Smith NF et al. In vitro and in vivo clinical pharmacology of dimethyl benzoylphenylurea, a novel oral tubulin-interactive agent. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:8503-11.

Rudin CM, Liu W, Desai A et al. Pharmacogenomic and pharmacokinetic determinants of erlotinib toxicity. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26:1119-27.

Rühl R, Sczech R, Landes N, Pfluger P, Kluth D, Schweigert FJ. Carotenoids and their metabolites are naturally occurring activators of gene expression via the pregnane X receptor. Eur J Nutr 2004; 43:336-43.

Ruhnke M, Nussler AK, Ungefroren H et al. Human monocyte-derived neohepatocytes: a promising alternative to primary human hepatocytes for autologous cell therapy. Transplantation 2005; 79:1097-103.

Rund D, Krichevsky S, Bar-Cohen S et al. Therapy-related leukemia: clinical characteristics and analysis of new molecular risk factors in 96 adult patients. Leukemia 2005; 19:1919-28.

Runge D, Köhler C, Kostrubsky VE et al. Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 but not of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, multidrug resistance (MDR-1) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP-1) by prototypical inducers in human hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 273:333-41.

Runkel M, Bourian M, Tegtmeier M, Legrum W. The character of inhibition of the metabolism of 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin) by grapefruit juice in human. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 53:265-9.

Runkel M, Tegtmeier M, Legrum W. Metabolic and analytical interactions of grapefruit juice and 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin) in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 50:225-30.

Rushmore TH, Reider PJ, Slaughter D, Assang C, Shou M. Bioreactor systems in drug metabolism: synthesis of cytochrome P450-generated metabolites. Metab Eng 2000; 2:115-25.

Ruzilawati AB, Gan SH. CYP3A4 genetic polymorphism influences repaglinide’s pharmacokinetics. Pharmacology 2010; 85:357-64.

Ruzilawati AB, Suhaimi AW, Gan SH. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4: CYP3A4*18 allele is found in five healthy Malaysian subjects. Clin Chim Acta 2007; 383:158-62.

Saad AH, DePestel DD, Carver PL. Factors influencing the magnitude and clinical significance of drug interactions between azole antifungals and select immunosuppressants. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26:1730-44.

Saari TI, Grönlund J, Hagelberg NM et al. Effects of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenously and orally administered oxycodone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:387-97.

Saari TI, Laine K, Bertilsson L, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. Voriconazole and fluconazole increase the exposure to oral diazepam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:941-9.

Sádaba B, Campanero MA, Quetglas EG, Azanza JR. Clinical relevance of sirolimus drug interactions in transplant patients. Transplant Proc 2004; 36:3226-8.

Sadeque AJ, Fisher MB, Korzekwa KR, Gonzalez FJ, Rettie AE. Human CYP2C9 and CYP2A6 mediate formation of the hepatotoxin 4-ene-valproic acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 283:698-703.

Sadler BM, Gillotin C, Lou Y et al. Pharmacokinetic study of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors used in combination with amprenavir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001; 45:3663-8.

Sadrieh N, Snyderwine EG. Cytochromes P450 in cynomolgus monkeys mutagenically activate 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) but not 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). Carcinogenesis 1995; 16:1549-55.

Sahai J. Risks and synergies from drug interactions. AIDS 1996; 10 Suppl 1:21-5.

Sahi J, Black CB, Hamilton GA et al. Comparative effects of thiazolidinediones on in vitro P450 enzyme induction and inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:439-46.

Sahi J, Hamilton G, Sinz M et al. Effect of troglitazone on cytochrome P450 enzymes in primary cultures of human and rat hepatocytes. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:273-84.

Sahi J, Milad MA, Zheng X et al. Avasimibe induces CYP3A4 and multiple drug resistance protein 1 gene expression through activation of the pregnane X receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 306:1027-34.

Sahi J, Shord SS, Lindley C, Ferguson S, LeCluyse EL. Regulation of cytochrome P450 2C9 expression in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2009; 23:43-58.

Sahi J, Sinz MW, Campbell S et al. Metabolism and transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions of the endothelin-A receptor antagonist CI-1034. Chem Biol Interact 2006; 159:156-68.

Sahney S. A review of calcium channel antagonists in the treatment of pediatric hypertension. Paediatr Drugs 2006; 8:357-73.

Sai K, Kaniwa N, Ozawa S, Sawada JI. A new metabolite of irinotecan in which formation is mediated by human hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1505-13.

Sai K, Saito Y, Fukushima-Uesaka H et al. Impact of CYP3A4 haplotypes on irinotecan pharmacokinetics in Japanese cancer patients. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008; 62:529-37.

Sai Y, Dai R, Yang TJ et al. Assessment of specificity of eight chemical inhibitors using cDNA-expressed cytochromes P450. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:327-43.

Said A, Garnick JJ, Dieterle N, Peres E, Abidi MH, Ibrahim RB. Sirolimus-itraconazole interaction in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26:289-95.

Saito M, Hirata-Koizumi M, Miyake S, Hasegawa R. Comparison of information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of Ca antagonists in the package inserts from three countries (Japan, USA and UK). Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:531-6.

Saito T, Takahashi Y, Hashimoto H, Kamataki T. Novel transcriptional regulation of the human CYP3A7 gene by Sp1 and Sp3 through nuclear factor kappa B-like element. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:38010-22.

Sakaeda T, Fujino H, Komoto C et al. Effects of acid and lactone forms of eight HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on CYP-mediated metabolism and MDR1-mediated transport. Pharm Res 2006; 23:506-12.

Sakaeda T, Iwaki K, Kakumoto M et al. Effect of micafungin on cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 activities, and its comparison with azole antifungal drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57:759-64.

Sakuma T, Shimojima T, Miwa K, Kamataki T. Cloning CYP2D21 and CYP3A22 cDNAs from liver of miniature pigs. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:376-8.

Salmela KS, Kessova IG, Tsyrlov IB, Lieber CS. Respective roles of human cytochrome P-4502E1, 1A2, and 3A4 in the hepatic microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998; 22:2125-32.

Salmela KS, Tsyrlov IB, Lieber CS. Azide inhibits human cytochrome P -4502E1, 1A2, and 3A4. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001; 25:253-60.

Salminen KA, Meyer A, Jerabkova L et al. Inhibition of human drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes by plant isoquinoline alkaloids. Phytomedicine 2011; 18:533-8.

Salva M, Jansat JM, Martínez-Tobed A, Palacios JM. Identification of the human liver enzymes involved in the metabolism of the antimigraine agent almotriptan. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:404-11.

Samer CF, Piguet V, Dayer P, Desmeules JA. Genetic polymorphism and drug interactions: their importance in the treatment of pain. Can J Anaesth 2005; 52:806-21.

Sams C, Cocker J, Lennard MS. Biotransformation of chlorpyrifos and diazinon by human liver microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450s (CYP). Xenobiotica 2004; 34:861-73.

Sams C, Mason HJ, Rawbone R. Evidence for the activation of organophosphate pesticides by cytochromes P450 3A4 and 2D6 in human liver microsomes. Toxicol Lett 2000; 116:217-21.

Sánchez RI, Wang RW, Newton DJ et al. Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of the substance P receptor antagonist aprepitant. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1287-92.

Sandanaraj E, Lal S, Selvarajan V et al. PXR pharmacogenetics: association of haplotypes with hepatic CYP3A4 and ABCB1 messenger RNA expression and doxorubicin clearance in Asian breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:7116-26.

Sandberg M, Yasar U, Strömberg P, Höög JO, Eliasson E. Oxidation of celecoxib by polymorphic cytochrome P450 2C9 and alcohol dehydrogenase. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 54:423-9.

Sandhu RS, Prescilla RP, Simonelli TM, Edwards DJ. Influence of goldenseal root on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:1283-8.

Sandström R, Karlsson A, Knutson L, Lennernäs H. Jejunal absorption and metabolism of R/S-verapamil in humans. Pharm Res 1998; 15:856-62.

Sandström R, Knutson TW, Knutson L, Jansson B, Lennernäs H. The effect of ketoconazole on the jejunal permeability and CYP3A metabolism of (R/S)-verapamil in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:180-9.

Sane RS, Buckley DJ, Buckley AR, Nallani SC, Desai PB. Role of human pregnane X receptor in tamoxifen- and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary human hepatocytes and LS174T cells. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:946-54.

Sanga M, Younis IR, Tirumalai PS et al. Epoxidation of the methamphetamine pyrolysis product, trans-phenylpropene, to trans-phenylpropylene oxide by CYP enzymes and stereoselective glutathione adduct formation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 211:148-56.

Sanghani SP, Quinney SK, Fredenburg TB, Davis WI, Murry DJ, Bosron WF. Hydrolysis of irinotecan and its oxidative metabolites, 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxycamptothecin and 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-amino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin, by human carboxylesterases CES1A1, CES2, and a newly expressed carboxylesterase isoenzyme, CES3. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:505-11.

Sankaranarayanan S, Holahan MA, Colussi D et al. First demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma A beta lowering with oral administration of a beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitor in nonhuman primates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009; 328:131-40.

Santos A, Zanetta S, Cresteil T et al. Metabolism of irinotecan (CPT-11) by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in humans. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6:2012-20.

Sanwald P, David M, Dow J. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of dolasetron. Comparison with other indole-containing 5-HT3 antagonists. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:602-9.

Sapone A, Vaira D, Trespidi S et al. The clinical role of cytochrome p450 genotypes in Helicobacter pylori management. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98:1010-5.

Saraeva RB, Paskaleva ID, Doncheva E, Eap CB, Ganev VS. Pharmacogenetics of acenocoumarol: CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and dose requirements. J Clin Pharm Ther 2007; 32:641-9.

Sarapa N, Britto MR, Mainka MB, Parivar K. The effect of mild and moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of valdecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:247-56.

Sarapa N, Nickens DJ, Raber SR, Reynolds RR, Amantea MA. Ritonavir 100 mg does not cause QTc prolongation in healthy subjects: a possible role as CYP3A inhibitor in thorough QTc studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83:153-9.

Sarich T, Kalhorn T, Magee S et al. The effect of omeprazole pretreatment on acetaminophen metabolism in rapid and slow metabolizers of S-mephenytoin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:21-8.

Sarkar MA, Vadlamuri V, Ghosh S, Glover DD. Expression and cyclic variability of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 isoforms in human endometrium and cervix during the menstrual cycle. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1-6.

Sarkis R, Honiger J, Chafai N et al. Semiautomatic macroencapsulation of fresh or cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes maintain their ability for treatment of acute liver failure. Cell Transplant 2001; 10:601-7.

Sarlis NJ, Gourgiotis L. Hormonal effects on drug metabolism through the CYP system: perspectives on their potential significance in the era of pharmacogenomics. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 2005; 5:439-48.

Sarma AV, Dunn RL, Lange LA et al. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP17, CYP3A4, CYP19A1, SRD5A2, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 and prostate cancer risk in African-American men: the Flint Men’s Health Study. Prostate 2008; 68:296-305.

Sata F, Sapone A, Elizondo G et al. CYP3A4 allelic variants with amino acid substitutions in exons 7 and 12: evidence for an allelic variant with altered catalytic activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67:48-56.

Sato A, Katada S, Sato M, Kobayashi H. A case of polymyalgia rheumatica with improved steroid-responsibility after discontinuing carbamazepine. No To Shinkei 2004; 56:61-3.

Sato S, Someya T, Shioiri O, Koitabashi T, Inoue Y. Involvement of CYP3A4 in the metabolism of bromperidol in vitro. Pharmacol Toxicol 2000; 86:145-8.

Sato T, Ashizawa N, Iwanaga T et al. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological and pharmacokinetic evaluation of 3-phenyl-5-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazole derivatives as xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:184-7.

Sato T, Ashizawa N, Matsumoto K et al. Discovery of 3-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole, FYX-051 – a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricemia [corrected]. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:6225-9.

Satoh T, Fujita KI, Munakata H et al. Studies on the interactions between drugs and estrogen: analytical method for prediction system of gynecomastia induced by drugs on the inhibitory metabolism of estradiol using Escherichia coli coexpressing human CYP3A4 with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Anal Biochem 2000; 286:179-86.

Satoh T, Matsui M, Tamura H. Sulfotransferases in a human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2. Biol Pharm Bull 2000; 23:810-4.

Satoh T, Munakata H, Fujita K et al. Studies on the interactions between drug and estrogen. II. On the inhibitory effect of 29 drugs reported to induce gynecomastia on the oxidation of estradiol at C-2 or C-17. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26:695-700.

Satsu H, Hiura Y, Mochizuki K, Hamada M, Shimizu M. Activation of pregnane X receptor and induction of MDR1 by dietary phytochemicals. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56:5366-73.

Sauer C, Peters FT, Schwaninger AE, Meyer MR, Maurer HH. Investigations on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the metabolism of the designer drugs N-(1-phenyl cyclohexyl)-2-ethoxyethanamine and N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-2-methoxyethanamine. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 77:444-50.

Saussele T, Burk O, Blievernicht JK et al. Selective induction of human hepatic cytochromes P450 2B6 and 3A4 by metamizole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 82:265-74.

Saw J, Brennan DM, Steinhubl SR et al. Lack of evidence of a clopidogrel-statin interaction in the CHARISMA trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50:291-5.

Saw J, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB et al. Lack of adverse clopidogrel-atorvastatin clinical interaction from secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled clopidogrel trial. Circulation 2003; 108:921-4.

Sawant RD. Rhabdomyolysis due to an uncommon interaction of ciprofloxacin with simvastatin. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 16:78-9.

Schafer JA, Kjesbo NK, Gleason PP. Dronedarone: current evidence and future questions. Cardiovasc Ther 2010; 28:38-47.

Schafer JJ, Squires KE. Integrase inhibitors: a novel class of antiretroviral agents. Ann Pharmacother 2010; 44:145-56.

Schauber J, Weiler F, Gostner A et al. Human rectal mucosal gene expression after consumption of digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006; 50:1006-12.

Scheen AJ. Drug-drug and food-drug pharmacokinetic interactions with new insulinotropic agents repaglinide and nateglinide. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:93-108.

Scheen AJ. Pharmacokinetic interactions with thiazolidinediones. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:1-12.

Schelleman H, Bilker WB, Brensinger CM, Wan F, Yang YX, Hennessy S. Fibrate/Statin initiation in warfarin users and gastrointestinal bleeding risk. Am J Med 2010; 123:151-7.

Schilthuizen C, Broyl A, van der Holt B, de Knegt Y, Lokhorst H, Sonneveld P. Influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and MDR1 genes on survival and therapy-related toxicity in multiple myeloma. Haematologica 2007; 92:277-8.

Schirmer M, Rosenberger A, Klein K et al. Sex-dependent genetic markers of CYP3A4 expression and activity in human liver microsomes. Pharmacogenomics 2007; 8:443-53.

Schirmer M, Toliat MR, Haberl M et al. Genetic signature consistent with selection against the CYP3A4*1B allele in non-African populations. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16:59-71.

Schmelzer E, Triolo F, Turner ME et al. Three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture supports differentiation of human fetal liver cells. Tissue Eng Part A 2010; 16:2007-16.

Schmelzer E, Wauthier E, Reid LM. The phenotypes of pluripotent human hepatic progenitors. Stem Cells 2006; 24:1852-8.

Schmider J, Brockmöller J, Arold G, Bauer S, Roots I. Simultaneous assessment of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 activity in vivo with alprazolam and caffeine. Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9:725-34.

Schmider J, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Karsov D, Shader RI. Inhibition of CYP2C9 by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in vitro: studies of phenytoin p-hydroxylation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:495-8.

Schmidt B, Faymonville T, Gembé E, Joussen N, Schuphan I. Comparison of the biotransformation of the 14C-labelled insecticide carbaryl by non-transformed and human CYP1A1-, CYP1A2-, and CYP3A4-transgenic cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum. Chem Biodivers 2006; 3:878-96.

Schmidt B, Joussen N, Bode M, Schuphan I. Oxidative metabolic profiling of xenobiotics by human P450s expressed in tobacco cell suspension cultures. Biochem Soc Trans 2006; 34:1241-5.

Schmidt GA, Hoehns JD, Purcell JL, Friedman RL, Elhawi Y. Severe rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure secondary to concomitant use of simvastatin, amiodarone, and atazanavir. J Am Board Fam Med 2007; 20:411-6.

Schmidt R, Baumann F, Hanschmann H, Geissler F, Preiss R. Gender difference in ifosfamide metabolism by human liver microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2001; 26:193-200.

Schmidt R, Baumann F, Knüpfer H et al. CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 expression and ifosfamide turnover in breast cancer tissue microsomes. Br J Cancer 2004; 90:911-6.

Schmiedlin-Ren P, Edwards DJ, Fitzsimmons ME et al. Mechanisms of enhanced oral availability of CYP3A4 substrates by grapefruit constituents. Decreased enterocyte CYP3A4 concentration and mechanism-based inactivation by furanocoumarins. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:1228-33.

Schmiedlin-Ren P, Thummel KE, Fisher JM, Paine MF, Lown KS, Watkins PB. Expression of enzymatically active CYP3A4 by Caco-2 cells grown on extracellular matrix-coated permeable supports in the presence of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Mol Pharmacol 1997; 51:741-54.

Schmiedlin-Ren P, Thummel KE, Fisher JM, Paine MF, Watkins PB. Induction of CYP3A4 by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is human cell line-specific and is unlikely to involve pregnane X receptor. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1446-53.

Schmitt C, Hofmann C, Riek M, Patel A, Zwanziger E. Effect of saquinavir-ritonavir on cytochrome P450 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers using midazolam as a probe. Pharmacotherapy 2009; 29:1175-81.

Schmitt C, Riek M, Winters K, Schutz M, Grange S. Unexpected hepatotoxicity of rifampin and saquinavir/ritonavir in healthy male volunteers. Arch Drug Inf 2009; 2:8-16.

Schmitt CA, Heiss EH, Aristei Y, Severin T, Dirsch VM. Norfuraneol dephosphorylates eNOS at threonine 495 and enhances eNOS activity in human endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Res 2009; 81:750-7.

Schmitt-Hoffmann A, Roos B, Maares J et al. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of the new antifungal triazole BAL4815 after intravenous infusion and oral administration of its prodrug, BAL8557, in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50:286-93.

Schöller-Gyüre M, Kakuda TN, Woodfall B et al. Effect of steady-state etravirine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethinylestradiol and norethindrone. Contraception 2009; 80:44-52.

Scholz I, Oberwittler H, Riedel KD et al. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and bioavailability of the triazole antifungal agent voriconazole in relation to CYP2C19 genotype. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68:906-15.

Schonder KS, Shullo MA, Okusanya O. Tacrolimus and lopinavir/ritonavir interaction in liver transplantation. Ann Pharmacother 2003; 37:1793-6.

Schrag ML, Wienkers LC. Topological alteration of the CYP3A4 active site by the divalent cation Mg(2+). Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1198-201.

Schrag ML, Wienkers LC. Triazolam substrate inhibition: evidence of competition for heme-bound reactive oxygen within the CYP3A4 active site. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:70-5.

Schrag ML, Wienkers LC. Covalent alteration of the CYP3A4 active site: evidence for multiple substrate binding domains. Arch Biochem Biophys 2001; 391:49-55.

Schroeder WS, Ghobrial L, Gandhi PJ. Possible mechanisms of drug-induced aspirin and clopidogrel resistance. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2006; 22:139-50.

Schuetz E, Lan L, Yasuda K et al. Development of a real-time in vivo transcription assay: application reveals pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of CYP3A4 by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Mol Pharmacol 2002; 62:439-45.

Schuetz EG, Beck WT, Schuetz JD. Modulators and substrates of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A coordinately up-regulate these proteins in human colon carcinoma cells. Mol Pharmacol 1996; 49:311-8.

Schuetz EG, Strom S, Yasuda K et al. Disrupted bile acid homeostasis reveals an unexpected interaction among nuclear hormone receptors, transporters, and cytochrome P450. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:39411-8.

Schuetz JD, Beach DL, Guzelian PS. Selective expression of cytochrome P450 CYP3A mRNAs in embryonic and adult human liver. Pharmacogenetics 1994; 4:11-20.

Schuetz JD, Guzelian PS. Isolation of CYP3A5P cDNA from human liver: a reflection of a novel cytochrome P-450 pseudogene. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995; 1261:161-5.

Schulz TG, Neubert D, Davies DS, Edwards RJ. Inducibility of cytochromes P-450 by dioxin in liver and extrahepatic tissues of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Biochim Biophys Acta 1996; 1298:131-40.

Schulz-Jander DA, Casida JE. Imidacloprid insecticide metabolism: human cytochrome P450 isozymes differ in selectivity for imidazolidine oxidation versus nitroimine reduction. Toxicol Lett 2002; 132:65-70.

Schulz-Utermoehl T, Edwards RJ, Boobis AR. Affinity and potency of proinhibitory antipeptide antibodies against CYP2D6 is enhanced using cyclic peptides as immunogens. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:544-51.

Schulz-Utermoehl T, Mountfield RJ, Bywater RP, Madsen K, Jørgensen PN, Hansen KT. Structure-function analysis of human CYP3A4 using a specific proinhibitory antipeptide antibody. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:718-25.

Schulz-Utermoehl T, Mountfield RJ, Madsen K, Jørgensen PN, Hansen KT. Selective and potent inhibition of human CYP2C19 activity by a conformationally targeted antipeptide antibody. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:715-7.

Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J. Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem 2003; 46:1716-25.

Schwab M, Klotz U, Hofmann U et al. Esomeprazole-induced healing of gastroesophageal reflux disease is unrelated to the genotype of CYP2C19: evidence from clinical and pharmacokinetic data. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78:627-34.

Schwab M, Klotz U. Pharmacokinetic considerations in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:723-51.

Schwartz JB. Race but not age affects erythromycin breath test results in older hypertensive men. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41:324-9.

Schwartz JB. The influence of sex on pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:107-21.

Schwarz UI, Johnston PE, Bailey DG, Kim RB, Mayo G, Milstone A. Impact of citrus soft drinks relative to grapefruit juice on ciclosporin disposition. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:485-91.

Scollon EJ, Starr JM, Godin SJ, DeVito MJ, Hughes MF. In vitro metabolism of pyrethroid pesticides by rat and human hepatic microsomes and cytochrome p450 isoforms. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:221-8.

Scordo MG, Spina E. Cytochrome P450 polymorphisms and response to antipsychotic therapy. Pharmacogenomics 2002; 3:201-18.

Scott EE, Halpert JR. Structures of cytochrome P450 3A4. Trends Biochem Sci 2005; 30:5-7.

Scott LJ, Curran MP, Figgitt DP. Rosuvastatin: a review of its use in the management of dyslipidemia. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2004; 4:117-38.

Scott LM, Durant P, Leone-Kabler S et al. Effects of prior oral contraceptive use and soy isoflavonoids on estrogen-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2008; 112:179-85.

Scripture CD, Pieper JA. Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:263-81.

Seaton MJ, Follansbee MH, Bond JA. Oxidation of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene to 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane by cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P450 2E1 and 3A4 and human, mouse and rat liver microsomes. Carcinogenesis 1995; 16:2287-93.

See S, Stirling AL. Candesartan cilexetil: an angiotensin II-receptor blocker. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57:739-46.

Sekiguchi N, Higashida A, Kato M et al. Prediction of drug-drug interactions based on time-dependent inhibition from high throughput screening of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2009; 24:500-10.

Sekine I, Yamamoto N, Nishio K, Saijo N. Emerging ethnic differences in lung cancer therapy. Br J Cancer 2008; 99:1757-62.

Seminari E, Castagna A, Lazzarin A. Etravirine for the treatment of HIV infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2008; 6:427-33.

Senda C, Kishimoto W, Sakai K, Nagakura A, Igarashi T. Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of brotizolam. Xenobiotica 1997; 27:913-22.

Seneca N, Zoghbi SS, Shetty HU et al. Effects of ketoconazole on the biodistribution and metabolism of [11C]loperamide and [11C]N-desmethyl-loperamide in wild-type and P-gp knockout mice. Nucl Med Biol 2010; 37:335-45.

Sensken S, Waclawczyk S, Knaupp AS et al. In vitro differentiation of human cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells towards an endodermal pathway. Cytotherapy 2007; 9:362-78.

Seo T, Pahwa P, McDuffie HH et al. Association between cytochrome P450 3A5 polymorphism and the lung function in Saskatchewan grain workers. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008; 18:487-93.

Sérée E, Villard PH, Hevér A et al. Modulation of MDR1 and CYP3A expression by dexamethasone: evidence for an inverse regulation in adrenals. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 252:392-5.

Serels SR, Appell RA. Tolterodine: a new antimuscarinic agent for the treatment of the overactive bladder. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 1999; 8:1073-8.

Sergent T, Dupont I, Jassogne C et al. CYP1A1 induction and CYP3A4 inhibition by the fungicide imazalil in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells-comparison with other conazole pesticides. Toxicol Lett 2009; 184:159-68.

Sergent T, Dupont I, van der Heiden E et al. CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 modulation by dietary flavonoids in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Toxicol Lett 2009; 191:216-22.

Serralta A, Donato MT, Orbis F, Castell JV, Mir J, Gómez-Lechón MJ. Functionality of cultured human hepatocytes from elective samples, cadaveric grafts and hepatectomies. Toxicol In Vitro 2003; 17:769-74.

Severino G, Chillotti C, de Lisa R, del Zompo M, Ardau R. Adverse reactions during imatinib and lansoprazole treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39:162-4.

Sevior DK, Hokkanen J, Tolonen A et al. Rapid screening of commercially available herbal products for the inhibition of major human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes using the N-in-one cocktail. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:245-54.

Shadle CR, Lee Y, Majumdar AK et al. Evaluation of potential inductive effects of aprepitant on cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C9 activity. J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 44:215-23.

Shaikh AR, Broclawik E, Tsuboi H et al. Oxidation mechanism in the metabolism of (S)-N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-ylphenyl)ethyl]-3-phenylacrylamide on oxyferryl active site in CYP3A4 Cytochrome: DFT modeling. J Mol Model 2007; 13:851-60.

Shakeri-Nejad K, Stahlmann R. Drug interactions during therapy with three major groups of antimicrobial agents. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2006; 7:639-51.

Shao J, Stapleton PL, Lin YS, Gallagher EP. Cytochrome p450 and glutathione s-transferase mRNA expression in human fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:168-75.

Sharma A, Hamelin BA. Classic histamine H1 receptor antagonists: a critical review of their metabolic and pharmacokinetic fate from a bird’s eye view. Curr Drug Metab 2003; 4:105-29.

Sharma S, Ellis EC, Dorko K et al. Metabolism of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, an agent for preventing preterm birth, by fetal hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:723-7.

Sharma S, Ou J, Strom S, Mattison D, Caritis S, Venkataramanan R. Identification of enzymes involved in the metabolism of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate: an effective agent for prevention of preterm birth. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1896-902.

Shaukat A, Benekli M, Vladutiu GD, Slack JL, Wetzler M, Baer MR. Simvastatin-fluconazole causing rhabdomyolysis. Ann Pharmacother 2003; 37:1032-5.

Shayeganpour A, El-Kadi AO, Brocks DR. Determination of the enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of amiodarone in liver and intestine of rat: the contribution of cytochrome P450 3A isoforms. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:43-50.

Shchepotina EG, Vavilin VA, Goreva OB, Lyakhovich VV. Some mutations of exon-7 in cytochrome P450 gene 3A4 and their effect on 6beta-hydroxylation of cortisol. Bull Exp Biol Med 2006; 141:701-3.

Shelton PS, Barnett FL, Krick SE. Hyperventilation associated with quetiapine. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34:335-7.

Shen DD, Kunze KL, Thummel KE. Enzyme-catalyzed processes of first-pass hepatic and intestinal drug extraction. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1997; 27:99-127.

Shen G, Liang A, Zhao Y et al. Interaction between four herb compounds and a western drug by CYP3A4 enzyme metabolism in vitro. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2009; 34:1705-11.

Shen L, Fitzloff JF, Cook CS. Differential enantioselectivity and product-dependent activation and inhibition in metabolism of verapamil by human CYP3As. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:186-96.

Shen WW. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and interactions of psychotropic drugs: a five-year update. Int J Psychiatry Med 1995; 25:277-90.

Shet MS, McPhaul M, Fisher CW, Stallings NR, Estabrook RW. Metabolism of the antiandrogenic drug (Flutamide) by human CYP1A2. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:1298-303.

Shi J, Chapel S, Montay G et al. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics and safety of telithromycin and clarithromycin in older subjects with renal impairment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 43:123-33.

Shi J, Montay G, Bhargava VO. Clinical pharmacokinetics of telithromycin, the first ketolide antibacterial. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:915-34.

Shi J, Montay G, Leroy B, Bhargava VO. Effects of itraconazole or grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of telithromycin. Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25:42-51.

Shi S, Klotz U. Clinical use and pharmacological properties of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:233-52.

Shi X, Dick RA, Ford KA, Casida JE. Enzymes and inhibitors in neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57:4861-6.

Shi Y, Li C, O’Connor SP et al. Aroylguanidine-based factor Xa inhibitors: the discovery of BMS-344577. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:6882-9.

Shibata N, Hayakawa T, Takada K, Hoshino N, Minouchi T, Yamaji A. Simultaneous determination of glucocorticoids in plasma or urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn fluorimetric derivatization by 9-anthroyl nitrile. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 1998; 706:191-9.

Shibata Y, Takahashi H, Chiba M, Ishii Y. A novel approach to the prediction of drug-drug interactions in humans based on the serum incubation method. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2008; 23:328-39.

Shimada T, Tsumura F, Yamazaki H. Prediction of human liver microsomal oxidations of 7-ethoxycoumarin and chlorzoxazone with kinetic parameters of recombinant cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1274-80.

Shimakura J, Tani N, Mizuno Y, Komuro S, Kanamaru H. In vitro drug-drug interactions with perospirone and concomitantly administered drugs in human liver microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 28:67-72.

Shimizu M, Uno T, Yasui-Furukori N, Sugawara K, Tateishi T. Effects of clarithromycin and verapamil on rabeprazole pharmacokinetics between CYP2C19 genotypes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:597-603.

Shimizu T, Akimoto K, Yoshimura T et al. Autoinduction of MKC-963 [(R)-1-(1-cyclohexylethylamino)-4-phenylphthalazine] metabolism in healthy volunteers and its retrospective evaluation using primary human hepatocytes and cDNA-expressed enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:950-4.

Shin HC, Kim HR, Cho HJ et al. Comparative gene expression of intestinal metabolizing enzymes. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2009; 30:411-21.

Shin HS, Slattery JT. CYP3A4-mediated oxidation of lisofylline to lisofylline 4,5-diol in human liver microsomes. J Pharm Sci 1998; 87:390-3.

Shin KH, Chung YJ, Kim BH et al. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of udenafil in healthy Korean subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 69:307-10.

Shin KH, Kim BH, Kim TE et al. The effects of ketoconazole and rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of mirodenafil in healthy Korean male volunteers: an open-label, one-sequence, three-period, three-treatment crossover study. Clin Ther 2009; 31:3009-20.

Shin SC, Choi JS, Li X. Enhanced bioavailability of tamoxifen after oral administration of tamoxifen with quercetin in rats. Int J Pharm 2006; 313:144-9.

Shinderman M, Maxwell S, Brawand-Amey M, Golay KP, Baumann P, Eap CB. Cytochrome P4503A4 metabolic activity, methadone blood concentrations, and methadone doses. Drug Alcohol Depend 2003; 69:205-11.

Shiraga T, Kaneko H, Iwasaki K, Tozuka Z, Suzuki A, Hata T. Identification of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of zotepine, an antipsychotic drug, in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:217-29.

Shiraga T, Tozuka Z, Ishimura R, Kawamura A, Kagayama A. Identification of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of FK228, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:124-9.

Shirasaka Y, Kawasaki M, Sakane T et al. Induction of human P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells: development of a highly sensitive assay system for P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2006; 21:414-23.

Shitara Y, Hirano M, Sato H, Sugiyama Y. Gemfibrozil and its glucuronide inhibit the organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2/OATP1B1:SLC21A6)-mediated hepatic uptake and CYP2C8-mediated metabolism of cerivastatin: analysis of the mechanism of the clinically relevant drug-drug interaction between cerivastatin and gemfibrozil. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 311:228-36.

Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors: drug-drug interactions and interindividual differences in transporter and metabolic enzyme functions. Pharmacol Ther 2006; 112:71-105.

Shoaf SE, Elizari MV, Wang Z et al. Tolvaptan administration does not affect steady state amiodarone concentrations in patients with cardiac arrhythmias. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2005; 10:165-71.

Shou M, Dai R, Cui D, Korzekwa KR, Baillie TA, Rushmore TH. A kinetic model for the metabolic interaction of two substrates at the active site of cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:2256-62.

Shou M, Grogan J, Mancewicz JA et al. Activation of CYP3A4: evidence for the simultaneous binding of two substrates in a cytochrome P450 active site. Biochemistry 1994; 33:6450-5.

Shou M, Hayashi M, Pan Y et al. Modeling, prediction, and in vitro in vivo correlation of CYP3A4 induction. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2355-70.

Shou M, Lin Y, Lu P et al. Enzyme kinetics of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions. Curr Drug Metab 2001; 2:17-36.

Shou M, Lu T, Krausz KW et al. Use of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies to assess the contribution of cytochromes P450 to human drug metabolism. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 394:199-209.

Shou M, Mei Q, Ettore MW Jr, Dai R, Baillie TA, Rushmore TH. Sigmoidal kinetic model for two co-operative substrate-binding sites in a cytochrome P450 3A4 active site: an example of the metabolism of diazepam and its derivatives. Biochem J 1999; 340:845-53.

Shu Y, Cheng ZN, Liu ZQ et al. Interindividual variations in levels and activities of cytochrome P-450 in liver microsomes of Chinese subjects. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2001; 22:283-8.

Shu Y, Wang LS, Xiao WM, Wang W, Huang SL, Zhou HH. Probing CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activities in Chinese liver microsomes by quantification of 5-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulphone. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2000; 21:753-8.

Shu Y, Wang LS, Xu ZH et al. 5-Hydroxylation of omeprazole by human liver microsomal fractions from Chinese populations related to CYP2C19 gene dose and individual ethnicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 295:844-51.

Shvartsman I, Dvir T, Harel-Adar T, Cohen S. Perfusion cell seeding and cultivation induce the assembly of thick and functional hepatocellular tissue-like construct. Tissue Eng Part A 2009; 15:751-60.

Sica DA. Interaction of grapefruit juice and calcium channel blockers. Am J Hypertens 2006; 19:768-73.

Siest G, Ferrari L, Accaoui MJ, Batt AM, Visvikis S. Pharmacogenomics of drugs affecting the cardiovascular system. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003; 41:590-9.

Siest G, Jeannesson E, Marteau JB et al. Transcription factor and drug-metabolizing enzyme gene expression in lymphocytes from healthy human subjects. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:182-9.

Siest G, Jeannesson E, Visvikis-Siest S. Enzymes and pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular drugs. Clin Chim Acta 2007; 381:26-31.

Sigurdson AJ, Bhatti P, Chang SC et al. Polymorphisms in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism-related genes, ionizing radiation exposure, and risk of breast cancer among US radiologic technologists. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2009; 118:177-84.

Siller M, Anzenbacher P, Anzenbacherova E, Dolezal K, Popa I, Strnad M. Interactions of olomoucine II with human liver microsomal cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1198-202.

Siller-Matula JM, Lang I, Christ G, Jilma B. Calcium-channel blockers reduce the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52:1557-63.

Sills G, Brodie M. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions with zonisamide. Epilepsia 2007; 48:435-41.

Silvestri L, Sonzogni L, de Silvestri A et al. CYP enzyme polymorphisms and susceptibility to HCV-related chronic liver disease and liver cancer. Int J Cancer 2003; 104:310-7.

Sim SC, Edwards RJ, Boobis AR, Ingelman-Sundberg M. CYP3A7 protein expression is high in a fraction of adult human livers and partially associated with the CYP3A7*1C allele. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005; 15:625-31.

Simard C, Michaud V, Gibbs B, Massé R, Lessard E, Turgeon J. Identification of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of domperidone. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:1013-23.

Simard C, O’Hara GE, Prévost J, Guilbaud R, Masseé R, Turgeon J. Study of the drug-drug interaction between simvastatin and cisapride in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57:229-34.

Simarro Doorten AY, Bull S, van der Doelen MA, Fink-Gremmels J. Metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of ochratoxin A. Toxicol In Vitro 2004; 18:271-7.

Simarro Doorten Y, Nijmeijer S, de Nijs-Tjon L, Fink-Gremmels J. Metabolism-mediated Ochratoxin A genotoxicity in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Food Chem Toxicol 2006; 44:261-70.

Simon C, Stieger B, Kullak-Ublick GA et al. Intestinal expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and ABC transporters and carbamazepine and phenytoin disposition. Acta Neurol Scand 2007; 115:232-42.

Simonsen U. Interactions between drugs for erectile dysfunction and drugs for cardiovascular disease. Int J Impot Res 2002; 14:178-88.

Simonson SG, Martin PD, Warwick MJ, Mitchell PD, Schneck DW. The effect of rosuvastatin on oestrogen & progestin pharmacokinetics in healthy women taking an oral contraceptive. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:279-86.

Sinclair PR, Gorman N, Tsyrlov IB, Fuhr U, Walton HS, Sinclair JF. Uroporphyrinogen oxidation catalyzed by human cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:1019-25.

Singh BN. Effects of food on clinical pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 37:213-55.

Singh M, Thapa B, Arora R. Clopidogrel pharmacogenetics and its clinical implications. Am J Ther 2010; 17:66-73.

Singh MN, Stringfellow HF, Walsh MJ et al. Quantifiable mRNA transcripts for tamoxifen-metabolising enzymes in human endometrium. Toxicology 2008; 249:85-90.

Singh R, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, K Sharma R, D Mittal R. Impact of CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms on dose requirement of calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, in renal allograft recipients of North India. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2009; 380:169-77.

Singh SB, Shen LQ, Walker MJ, Sheridan RP. A model for predicting likely sites of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism on drug-like molecules. J Med Chem 2003; 46:1330-6.

Singh YN. Potential for interaction of kava and St. John’s wort with drugs. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 100:108-13.

Sinués B, Vicente J, Fanlo A et al. CYP3A5 3, CYP3A4 1B and MDR1 C3435T genotype distributions in Ecuadorians. Dis Markers 2008; 24:325-31.

Sinués B, Vicente J, Fanlo A et al. CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1B allele distribution and genotype combinations: differences between Spaniards and Central Americans. Ther Drug Monit 2007; 29:412-6.

Sinz M, Kim S, Zhu Z et al. Evaluation of 170 xenobiotics as transactivators of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) and correlation to known CYP3A4 drug interactions. Curr Drug Metab 2006; 7:375-88.

Sivertsson L, Ek M, Darnell M, Edebert I, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Neve EP. CYP3A4 catalytic activity is induced in confluent Huh7 hepatoma cells. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 66:555-61.

Skaanild MT, Friis C. Characterization of the P450 system in Göttingen minipigs. Pharmacol Toxicol 1997; 80 Suppl 2:28-33.

Skaanild MT, Friis C. Cytochrome P450 sex differences in minipigs and conventional pigs. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 85:174-80.

Skerjanec A, Wang J, Maren K, Rojkjaer L. Investigation of the pharmacokinetic interactions of deferasirox, a once-daily oral iron chelator, with midazolam, rifampin, and repaglinide in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 50:205-13.

Skopalík J, Anzenbacher P, Otyepka M. Flexibility of human cytochromes P450: molecular dynamics reveals differences between CYPs 3A4, 2C9, and 2A6, which correlate with their substrate preferences. J Phys Chem B 2008; 112:8165-73.

Slain D, Pakyz A, Israel DS, Monroe S, Polk RE. Variability in activity of hepatic CYP3A4 in patients infected with HIV. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20:898-907.

Slatter JG, Templeton IE, Castle JC et al. Compendium of gene expression profiles comprising a baseline model of the human liver drug metabolism transcriptome. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:938-62.

Slaviero KA, Clarke SJ, McLachlan AJ, Blair EY, Rivory LP. Population pharmacokinetics of weekly docetaxel in patients with advanced cancer. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:44-53.

Small DS, Farid NA, Payne CD et al. Effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel. Clin Pharmacokinet 2010; 49:777-98.

Smit P, van Schaik RH, van der Werf M et al. A common polymorphism in the CYP3A7 gene is associated with a nearly 50% reduction in serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:5313-6.

Smith D, Sadagopan N, Zientek M, Reddy A, Cohen L. Analytical approaches to determine cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of new chemical entities in drug discovery. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 850:455-63.

Smith DA, Koch KM, Arya N, Bowen CJ, Herendeen JM, Beelen A. Effects of ketoconazole and carbamazepine on lapatinib pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 67:421-6.

Smith DA. Design of drugs through a consideration of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1994; 19:193-9.

Smith DA. Induction and drug development. Eur J Pharm Sci 2000; 11:185-9.

Smith NF, Baker SD, Gonzalez FJ, Harris JW, Figg WD, Sparreboom A. Modulation of erlotinib pharmacokinetics in mice by a novel cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor, BAS 100. Br J Cancer 2008; 98:1630-2.

Smith NF, Figg WD, Sparreboom A. Pharmacogenetics of irinotecan metabolism and transport: an update. Toxicol In Vitro 2006; 20:163-75.

Smith SM, Judge HM, Peters G, Storey RF. Multiple antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel are not modulated by statin type in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Platelets 2004; 15:465-74.

Snider NT, Kornilov AM, Kent UM, Hollenberg PF. Anandamide metabolism by human liver and kidney microsomal cytochrome p450 enzymes to form hydroxyeicosatetraenoic and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid ethanolamides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 321:590-7.

Snider NT, Walker VJ, Hollenberg PF. Oxidation of the endogenous cannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide by the Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Physiological and pharmacological implications. Pharmacol Rev 2010; 62:136-54.

Snyderwine EG, Turesky RJ, Turteltaub KW et al. Metabolism of food-derived heterocyclic amines in nonhuman primates. Mutat Res 1997; 376:203-10.

Soars MG, Gelboin HV, Krausz KW, Riley RJ. A comparison of relative abundance, activity factor and inhibitory monoclonal antibody approaches in the characterization of human CYP enzymology. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55:175-81.

Soars MG, Grime K, Riley RJ. Comparative analysis of substrate and inhibitor interactions with CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Xenobiotica 2006; 36:287-99.

Soars MG, Petullo DM, Eckstein JA, Kasper SC, Wrighton SA. An assessment of udp-glucuronosyltransferase induction using primary human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:140-8.

Solon EG, Balani SK, Luo G et al. Interaction of ritonavir on tissue distribution of a [(14)c]L-valinamide, a potent human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease inhibitor, in rats using quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1164-9.

Solus JF, Arietta BJ, Harris JR et al. Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population. Pharmacogenomics 2004; 5:895-931.

Somers GI, Harris AJ, Bayliss MK, Houston JB. The metabolism of the 5HT3 antagonists ondansetron, alosetron and GR87442 I: a comparison of in vitro and in vivo metabolism and in vitro enzyme kinetics in rat, dog and human hepatocytes, microsomes and recombinant human enzymes. Xenobiotica 2007; 37:832-54.

Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM et al. A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1797-805.

Somogyi AA, Menelaou A, Fullston SV. CYP3A4 mediates dextropropoxyphene N-demethylation to nordextropropoxyphene: human in vitro and in vivo studies and lack of CYP2D6 involvement. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:875-87.

Somparn N, Kukongviriyapan U, Tassaneeyakul W, Jetsrisuparb A, Kukongviriyapan V. Modification of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 activities in haemoglobin E-beta thalassemia patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63:43-50.

Song X, Li Y, Liu J, Mukundan M, Yan B. Simultaneous substitution of phenylalanine-305 and aspartate-318 of rat pregnane X receptor with the corresponding human residues abolishes the ability to transactivate the CYP3A23 promoter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312:571-82.

Song X, Xie M, Zhang H, Li Y, Sachdeva K, Yan B. The pregnane X receptor binds to response elements in a genomic context-dependent manner, and PXR activator rifampicin selectively alters the binding among target genes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:35-42.

Sonnichsen DS, Liu Q, Schuetz EG, Schuetz JD, Pappo A, Relling MV. Variability in human cytochrome P450 paclitaxel metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 275:566-75.

Sonnier M, Cresteil T. Delayed ontogenesis of CYP1A2 in the human liver. Eur J Biochem 1998; 251:893-8.

Sotaniemi EA, Lumme P, Arvela P, Rautio A. Age and CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 activities marked by the metabolism of lignocaine and coumarin in man. Therapie 1996; 51:363-6.

Sotaniemi EA, Rautio A, Bäckstrom M, Arvela P, Pelkonen O. CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 activities marked by the metabolism of lignocaine and coumarin in patients with liver and kidney diseases and epileptic patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 39:71-6.

Soucek P, Zuber R, Anzenbacherová E, Anzenbacher P, Guengerich FP. Minipig cytochrome P450 3A, 2A and 2C enzymes have similar properties to human analogs. BMC Pharmacol 2001; 1:11

Spanakis M, Vizirianakis IS, Mironidou-Tzouveleki M, Niopas I. A validated SIM GC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan and its metabolites dextrorphan, 3-methoxymorphinan and 3-hydroxymorphinan in biological matrices and its application to in vitro CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition study. Biomed Chromatogr 2009; 23:1131-7.

Spangler ML, Saxena S. Warfarin and bosentan interaction in a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to bilateral pulmonary emboli. Clin Ther 2010; 32:53-6.

Sparreboom A, Marsh S, Mathijssen RH, Verweij J, McLeod HL. Pharmacogenetics of tipifarnib (R115777) transport and metabolism in cancer patients. Invest New Drugs 2004; 22:285-9.

Sparreboom A, Nooter K. Does P-glycoprotein play a role in anticancer drug pharmacokinetics? Drug Resist Updat 2000; 3:357-63.

Spencer EA, Key TJ, Appleby PN et al. Prospective study of the association between grapefruit intake and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Causes Control 2009; 20:803-9.

Spigset O, Molden E. Cytochrome P-450 3A4-the most important arena for drug interactions in the body. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2008; 128:2832-5.

Spina E, Arena D, Scordo MG, Fazio A, Pisani F, Perucca E. Elevation of plasma carbamazepine concentrations by ketoconazole in patients with epilepsy. Ther Drug Monit 1997; 19:535-8.

Spina E, Avenoso A, Campo GM, Scordo MG, Caputi AP, Perucca E. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of imipramine and desipramine in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43:315-8.

Spina E, Avenoso A, Facciolà G et al. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone: effect of comedication with carbamazepine or valproate. Ther Drug Monit 2000; 22:481-5.

Spina E, Avenoso A, Scordo MG et al. Inhibition of risperidone metabolism by fluoxetine in patients with schizophrenia: a clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interaction. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2002; 22:419-23.

Spina E, de Leon J. Metabolic drug interactions with newer antipsychotics: a comparative review. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007; 100:4-22.

Spina E, Pisani F, Perucca E. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with carbamazepine. An update. Clin Pharmacokinet 1996; 31:198-214.

Spina E, Santoro V, D’Arrigo C. Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with second-generation antidepressants: an update. Clin Ther 2008; 30:1206-27.

Spina E, Scordo MG. Clinically significant drug interactions with antidepressants in the elderly. Drugs Aging 2002; 19:299-320.

Spina E, Scordo MG, D’Arrigo C. Metabolic drug interactions with new psychotropic agents. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2003; 17:517-38.

Spriet I, Meersseman W, de Hoon J, von Winckelmann S, Wilmer A, Willems L. Mini-series: II. clinical aspects. clinically relevant CYP450-mediated drug interactions in the ICU. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35:603-12.

Sproule BA, Hazra M, Pollock BG. Desvenlafaxine succinate for major depressive disorder. Drugs Today 2008; 44:475-87.

Spurdle AB, Goodwin B, Hodgson E et al. The CYP3A4*1B polymorphism has no functional significance and is not associated with risk of breast or ovarian cancer. Pharmacogenetics 2002; 12:355-66.

Sridar C, Kent UM, Noon K et al. Differential inhibition of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 by the newly synthesized coumarin derivatives 7-coumarin propargyl ether and 7-(4-trifluoromethyl)coumarin propargyl ether. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2234-43.

Sridar C, Kent UM, Notley LM, Gillam EM, Hollenberg PF. Effect of tamoxifen on the enzymatic activity of human cytochrome CYP2B6. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 301:945-52.

Srinivas NR. Is there a place for drug combination strategies using clinical pharmacology attributes?-review of current trends in research. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2009; 4:220-8.

St John’s wort and depression: slight efficacy at best, many drug interactions. Prescrire Int 2004; 13:187-92.

Staack RF, Paul LD, Springer D, Kraemer T, Maurer HH. Cytochrome P450 dependent metabolism of the new designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP). In vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats as well as in vitro studies in human liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 67:235-44.

Staatz CE, Goodman LK, Tett SE. Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Calcineurin Inhibitors: Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet 2010; 49:141-75.

Stadel R, Yang J, Nalwalk JW, Phillips JG, Hough LB. High-affinity binding of [3H]cimetidine to a heme-containing protein in rat brain. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:614-21.

Stapleton HM, Kelly SM, Pei R, Letcher RJ, Gunsch C. Metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by human hepatocytes in vitro. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117:197-202.

Starr JR, Chen C, Doody DR et al. Risk of testicular germ cell cancer in relation to variation in maternal and offspring cytochrome p450 genes involved in catechol estrogen metabolism. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14:2183-90.

Stearns RA, Chakravarty PK, Chen R, Chiu SH. Biotransformation of losartan to its active carboxylic acid metabolite in human liver microsomes. Role of cytochrome P4502C and 3A subfamily members. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:207-15.

Stearns V, Johnson MD, Rae JM et al. Active tamoxifen metabolite plasma concentrations after coadministration of tamoxifen and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95:1758-64.

Stedman C, Robertson G, Coulter S, Liddle C. Feed-forward regulation of bile acid detoxification by CYP3A4: studies in humanized transgenic mice. J Biol Chem 2004; 279:11336-43.

Stein MA, McGough JJ. The pharmacogenomic era: promise for personalizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapy. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2008; 17:475-90, xi-xii.

Steinacher L, Vandel P, Zullino DF, Eap CB, Brawand-Amey M, Baumann P. Carbamazepine augmentation in depressive patients non-responding to citalopram: a pharmacokinetic and clinical pilot study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2002; 12:255-60.

Stephan PL, Jaquenoud Sirot E, Mueller B, Eap CB, Baumann P. Adverse drug reactions following nonresponse in a depressed patient with CYP2D6 deficiency and low CYP 3A4/5 activity. Pharmacopsychiatry 2006; 39:150-2.

Stern RH, Smithers JA, Olson SC. Atorvastatin does not produce a clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of terfenadine. J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 38:753-7.

Sternieri E, Coccia CP, Pinetti D, Guerzoni S, Ferrari A. Pharmacokinetics and interactions of headache medications, part II: prophylactic treatments. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2006; 2:981-1007.

Stevens JC. New perspectives on the impact of cytochrome P450 3A expression for pediatric pharmacology. Drug Discov Today 2006; 11:440-5.

Stevens JC, Domanski TL, Harlow GR, White RB, Orton E, Halpert JR. Use of the steroid derivative RPR 106541 in combination with site-directed mutagenesis for enhanced cytochrome P-450 3A4 structure/function analysis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 290:594-602.

Stevens JC, Hines RN, Gu C et al. Developmental expression of the major human hepatic CYP3A enzymes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 307:573-82.

Stiborová M, Bieler CA, Wiessler M, Frei E. The anticancer agent ellipticine on activation by cytochrome P450 forms covalent DNA adducts. Biochem Pharmacol 2001; 62:1675-84.

Stiborová M, Martínek V, Rýdlová H, Hodek P, Frei E. Sudan I is a potential carcinogen for humans: evidence for its metabolic activation and detoxication by human recombinant cytochrome P450 1A1 and liver microsomes. Cancer Res 2002; 62:5678-84.

Stiborová M, Sejbal J, Borek-Dohalská L et al. The anticancer drug ellipticine forms covalent DNA adducts, mediated by human cytochromes P450, through metabolism to 13-hydroxyellipticine and ellipticine N2-oxide. Cancer Res 2004; 64:8374-80.

Sticherling C, Schaer BA, Ammann P, Maeder M, Osswald S. Methadone-induced Torsade de pointes tachycardias. Swiss Med Wkly 2005; 135:282-5.

Storme T, Deroussent A, Mercier L et al. New ifosfamide analogs designed for lower associated neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity with modified alkylating kinetics leading to enhanced in vitro anticancer activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009; 328:598-609.

Störmer E, Brockmöller J, Roots I, Schmider J. Cytochrome P-450 enzymes and FMO3 contribute to the disposition of the antipsychotic drug perazine in vitro. Psychopharmacology 2000; 151:312-20.

Störmer E, von Moltke LL, Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ. Metabolism of the antidepressant mirtazapine in vitro: contribution of cytochromes P-450 1A2, 2D6, and 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1168-75.

Stoutenburg JP, Raftopoulos H. Antiemetic studies on the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2004; 2:491-7.

Strack DK, Leckband SG, Meyer JM. Antipsychotic prescribing practices following withdrawal of concomitant carbamazepine. J Psychiatr Pract 2009; 15:442-8.

Streit M, Göggelmann C, Dehnert C et al. Cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated drug metabolism at exposure to acute hypoxia (corresponding to an altitude of 4,500 m). Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:39-46.

Stresser DM, Blanchard AP, Turner SD et al. Substrate-dependent modulation of CYP3A4 catalytic activity: analysis of 27 test compounds with four fluorometric substrates. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1440-8.

Stresser DM, Broudy MI, Ho T et al. Highly selective inhibition of human CYP3Aa in vitro by azamulin and evidence that inhibition is irreversible. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:105-12.

Stresser DM, Kupfer D. Catalytic characteristics of CYP3A4: requirement for a phenolic function in ortho hydroxylation of estradiol and mono-O-demethylated methoxychlor. Biochemistry 1997; 36:2203-10.

Stresser DM, Kupfer D. Prosubstrates of CYP3A4, the major human hepatic cytochrome P450: transformation into substrates by other P450 isoforms. Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:1861-71.

Stresser DM, Mason AK, Perloff ES et al. Differential time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition of CYP2C19 by enantiomers of fluoxetine. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:695-8.

Stresser DM, Turner SD, Blanchard AP, Miller VP, Crespi CL. Cytochrome P450 fluorometric substrates: identification of isoform-selective probes for rat CYP2D2 and human CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:845-52.

Stringer RA, Strain-Damerell C, Nicklin P, Houston JB. Evaluation of recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes as an in vitro system for metabolic clearance predictions. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1025-34.

Stroh M, Dishy V, Radziszewski W et al. The effects of multiple doses of rolofylline on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of midazolam in healthy subjects. Am J Ther 2010; 17:53-60.

Strolin Benedetti M, Baltes EL. Drug metabolism and disposition in children. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2003; 17:281-99.

Styles JA, Davies A, Davies R, White IN, Smith LL. Clastogenic and aneugenic effects of tamoxifen and some of its analogues in hepatocytes from dosed rats and in human lymphoblastoid cells transfected with human P450 cDNAs (MCL-5 cells). Carcinogenesis 1997; 18:303-13.

Styles JA, Davies A, Lim CK et al. Genotoxicity of tamoxifen, tamoxifen epoxide and toremifene in human lymphoblastoid cells containing human cytochrome P450s. Carcinogenesis 1994; 15:5-9.

Su CR, Ueng YF, Dung NX, Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy M, Wu TS. Cytochrome P3A4 inhibitors and other constituents of Fibraurea tinctoria. J Nat Prod 2007; 70:1930-3.

Su HI, Sammel MD, Velders L et al. Association of cyclophosphamide drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and chemotherapy-related ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors. Fertil Steril 2010; 94:645-54.

Subehan S, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. In vitro mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by a new constituent of Cinnamomum burmani. Planta Med 2008; 74:1474-80.

Subehan, Usia T, Iwata H, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 by Indonesian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 105:449-55.

Subehan, Usia T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Constituents of Zingiber aromaticum and their CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activity. Chem Pharm Bull 2005; 53:333-5.

Subehan, Zaidi SF, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator. J Agric Food Chem 2007; 55:10162-7.

Subrahmanyam V, Renwick AB, Walters DG et al. Identification of cytochrome P-450 isoforms responsible for cis-tramadol metabolism in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1146-55.

Subrahmanyam V, Renwick AB, Walters DG, Price RJ, Tonelli AP, Lake BG. Metabolism of a novel phosphodiesterase-IV inhibitor (V11294) by human hepatic cytochrome P450 forms. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:521-34.

Subramanian M, Tam H, Zheng H, Tracy TS. CYP2C9 – CYP3A4 protein-protein interactions: Role of the hydrophobic N-terminus. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1003-9.

Sueyasu M, Fujito K, Shuto H, Mizokoshi T, Kataoka Y, Oishi R. Protein binding and the metabolism of thiamylal enantiomers in vitro. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:736-40.

Sueyoshi T, Kawamoto T, Zelko I, Honkakoski P, Negishi M. The repressed nuclear receptor CAR responds to phenobarbital in activating the human CYP2B6 gene. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:6043-6.

Sueyoshi T, Negishi M. Phenobarbital response elements of cytochrome P450 genes and nuclear receptors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2001; 41:123-43.

Sugatani J, Osabe M, Kurosawa M, Kitamura N, Ikari A, Miwa M. Induction of UGT1A1 and CYP2B6 by an antimitogenic factor in HepG2 cells is mediated through suppression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity: cell cycle-dependent expression. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:177-86.

Sugatani J, Yamakawa K, Tonda E et al. The induction of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 mediated through a distal enhancer module by flavonoids and xenobiotics. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 67:989-1000.

Sugawara M, Okamoto K, Kadowaki T, Kusano K, Fukamizu A, Yoshimura T. The expressions of Cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronosyltranferase and Transporter genes in monolayer carcinoma cells change in subcutaneous tumors grown as xenografts in immunodeficient nude mice. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:526-33

Sugie M, Asakura E, Zhao YL et al. Possible involvement of the drug transporters P glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein Mrp2 in disposition of azithromycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48:809-14.

Sugimoto K, Araki N, Ohmori M et al. Interaction between grapefruit juice and hypnotic drugs: comparison of triazolam and quazepam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:209-15.

Sugimoto K, Ohmori M, Tsuruoka S et al. Different effects of St John’s wort on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:518-24.

Sugiyama Y, Mimura N, Kuwabara T, Kobayashi H, Ushiki J, Fuse E. Effect of benidipine on simvastatin metabolism in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:199-205.

Sukumaran SM, Potsaid B, Lee MY, Clark DS, Dordick JS. Development of a fluorescence-based, ultra high-throughput screening platform for nanoliter-scale cytochrome p450 microarrays. J Biomol Screen 2009; 14:668-78.

Sullivan GJ, Hay DC, Park IH et al. Generation of functional human hepatic endoderm from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Hepatology 2010; 51:329-35.

Suman G, Jamil K, Suseela K, Vamsy MCh. Novel mutations of CYP3A4 in fine needle aspiration cytology samples of breast cancer patients and its clinical correlations. Cancer Biomark 2009; 5:33-40.

Sumida A, Fukuen S, Yamamoto I, Matsuda H, Naohara M, Azuma J. Quantitative analysis of constitutive and inducible CYPs mRNA expression in the HepG2 cell line using reverse transcription-competitive PCR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 267:756-60.

Sumida A, Kinoshita K, Fukuda T et al. Relationship between mRNA levels quantified by reverse transcription-competitive PCR and metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 in human liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999; 262:499-503.

Sun DX, Fang ZZ, Zhang YY, Cao YF, Yang L, Yin J. Inhibitory effects of curcumenol on human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. Phytother Res 2010; 24:1213-6.

Sun DX, Lu JC, Fang ZZ et al. Reversible inhibition of three important human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by tiliroside. Phytother Res 2010; 24:1670-5.

Sun H, Ehlhardt WJ, Kulanthaivel P, Lanza DL, Reilly CA, Yost GS. Dehydrogenation of indoline by cytochrome P450 enzymes: a novel “aromatase” process. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 322:843-51.

Sun H, Moore C, Dansette PM, Kumar S, Halpert JR, Yost GS. Dehydrogenation of the indoline-containing drug 4-chloro-N-(2-methyl-1-indolinyl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide (indapamide) by CYP3A4: correlation with in silico predictions. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:672-84.

Sun H, Sharma R, Bauman J et al. Differences in CYP3A4 catalyzed bioactivation of 5-aminooxindole and 5-aminobenzsultam scaffolds in proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) inhibitors: retrospective analysis by CYP3A4 molecular docking, quantum chemical calculations and glutathione adduct detection using linear ion trap/orbitrap mass spectrometry. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009; 19:3177-82.

Sun H, Yost GS. Metabolic activation of a novel 3-substituted indole-containing TNF-alpha inhibitor: dehydrogenation and inactivation of CYP3A4. Chem Res Toxicol 2008; 21:374-85.

Sun JH, Zhu HJ, Zheng YF, Zhu XQ. Study on the transcriptional modulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 expression by zearalenone. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2004; 38:411-4.

Sunman JA, Hawke RL, LeCluyse EL, Kashuba AD. Kupffer cell-mediated IL-2 suppression of CYP3A activity in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:359-63.

Sunouchi M, Sakemi K, Kubota K et al. Network for the collection and distribution of Japanese liver tissues resected surgically for drug development and research use. Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku 2005; 68-72.

Sutton D, Butler AM, Nadin L, Murray M. Role of CYP3A4 in human hepatic diltiazem N-demethylation: inhibition of CYP3A4 activity by oxidized diltiazem metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 282:294-300.

Suzuki A, Iida I, Hirota M et al. CYP isoforms involved in the metabolism of clarithromycin in vitro: comparison between the identification from disappearance rate and that from formation rate of metabolites. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 18:104-13.

Suzuki A, Iida I, Tanaka F et al. Identification of human cytochrome P-450 isoforms involved in metabolism of R(+)- and S(-)-gallopamil: utility of in vitro disappearance rate. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1254-9.

Svecova L, Vrzal R, Burysek L et al. Azole antimycotics differentially affect rifampicin-induced pregnane X receptor-mediated CYP3A4 gene expression. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:339-48.

Svensson US, Ashton M, Trinh NH et al. Artemisinin induces omeprazole metabolism in human beings. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:160-7.

Svensson US, Ashton M. Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of artemisinin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 48:528-35.

Svensson US, Mäki-Jouppila M, Hoffmann KJ, Ashton M. Characterisation of the human liver in vitro metabolic pattern of artemisinin and auto-induction in the rat by use of nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2003; 24:71-85.

Swaisland HC, Oliver SD, Morris T et al. In vitro metabolism of the specific endothelin-A receptor antagonist ZD4054 and clinical drug interactions between ZD4054 and rifampicin or itraconazole in healthy male volunteers. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:444-56.

Swaisland HC, Ranson M, Smith RP et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of gefitinib with rifampicin, itraconazole and metoprolol. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:1067-81.

Swales K, Plant N, Ayrton A, Hood S, Gibson G. Relative receptor expression is a determinant in xenobiotic-mediated CYP3A induction in rat and human cells. Xenobiotica 2003; 33:703-16.

Swart EL, van der Hoven B, Groeneveld AB, Touw DJ, Danhof M. Correlation between midazolam and lignocaine pharmacokinetics and MEGX formation in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53:133-9.

Swart PJ, Krauwinkel WJ, Smulders RA, Smith NN. Pharmacokinetic effect of ketoconazole on solifenacin in healthy volunteers. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 99:33-6.

Swinney DC, So OY, Watson DM et al. Selective inhibition of mammalian lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase by RS-21607 in vitro and in vivo. Biochemistry 1994; 33:4702-13.

Sy SK, Ciaccia A, Li W et al. Modeling of human hepatic CYP3A4 enzyme kinetics, protein, and mRNA indicates deviation from log-normal distribution in CYP3A4 gene expression. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 58:357-65.

Szalat A, Gershkovich P, Ben-Ari A et al. Rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 activation in CTX patients cannot replace chenodeoxycholic acid treatment. Biochim Biophys Acta 2007; 1771:839-44.

Szczesna-Skorupa E, Kemper B. Proteasome inhibition compromises direct retention of cytochrome P450 2C2 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Exp Cell Res 2008; 314:3221-31.

Szotáková B, Baliharová V, Lamka J et al. Comparison of in vitro activities of biotransformation enzymes in pig, cattle, goat and sheep. Res Vet Sci 2004; 76:43-51.

Taavitsainen P, Anttila M, Nyman L, Karnani H, Salonen JS, Pelkonen O. Selegiline metabolism and cytochrome P450 enzymes: in vitro study in human liver microsomes. Pharmacol Toxicol 2000; 86:215-21.

Taavitsainen P, Juvonen R, Pelkonen O. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes by a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), and its nonamine analog, cyclopropylbenzene. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:217-22.

Taavitsainen P, Kiukaanniemi K, Pelkonen O. In vitro inhibition screening of human hepatic P450 enzymes by five angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56:135-40.

Tabb MM, Sun A, Zhou C et al. Vitamin K2 regulation of bone homeostasis is mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor SXR. J Biol Chem 2003; 278:43919-27.

Tachibana S, Fujimaki Y, Yokoyama H, Okazaki O, Sudo K. In vitro metabolism of the calmodulin antagonist DY-9760e (3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3. 5 hydrate) by human liver microsomes: involvement of cytochromes p450 in atypical kinetics and potential drug interactions. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1628-36.

Tachibana S, Tanaka M, Fujimaki Y et al. Metabolism of the calmodulin antagonist DY-9760e in animals and humans. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:499-517.

Tachibana T, Kato M, Watanabe T, Mitsui T, Sugiyama Y. Method for predicting the risk of drug-drug interactions involving inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:430-43.

Taesotikul T, Dumrongsakulchai W, Wattanachai N et al. Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus and its major lignans on human microsomal cytochrome P450 activities: evidence for CYP3A4 mechanism-based inhibition. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2011; 26:154-61.

Tafreshi MJ, Zagnoni LG, Gentry EJ. Combination of clopidogrel and statins: a hypothetical interaction or therapeutic dilemma? Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26:388-94.

Taguchi M, Imaoka S, Yoshii K et al. Kinetics of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation in the reconstituted system with similar ratios of purified CYP3A4, NADPH-cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase and cytochrome B5 to human liver microsomes. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 2001; 109:53-63.

Tai J, Yang M, Ni X et al. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx in a Chinese population. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2010; 196:76-82.

Taipalensuu J, Törnblom H, Lindberg G et al. Correlation of gene expression of ten drug efflux proteins of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family in normal human jejunum and in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 299:164-70.

Takada T, Ogino M, Miyata M, Shimada M, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y. Differences in transactivation between rat CYP3A1 and human CYP3A4 genes by human pregnane X receptor. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004; 19:103-13.

Takagi S, Nakajima M, Mohri T, Yokoi T. Post-transcriptional regulation of human pregnane X receptor by micro-RNA affects the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biol Chem 2008; 283:9674-80.

Takahashi E, Fujita K, Kamataki T, Arimoto-Kobayashi S, Okamoto K, Negishi T. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1B1, 1A1 and 1A2 by antigenotoxic compounds, purpurin and alizarin. Mutat Res 2002; 508:147-56.

Takahashi K, Uejima E, Morisaki T, Takahashi K, Kurokawa N, Azuma J. In vitro inhibitory effects of Kampo medicines on metabolic reactions catalyzed by human liver microsomes. J Clin Pharm Ther 2003; 28:319-27.

Takahashi K, Yano I, Fukuhara Y et al. Distinct effects of omeprazole and rabeprazole on the tacrolimus blood concentration in a kidney transplant recipient. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:441-4.

Takahashi M, Sakurai M, Enosawa S, Omasa T, Tsuruoka S, Matsumura T. Double-compartment cell culture apparatus: construction and biochemical evaluation for bioartificial liver support. Cell Transplant 2006; 15:945-52.

Takahashi M, Washio T, Suzuki N, Igeta K, Yamashita S. The species differences of intestinal drug absorption and first-pass metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. J Pharm Sci 2009; 98:4343-53.

Takahata T, Ookawa K, Suto K et al. Chemosensitivity determinants of irinotecan hydrochloride in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008; 102:399-407.

Takanaga H, Ohnishi A, Matsuo H et al. Pharmacokinetic analysis of felodipine-grapefruit juice interaction based on an irreversible enzyme inhibition model. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49:49-58.

Takanaga H, Ohnishi A, Yamada S et al. Polymethoxylated flavones in orange juice are inhibitors of P-glycoprotein but not cytochrome P450 3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 293:230-6.

Takanohashi T, Isaka M, Ubukata K, Mihara R, Bernard BK. Studies of the toxicological potential of capsinoids, XIII: inhibitory effects of capsaicin and capsinoids on cytochrome P450 3A4 in human liver microsomes. Int J Toxicol 2010; 29(2 Suppl):22-6.

Takanohashi T, Koizumi T, Mihara R, Okudaira K. Prediction of the metabolic interaction of nateglinide with other drugs based on in vitro studies. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:409-18.

Takeda S, Ishii Y, Iwanaga M et al. Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase function by cytochrome P450: evidence for the alteration of UGT2B7-catalyzed glucuronidation of morphine by CYP3A4. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67:665-72.

Takeda S, Ishii Y, Iwanaga M et al. Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7: evidence for protein-protein association and possible involvement of CYP3A4 J-helix in the interaction. Mol Pharmacol 2009; 75:956-64.

Takeda S, Ishii Y, Mackenzie PI et al. Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 function by cytochrome P450s in vitro: differential effects of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:2026-7.

Takeshita A, Koibuchi N, Oka J, Taguchi M, Shishiba Y, Ozawa Y. Bisphenol-A, an environmental estrogen, activates the human orphan nuclear receptor, steroid and xenobiotic receptor-mediated transcription. Eur J Endocrinol 2001; 145:513-7.

Takeshita A, Taguchi M, Koibuchi N, Ozawa Y. Putative role of the orphan nuclear receptor SXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor) in the mechanism of CYP3A4 inhibition by xenobiotics. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:32453-8.

Takeshita M, Miura M, Ohkubo T, Sugawara K. Asymmetric redox reactions in human liver stereoselective oxidation of optically active dihydrohaloperidols, dihydrobromoperidols and stereospecific reduction of haloperidol and bromoperidol. Enantiomer 2000; 5:189-95.

Takiguchi T, Tomita M, Matsunaga N, Nakagawa H, Koyanagi S, Ohdo S. Molecular basis for rhythmic expression of CYP3A4 in serum-shocked HepG2 cells. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2007; 17:1047-56.

Talbert RL. Safety issues with statin therapy. J Am Pharm Assoc 2006; 46:479-88.

Taléns-Visconti R, Bonora A, Jover R et al. Hepatogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12:5834-45.

Tamura K, Nakajima S, Hirota Y et al. Genetic association of a polymorphism of the cAMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein with steroid-induced osteonecrosis after kidney transplantation. J Bone Miner Metab 2007; 25:320-5.

Tan AR, Dowlati A, Jones SF et al. Phase I study of pazopanib in combination with weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. Oncologist 2010; 15:1253-61.

Tan SH, Lee SC, Goh BC, Wong J. Pharmacogenetics in breast cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:8027-41.

Tanaka C, Yin OQ, Smith T et al. Effects of rifampin and ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of nilotinib in healthy participants. J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 51:75-83.

Tanaka E. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions between antiepileptic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther 1999; 24:87-92.

Tanaka E. Gender-related differences in pharmacokinetics and their clinical significance. J Clin Pharm Ther 1999; 24:339-46.

Tanaka E. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with benzodiazepines. J Clin Pharm Ther 1999; 24:347-55.

Tanaka E, Kurata N, Yasuhara H. Involvement of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2E1 and 3A4 in trimethadione N-demethylation in human microsomes. J Clin Pharm Ther 2003; 28:493-6.

Tanaka E, Nakamura T, Inomata S, Honda K. Effects of premedication medicines on the formation of the CYP3A4-dependent metabolite of ropivacaine, 2’, 6’-Pipecoloxylidide, on human liver microsomes in vitro. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 98:181-3.

Tanaka E, Narisawa C, Nakamura H et al. Changes in the enzymatic activities of beagle liver during maturation as assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:795-802.

Tanaka T, Okuda T, Yamamoto Y. Characterization of the CYP3A4 active site by homology modeling. Chem Pharm Bull 2004; 52:830-5.

Tanaka T, Tanimoto K, Otani K et al. Concise prediction models of anticancer efficacy of 8 drugs using expression data from 12 selected genes. Int J Cancer 2004; 111:617-26.

Tandon M, O’Donnell MM, Porte A et al. The design and preparation of metabolically protected new arylpiperazine 5-HT1A ligands. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004; 14:1709-12.

Tang C, Fang Y, Booth-Genthe C et al. Diclofenac hydroxylation in monkeys: efficiency, regioselectivity, and response to inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 73:880-90.

Tang C, Shou M, Mei Q, Rushmore TH, Rodrigues AD. Major role of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) in the oxidative metabolism of celecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase-II inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 293:453-9.

Tang J, Amin Usmani K, Hodgson E, Rose RL. In vitro metabolism of fipronil by human and rat cytochrome P450 and its interactions with testosterone and diazepam. Chem Biol Interact 2004; 147:319-29.

Tang J, Cao Y, Rose RL et al. Metabolism of chlorpyrifos by human cytochrome P450 isoforms and human, mouse, and rat liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1201-4.

Tang J, Cao Y, Rose RL, Hodgson E. In vitro metabolism of carbaryl by human cytochrome P450 and its inhibition by chlorpyrifos. Chem Biol Interact 2002; 141:229-41.

Tang L, Ye L, Lv C, Zheng Z, Gong Y, Liu Z. Involvement of CYP3A4/5 and CYP2D6 in the metabolism of aconitine using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP450 enzymes. Toxicol Lett 2011; 202:47-54.

Tang W, Stearns RA. Heterotropic cooperativity of cytochrome P450 3A4 and potential drug-drug interactions. Curr Drug Metab 2001; 2:185-98.

Tang W. The metabolism of diclofenac-enzymology and toxicology perspectives. Curr Drug Metab 2003; 4:319-29.

Taniguchi A, Wada K, Ohno M. Development of novel culture system using nano-biotechnology. Yakugaku Zasshi 2010; 130:529-35.

Taniguchi R, Kumai T, Matsumoto N et al. Utilization of human liver microsomes to explain individual differences in paclitaxel metabolism by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. J Pharmacol Sci 2005; 97:83-90.

Tannergren C, Engman H, Knutson L, Hedeland M, Bondesson U, Lennernäs H. St John’s wort decreases the bioavailability of R- and S-verapamil through induction of the first-pass metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:298-309.

Tapaninen T, Backman JT, Kurkinen KJ, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M. Itraconazole, a P-Glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly raises the plasma concentrations and enhances the renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren. J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 51:359-67.

Tapaninen T, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M. Rifampicin reduces the plasma concentrations and the renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:497-502.

Tassaneeyakul W, Guo LQ, Fukuda K, Ohta T, Yamazoe Y. Inhibition selectivity of grapefruit juice components on human cytochromes P450. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000; 378:356-63.

Tassaneeyakul W, Vannaprasaht S, Yamazoe Y. Formation of omeprazole sulphone but not 5-hydroxyomeprazole is inhibited by grapefruit juice. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49:139-44.

Tateishi T, Krivoruk Y, Ueng YF, Wood AJ, Guengerich FP, Wood M. Identification of human liver cytochrome P-450 3A4 as the enzyme responsible for fentanyl and sufentanil N-dealkylation. Anesth Analg 1996; 82:167-72.

Tateishi T, Soucek P, Caraco Y, Guengerich FP, Wood AJ. Colchicine biotransformation by human liver microsomes. Identification of CYP3A4 as the major isoform responsible for colchicine demethylation. Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 53:111-6.

Tateishi T, Watanabe M, Kumai T et al. CYP3A is responsible for N-dealkylation of haloperidol and bromperidol and oxidation of their reduced forms by human liver microsomes. Life Sci 2000; 67:2913-20.

Tateishi T, Watanabe M, Moriya H, Yamaguchi S, Sato T, Kobayashi S. No ethnic difference between Caucasian and Japanese hepatic samples in the expression frequency of CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 proteins. Biochem Pharmacol 1999; 57:935-9.

Tayeb MT, Clark C, Haites NE, Sharp L, Murray GI, McLeod HL. CYP3A4 and VDR gene polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer in men with benign prostate hyperplasia. Br J Cancer 2003; 88:928-32.

Tayeb MT, Clark C, Sharp L et al. CYP3A4 promoter variant is associated with prostate cancer risk in men with benign prostate hyperplasia. Oncol Rep 2002; 9:653-5.

Taylor D, Bodani M, Hubbeling A, Murray R. The effect of nefazodone on clozapine plasma concentrations. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 14:185-7.

Taylor M, Lamb DC, Cannell R, Dawson M, Kelly SL. Cytochrome P450105D1 (CYP105D1) from Streptomyces griseus: heterologous expression, activity, and activation effects of multiple xenobiotics. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999; 263:838-42.

Tegude H, Schnabel A, Zanger UM, Klein K, Eichelbaum M, Burk O. Molecular mechanism of basal CYP3A4 regulation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha: evidence for direct regulation in the intestine. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:946-54.

Templeton IE, Thummel KE, Kharasch ED et al. Contribution of itraconazole metabolites to inhibition of CYP3A4 in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83:77-85.

Teo SK, Sabourin PJ, O’Brien K, Kook KA, Thomas SD. Metabolism of thalidomide in human microsomes, cloned human cytochrome P-450 isozymes, and Hansen’s disease patients. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2000; 14:140-7.

Teodori E, Dei S, Martelli C, Scapecchi S, Gualtieri F. The functions and structure of ABC transporters: implications for the design of new inhibitors of Pgp and MRP1 to control multidrug resistance (MDR). Curr Drug Targets 2006; 7:893-909.

Teotico DG, Bischof JJ, Peng L, Kliewer SA, Redinbo MR. Structural basis of human pregnane X receptor activation by the hops constituent colupulone. Mol Pharmacol 2008; 74:1512-20.

Tepper SJ. Safety and rational use of the triptans. Med Clin North Am 2001; 85:959-70.

Tester R, Tan X, Luedtke GR et al. Amide-based inhibitors of p38alpha MAP kinase. Part 2: design, synthesis and SAR of potent N-pyrimidyl amides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010; 20:2560-3.

Thapar MM, Ashton M, Lindegårdh N et al. Time-dependent pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism of atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) when taken as chemoprophylaxis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 58:19-27.

Thasler WE, Dayoub R, Mühlbauer M et al. Repression of cytochrome P450 activity in human hepatocytes in vitro by a novel hepatotrophic factor, augmenter of liver regeneration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 316:822-9.

Theodoropoulos C, Demers C, Delvin E, Ménard D, Gascon-Barré M. Calcitriol regulates the expression of the genes encoding the three key vitamin D3 hydroxylases and the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in the human fetal intestine. Clin Endocrinol 2003; 58:489-99.

Thervet E, Legendre C, Beaune P, Anglicheau D. Cytochrome P450 3A polymorphisms and immunosuppressive drugs. Pharmacogenomics 2005; 6:37-47.

Theuretzbacher U, Ihle F, Derendorf H. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of voriconazole. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45:649-63.

Thomas AR, Chan LN, Bauman JL, Olopade CO. Prolongation of the QT interval related to cisapride-diltiazem interaction. Pharmacotherapy 1998; 18:381-5.

Thompson EE, Kuttab-Boulos H, Witonsky D, Yang L, Roe BA, Di Rienzo A. CYP3A variation and the evolution of salt-sensitivity variants. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 75:1059-69.

Thompson EE, Kuttab-Boulos H, Yang L, Roe BA, Di Rienzo A. Sequence diversity and haplotype structure at the human CYP3A cluster. Pharmacogenomics J 2006; 6:105-14.

Thompson PD, Jurutka PW, Whitfield GK et al. Liganded VDR induces CYP3A4 in small intestinal and colon cancer cells via DR3 and ER6 vitamin D responsive elements. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 299:730-8.

Thörn M, Finnström N, Lundgren S, Rane A, Lööf L. Cytochromes P450 and MDR1 mRNA expression along the human gastrointestinal tract. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:54-60.

Thörn M, Finnström N, Lundgren S, Rane A, Lööf L. Expression of cytochrome P450 and MDR1 in patients with proctitis. Ups J Med Sci 2007; 112:303-12.

Thörn M, Lundgren S, Herlenius G, Ericzon BG, Lööf L, Rane A. Gene expression of cytochromes P450 in liver transplants over time. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 60:413-20.

Thornton-Manning JR, Ruangyuttikarn W, Gonzalez FJ, Yost GS. Metabolic activation of the pneumotoxin, 3-methylindole, by vaccinia-expressed cytochrome P450s. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991; 181:100-7.

Thummel KE. Gut instincts: CYP3A4 and intestinal drug metabolism. J Clin Invest 2007; 117:3173-6.

Thummel KE, Brimer C, Yasuda K et al. Transcriptional control of intestinal cytochrome P-4503A by 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 60:1399-406.

Thummel KE, Lee CA, Kunze KL, Nelson SD, Slattery JT. Oxidation of acetaminophen to N-acetyl-p-aminobenzoquinone imine by human CYP3A4. Biochem Pharmacol 1993; 45:1563-9.

Thummel KE, Shen DD, Podoll TD et al. Use of midazolam as a human cytochrome P450 3A probe: II. Characterization of inter- and intraindividual hepatic CYP3A variability after liver transplantation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994; 271:557-66.

Timmer CJ, Sitsen JM, Delbressine LP. Clinical pharmacokinetics of mirtazapine. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 38:461-74.

Timofeeva MN, Kropp S, Sauter W et al. CYP450 polymorphisms as risk factors for early-onset lung cancer: gender-specific differences. Carcinogenesis 2009; 30:1161-9.

Tiong K, Falhammar H. Carbamazepine and falsely positive screening tests for Cushing’s syndrome. N Z Med J 2009; 122:100-2.

Tirelli V, Catone T, Turco L, Di Consiglio E, Testai E, de Angelis I. Effects of the pesticide clorpyrifos on an in vitro model of intestinal barrier. Toxicol In Vitro 2007; 21:308-13.

Tirkkonen T, Ryynänen A, Vahlberg T et al. Frequency and clinical relevance of drug interactions with lovastatin and simvastatin: an observational database study. Drug Saf 2008; 31:231-40.

Tirona RG, Lee W, Leake BF et al. The orphan nuclear receptor HNF4alpha determines PXR- and CAR-mediated xenobiotic induction of CYP3A4. Nat Med 2003; 9:220-4.

Tiwari AK, Deshpande SN, Rao AR et al. Genetic susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia in chronic schizophrenia subjects: III. Lack of association of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms. Schizophr Res 2005; 75:21-6.

Tiwari AK, Souza RP, Müller DJ. Pharmacogenetics of anxiolytic drugs. J Neural Transm 2009; 116:667-77.

Tjia JF, Colbert J, Back DJ. Theophylline metabolism in human liver microsomes: inhibition studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 276:912-7.

Toda T, Ohi K, Kudo T et al. Antibiotics suppress Cyp3a in the mouse liver by reducing lithocholic acid-producing intestinal flora. Yakugaku Zasshi 2009; 129:601-8.

Toffoli G, Cecchin E, Corona G, Boiocchi M. Pharmacogenetics of irinotecan. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents 2003; 3:225-37.

Tokairin T, Fukasawa T, Yasui-Furukori N et al. Inhibition of the metabolism of brotizolam by erythromycin in humans: in vivo evidence for the involvement of CYP3A4 in brotizolam metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:172-5.

Tokiwa T, Yamazaki T, Ono M, Enosawa S, Tsukiyama T. Cloning and characterization of liver progenitor cells from the scattered cell clusters in primary culture of porcine livers. Cell Transplant 2008; 17:179-86.

Tokiwa T, Yamazaki T, Xin W et al. Differentiation potential of an immortalized non-tumorigenic human liver epithelial cell line as liver progenitor cells. Cell Biol Int 2006; 30:992-8.

Tolonen A, Petsalo A, Turpeinen M, Uusitalo J, Pelkonen O. In vitro interaction cocktail assay for nine major cytochrome P450 enzymes with 13 probe reactions and a single LC/MSMS run: analytical validation and testing with monoclonal anti-CYP antibodies. J Mass Spectrom 2007; 42:960-6.

Tolson AH, Li H, Eddington ND, Wang H. Methadone induces the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes through the activation of pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1887-94.

Tomalik-Scharte D, Jetter A, Kinzig-Schippers M et al. Effect of propiverine on cytochrome P450 enzymes: a cocktail interaction study in healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1859-66.

Tomlinson ES, Lewis DF, Maggs JL, Kroemer HK, Park BK, Back DJ. In vitro metabolism of dexamethasone (DEX) in human liver and kidney: the involvement of CYP3A4 and CYP17 (17,20 LYASE) and molecular modelling studies. Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 54:605-11.

Tomlinson ES, Maggs JL, Park BK, Back DJ. Dexamethasone metabolism in vitro: species differences. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997; 62:345-52.

Tompkins LM, Sit TL, Wallace AD. Unique transcription start sites and distinct promoter regions differentiate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) isoforms PXR 1 and PXR 2. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:923-9.

Tompkins LM, Wallace AD. Mechanisms of cytochrome P450 induction. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2007; 21:176-81.

Tong W, Chowdhury SK, Su AD, Feng W, Ghosal A, Alton KB. Identification of unstable metabolites of Lonafarnib using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, stable isotope incorporation and ion source temperature alteration. J Mass Spectrom 2006; 41:1430-41.

Tonge RP, Kelly EJ, Bruschi SA et al. Role of CYP1A2 in the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen: investigations using Cyp1a2 null mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998; 153:102-8.

Tonini M, de Ponti F, Di Nucci A, Crema F. Review article: cardiac adverse effects of gastrointestinal prokinetics. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13:1585-91.

Topic Popovic N, Babish JG, Bowser PR. Observational study of hepatic cytochrome P-450 protein expression and activity in summer flounder (Paralichtys dentatus) after combination ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine treatment. Chemotherapy 2007; 53:313-5.

Torimoto N, Ishii I, Hata M et al. Direct interaction between substrates and endogenous steroids in the active site may change the activity of cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry 2003; 42:15068-77.

Torimoto N, Ishii I, Hata M et al. Theoretical calculation of triazolam hydroxylation and endogenous steroid inhibition in the active site of CYP3A4. Biochim Biophys Acta 2007; 1774:223-32.

Torimoto N, Ishii I, Toyama K et al. Helices F-G are important for the substrate specificities of CYP3A7. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:484-92.

Toriyabe T, Nagata K, Takada T et al. Unveiling a new essential cis element for the transactivation of the CYP3A4 gene by xenobiotics. Mol Pharmacol 2009; 75:677-84.

Tornio A, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. The CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil does not increase the plasma concentrations of zopiclone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:645-51.

Totah RA, Allen KE, Sheffels P, Whittington D, Kharasch ED. Enantiomeric metabolic interactions and stereoselective human methadone metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 321:389-99.

Totah RA, Sheffels P, Roberts T, Whittington D, Thummel K, Kharasch ED. Role of CYP2B6 in stereoselective human methadone metabolism. Anesthesiology 2008; 108:363-74.

Tóth M, Bajnógel J, Egyed A, Drabant S, Tömlo J, Klebovich I. Effect of tofisopam on CYP3A4 enzyme activity on human recombinant 3A4 supersome. Acta Pharm Hung 2005; 75:195-8.

Tóth M, Drabant S, Varga B et al. Tofisopam inhibits the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 substrate midazolam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64:93-4.

Tran A, Jullien V, Alexandre J et al. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of docetaxel: role of CYP3A, MDR1, and GST polymorphisms. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 79:570-80.

Tran A, Rey E, Pons G et al. Influence of stiripentol on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic pathways in humans: in vitro and in vivo comparison and calculation of in vivo inhibition constants. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:490-504.

Tran A, Tréluyer JM, Rey E et al. Protective effect of stiripentol on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001; 170:145-52.

Tran CD, Timmins P, Conway BR, Irwin WJ. Investigation of the coordinated functional activities of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein in limiting the absorption of xenobiotics in Caco-2 cells. J Pharm Sci 2002; 91:117-28.

Tran JQ, Di Cicco RA, Sheth SB et al. Assessment of the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between erythromycin and argatroban. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:513-9.

Tran JQ, Gerber JG, Kerr BM. Delavirdine: clinical pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40:207-26.

Tran JQ, Kovacs SJ, McIntosh TS, Davis HM, Martin DE. Morning spot and 24-hour urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratios: intraindividual variability and correlation under basal conditions and conditions of CYP 3A4 induction. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:487-94.

Transon C, Lecoeur S, Leemann T, Beaune P, Dayer P. Interindividual variability in catalytic activity and immunoreactivity of three major human liver cytochrome P450 isozymes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 51:79-85.

Transon C, Leemann T, Dayer P. In vitro comparative inhibition profiles of major human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 50:209-15.

Trapnell CB, Connolly M, Pentikis H, Forbes WP, Bettenhausen DK. Absence of effect of oral rifaximin on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate in healthy females. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:222-8.

Treiber A, Schneiter R, Delahaye S, Clozel M. Inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide-mediated hepatic uptake is the major determinant in the pharmacokinetic interaction between bosentan and cyclosporin A in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 308:1121-9.

Treiber A, Schneiter R, Häusler S, Stieger B. Bosentan is a substrate of human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3: inhibition of hepatic uptake as the common mechanism of its interactions with cyclosporin A, rifampicin, and sildenafil. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1400-7.

Tréluyer JM, Bowers G, Cazali N et al. Oxidative metabolism of amprenavir in the human liver. Effect of the CYP3A maturation. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:275-81.

Tréluyer JM, Rey E, Sonnier M, Pons G, Cresteil T. Evidence of impaired cisapride metabolism in neonates. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 52:419-25.

Trenk D, Hochholzer W, Frundi D et al. Impact of cytochrome P450 3A4-metabolized statins on the antiplatelet effect of a 600-mg loading dose clopidogrel and on clinical outcome in patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement. Thromb Haemost 2008; 99:174-81.

Trenton A, Currier G, Zwemer F. Fatalities associated with therapeutic use and overdose of atypical antipsychotics. CNS Drugs 2003; 17:307-24.

Trubetskoy O, Marks B, Zielinski T, Yueh MF, Raucy J. A simultaneous assessment of CYP3A4 metabolism and induction in the DPX-2 cell line. AAPS J 2005; 7:6-13.

Trubetskoy OV, Gibson JR, Marks BD. Highly miniaturized formats for in vitro drug metabolism assays using vivid fluorescent substrates and recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. J Biomol Screen 2005; 10:56-66.

Tsai MH, Lin KM, Hsiao MC et al. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes influence metabolism of the antidepressant escitalopram and treatment response. Pharmacogenomics 2010; 11:537-46.

Tsai SM, Lin CY, Wu SH et al. Side effects after docetaxel treatment in Taiwanese breast cancer patients with CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms. Clin Chim Acta 2009; 404:160-5.

Tsalkova TN, Davydova NY, Halpert JR, Davydov DR. Mechanism of interactions of alpha-naphthoflavone with cytochrome P450 3A4 explored with an engineered enzyme bearing a fluorescent probe. Biochemistry 2007; 46:106-19.

Tseng A, Macarthur RD. Profile of etravirine for the treatment of HIV infection. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2010; 6:49-58.

Tsimberidou AM, Lewis N, Reid T et al. Pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of patupilone combined with midazolam or omeprazole in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2011. doi:10. 1007/s00280-011-1635-7.

Tsuchiya Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of estrogens and its regulation in human. Cancer Lett 2005; 227:115-24.

Tsukada T, Tamaki K, Tanaka J et al. A prodrug approach towards the development of tricyclic-based FBPase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010; 20:2938-41.

Tsukamoto S, Aburatani M, Ohta T. Isolation of CYP3A4 Inhibitors from the Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2005; 2:223-6.

Tsukamoto S, Aburatani M, Yoshida T, Yamashita Y, El-Beih AA, Ohta T. CYP3A4 inhibitors isolated from Licorice. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:2000-2.

Tsukamoto S, Tomise K, Aburatani M et al. Isolation of cytochrome P450 inhibitors from strawberry fruit, Fragaria ananassa. J Nat Prod 2004; 67:1839-41.

Tsukamoto S, Tomise K, Miyakawa K et al. CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of new bisalkaloids, dipiperamides D and E, and cognates from white pepper. Bioorg Med Chem 2002; 10:2981-5.

Tsunoda SM, Harris RZ, Christians U et al. Red wine decreases cyclosporine bioavailability. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70:462-7.

Tsunoda SM, Harris RZ, Mroczkowski PJ, Benet LZ. Preliminary evaluation of progestins as inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 38:1137-43.

Tsutsumi Y, Kanamori H, Tanaka J, Asaka M, Imamura M, Masauzi N. Withdrawal symptoms from transdermal fentanyl (TDF) after an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT). Pain Med 2006; 7:164-5.

Tu JH, Hu DL, Dai LL et al. Effect of glycyrrhizin on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activity in healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes. Xenobiotica 2010; 40:393-9.

Tugnait M, Hawes EM, McKay G, Eichelbaum M, Midha KK. Characterization of the human hepatic cytochromes P450 involved in the in vitro oxidation of clozapine. Chem Biol Interact 1999; 118:171-89.

Turner BA, Evans BP, Pearson TT, Braden TK, Wise SC. Examination of edge effects with different storage conditions of preplated dimethyl sulfoxide nanospots in ChemLib 1,536- and 3,456-well assay-ready plates. Assay Drug Dev Technol 2008; 6:811-8.

Turpeinen M, Hofmann U, Klein K, Mürdter T, Schwab M, Zanger UM. A predominate role of CYP1A2 for the metabolism of nabumetone to the active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid, in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1017-24.

Turpeinen M, Korhonen LE, Tolonen A et al. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition screening: comparison of three tests. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006; 29:130-8.

Turpeinen M, Tolonen A, Chesne C, Guillouzo A, Uusitalo J, Pelkonen O. Functional expression, inhibition and induction of CYP enzymes in HepaRG cells. Toxicol In Vitro 2009; 23:748-53.

Turpeinen M, Uusitalo J, Jalonen J, Pelkonen O. Multiple P450 substrates in a single run: rapid and comprehensive in vitro interaction assay. Eur J Pharm Sci 2005; 24:123-32.

Tushar T, Vinod T, Rajan S, Shashindran C, Adithan C. Effect of honey on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzyme activity in healthy human volunteers. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007; 100:269-72.

Tuvesson H, Gunnarsson PO, Seidegård J. Metabolism of tauromustine in liver and lung microsomes from various species. Xenobiotica 1999; 29:783-92.

Tuvesson H, Hallin I, Persson R, Sparre B, Gunnarsson PO, Seidegård J. Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of laquinimod, a novel immunomodulator. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:866-72.

Tuvesson H, Wienkers LC, Gunnarsson PO, Seidegård J, Persson R. Identification of cytochrome P4503A as the major subfamily responsible for the metabolism of roquinimex in man. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:905-14.

Tweddell P, Boyle C. Potential interactions with herbal medications and midazolam. Dent Update 2009; 36:175-8.

Tybring G, Böttiger Y, Widén J, Bertilsson L. Enantioselective hydroxylation of omeprazole catalyzed by CYP2C19 in Swedish white subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:129-37.

Ucar M, Mjörndal T, Dahlqvist R. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and myotoxicity. Drug Saf 2000; 22:441-57.

Uchida S, Yamada H, Li XD et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tolbutamide and midazolam in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46:1290-8.

Uchida T, Watanabe T, van Hoogdalem EJ, Higuchi S. In-vitro metabolism of YM17E, an inhibitor of acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase, by liver microsomes in man. J Pharm Pharmacol 1996; 48:1049-56.

Uejima E, Takahashi K, Morisaki T et al. Microsomal enzyme induction and clinical aggravation of porphyria: the evaluation of human urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio as the index of hepatic CYP3A4 activity. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 42:1374-9.

Ueng YF, Don MJ, Jan WC, Wang SY, Ho LK, Chen CF. Oxidative metabolism of the alkaloid rutaecarpine by human cytochrome P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:821-7.

Ueng YF, Hsieh CH, Don MJ. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by the natural hepatotoxin safrole. Food Chem Toxicol 2005; 43:707-12.

Ueyama J, Wang D, Kondo T et al. Toxicity of diazinon and its metabolites increases in diabetic rats. Toxicol Lett 2007; 170:229-37.

Ufer M. Comparative pharmacokinetics of vitamin K antagonists: warfarin, phenprocoumon and acenocoumarol. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:1227-46.

Ufer M. Comparative efficacy and safety of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban in preclinical and clinical development. Thromb Haemost 2010; 103:572-85.

Ufer M, Dilger K, Leschhorn L et al. Influence of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 genotype and expression on budesonide pharmacokinetics: a possible role of intestinal CYP3A4 expression. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84:43-6.

Ufer M, Svensson JO, Krausz KW, Gelboin HV, Rane A, Tybring G. Identification of cytochromes P450 2C9 and 3A4 as the major catalysts of phenprocoumon hydroxylation in vitro. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 60:173-82.

Ukaji M, Saito Y, Fukushima-Uesaka H et al. Genetic variations of VDR/NR1I1 encoding vitamin D receptor in a Japanese population. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22:462-7.

Ulrich AB, Standop J, Schmied BM, Schneider MB, Lawson TA, Pour PM. Expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the pancreas of hamster, mouse, and rat, responding differently to the pancreatic carcinogenicity of BOP. Pancreatology 2002; 2:519-27.

Ulrich AB, Standop J, Schmied BM, Schneider MB, Lawson TA, Pour PM. Species differences in the distribution of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the pancreas. Toxicol Pathol 2002; 30:247-53.

Umehara K, Shimokawa Y, Miyamoto G. Inhibition of human drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 by buprenorphine. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25:682-5.

Umehara K, Shimokawa Y, Miyamoto G. Effect of probucol on cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25:1112-4.

Umehara K, Shimokawa Y, Miyamoto G. Effect of gamma-oryzanol on cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27:1151-3.

Umehara KI, Susaki Y, van Teylingen RH et al. Evaluation of the inhibitory and induction potential of YM758, a novel If channel inhibitor, for human P450-mediated metabolism. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2008; 33:211-23.

Ung D, Parkman HP, Nagar S. Metabolic interactions between prokinetic agents domperidone and erythromycin: an in vitro analysis. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:749-56.

Unger M, Holzgrabe U, Jacobsen W, Cummins C, Benet LZ. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by extracts and kavalactones of Piper methysticum (Kava-Kava). Planta Med 2002; 68:1055-8.

Uno T, Ohkubo T, Motomura S, Sugawara K. Effect of grapefruit juice on the disposition of manidipine enantiomers in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 61:533-7.

Uno T, Yasui-Furukori N. Effect of grapefruit juice in relation to human pharmacokinetic study. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2006; 1:157-61.

Uno Y, Matsushita A, Osada N et al. Genetic variants of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:209-14.

Uno Y, Sakamoto Y, Yoshida K et al. Characterization of six base pair deletion in the putative HNF1-binding site of human PXR promoter. J Hum Genet 2003; 48:594-7.

Urichuk L, Prior TI, Dursun S, Baker G. Metabolism of atypical antipsychotics: involvement of cytochrome p450 enzymes and relevance for drug-drug interactions. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:410-8.

Urquhart BL, Tirona RG, Kim RB. Nuclear receptors and the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters: implications for interindividual variability in response to drugs. J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 47:566-78.

Usia T, Iwata H, Hiratsuka A, Watabe T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Sesquiterpenes and flavonol glycosides from Zingiber aromaticum and their CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activities. J Nat Prod 2004; 67:1079-83.

Usia T, Watabe T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 by constituents of Zingiber aromaticum. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:495-9.

Usia T, Watabe T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) inhibitory constituents of Catharanthus roseus. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:1021-4.

Usia T, Watabe T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Potent CYP3A4 inhibitory constituents of Piper cubeba. J Nat Prod 2005; 68:64-8.

Usia T, Watabe T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Metabolite-cytochrome P450 complex formation by methylenedioxyphenyl lignans of Piper cubeba: mechanism-based inhibition. Life Sci 2005; 76:2381-91.

Usia T, Iwata H, Hiratsuka A, Watabe T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activities of Indonesian medicinal plants. Phytomedicine 2006; 13:67-73.

Usmani KA, Cho TM, Rose RL, Hodgson E. Inhibition of the human liver microsomal and human cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A4 metabolism of estradiol by deployment-related and other chemicals. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1606-14.

Usmani KA, Hodgson E, Rose RL. In vitro metabolism of carbofuran by human, mouse, and rat cytochrome P450 and interactions with chlorpyrifos, testosterone, and estradiol. Chem Biol Interact 2004; 150:221-32.

Usmani KA, Rose RL, Goldstein JA, Taylor WG, Brimfield AA, Hodgson E. In vitro human metabolism and interactions of repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:289-94.

Usmani KA, Rose RL, Hodgson E. Inhibition and activation of the human liver microsomal and human cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism of testosterone by deployment-related chemicals. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:384-91.

Usui T, Kuno T, Mizutani T. Induction of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 by cortisol-GR. Mol Biol Rep 2006; 33:91-6.

Usui T, Saitoh Y, Komada F. Induction of CYP3As in HepG2 cells by several drugs. Association between induction of CYP3A4 and expression of glucocorticoid receptor. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26:510-7.

Utecht KN, Hiles JJ, Kolesar J. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of calcineurin inhibitors. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2006; 63:2340-8.

Uttamsingh V, Lu C, Miwa G, Gan LS. Relative contributions of the five major human cytochromes P450, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4, to the hepatic metabolism of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1723-8.

Uttayamakul S, Likanonsakul S, Manosuthi W et al. Effects of CYP2B6 G516T polymorphisms on plasma efavirenz and nevirapine levels when co-administered with rifampicin in HIV/TB co-infected Thai adults. AIDS Res Ther 2010; 7:8.

Václavíková R, Horský S, Simek P, Gut I. Paclitaxel metabolism in rat and human liver microsomes is inhibited by phenolic antioxidants. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2003; 368:200-9.

Václavíková R, Hubackova M, Stribrna-Sarmanova J et al. RNA expression of cytochrome P450 in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res 2007; 27:4443-50.

Václavíková R, Soucek P, Svobodova L et al. Different in vitro metabolism of paclitaxel and docetaxel in humans, rats, pigs, and minipigs. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:666-74.

Vaidyanathan S, Camenisch G, Schuetz H et al. Pharmacokinetics of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in combination with digoxin, atorvastatin, and ketoconazole in healthy subjects: the role of P-glycoprotein in the disposition of aliskiren. J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 48:1323-38.

Valentine CR, Valentine JL, Seng J, Leakey J, Casciano D. The use of transgenic cell lines for evaluating toxic metabolites of carbamazepine. Cell Biol Toxicol 1996; 12:155-65.

Valenzuela B, López-Pintor E, Pérez-Ruixo JJ, Nácher A, Martín-Villodre A, Casabó VG. Modelling intestinal absorption of salbutamol sulphate in rats. Int J Pharm 2006; 314:21-30.

Valles B, Schiller CD, Coassolo P et al. Metabolism of mofarotene in hepatocytes and liver microsomes from different species. Comparison with in vivo data and evaluation of the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in human biotransformation. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:1051-7.

van Agtmael MA, Gupta V, van der Graaf CA, van Boxtel CJ. The effect of grapefruit juice on the time-dependent decline of artemether plasma levels in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:408-14.

van Agtmael MA, Gupta V, van der Wösten TH, Rutten JP, van Boxtel CJ. Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of artemether. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:405-10.

van Breemen RB, Li Y. Caco-2 cell permeability assays to measure drug absorption. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2005; 1:175-85.

van de Kerkhof EG, de Graaf IA, Ungell AL, Groothuis GM. Induction of metabolism and transport in human intestine: validation of precision-cut slices as a tool to study induction of drug metabolism in human intestine in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:604-13.

van de Poll ME, Relling MV, Schuetz EG, Harrison PL, Hughes W, Flynn PM. The effect of atovaquone on etoposide pharmacokinetics in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001; 47:467-72.

van den Bongard HJ, Sparidans RW, Critchley DJ, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction of the novel anticancer agent E7070 and acenocoumarol. Invest New Drugs 2004; 22:151-8.

van den Bout-van den Beukel CJ, Hamza OJ, Moshi MJ et al. Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and CYP450 enzymatic competition effects of Tanzanian plant extracts traditionally used for treatment of fungal infections. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008; 102:515-26.

van der Bol JM, Mathijssen RH, Creemers GJ et al. A CYP3A4 phenotype-based dosing algorithm for individualized treatment of irinotecan. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16:736-42.

van der Velden W, Huussen J, Ter Laak H, de Sévaux R. Colchicine-induced neuromyopathy in a patient with chronic renal failure: the role of clarithromycin. Neth J Med 2008; 66:204-6.

van Duijnhoven EM, Boots JM, Christiaans MH, Stolk LM, Undre NA, van Hooff JP. Increase in tacrolimus trough levels after steroid withdrawal. Transpl Int 2003; 16:721-5.

van Erp N, Gelderblom H, van Glabbeke M et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on imatinib in patients in the soft tissue and bone sarcoma group of the EORTC. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14:8308-13.

van Erp NP, Baker SD, Zhao M et al. Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:7800-6.

van Erp NP, Gelderblom H, Karlsson MO et al. Influence of CYP3A4 inhibition on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of imatinib. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:7394-400.

van Giersbergen PL, Gnerre C, Treiber A, Dingemanse J, Meyer UA. Bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, activates the pregnane X nuclear receptor. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 450:115-21.

van Giersbergen PL, Halabi A, Dingemanse J. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of bosentan and its interaction with ketoconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53:589-95.

van Giersbergen PL, Halabi A, Dingemanse J. Pharmacokinetic interaction between bosentan and the oral contraceptives norethisterone and ethinyl estradiol. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 44:113-8.

van Giersbergen PL, Treiber A, Clozel M, Bodin F, Dingemanse J. In vivo and in vitro studies exploring the pharmacokinetic interaction between bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, and glyburide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71:253-62.

van Giersbergen PL, Treiber A, Schneiter R, Dietrich H, Dingemanse J. Inhibitory and inductive effects of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of bosentan in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 81:414-9.

van Harten J. Overview of the pharmacokinetics of fluvoxamine. Clin Pharmacokinet 1995; 29 Suppl 1:1-9.

van Heeswijk RP, Cooper CL, Foster BC et al. Effect of high-dose vitamin C on hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25:1725-8.

van Heeswijk RP, Veldkamp A, Mulder JW et al. Combination of protease inhibitors for the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients: a review of pharmacokinetics and clinical experience. Antivir Ther 2001; 6:201-29.

van Herwaarden AE, Smit JW, Sparidans RW et al. Midazolam and cyclosporin a metabolism in transgenic mice with liver-specific expression of human CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:892-5.

van Herwaarden AE, van Waterschoot RA, Schinkel AH. How important is intestinal cytochrome P450 3A metabolism? Trends Pharmacol Sci 2009; 30:223-7.

van Herwaarden AE, Wagenaar E, van der Kruijssen CM et al. Knockout of cytochrome P450 3A yields new mouse models for understanding xenobiotic metabolism. J Clin Invest 2007; 117:3583-92.

van Marle S, van Vliet A, Sollie F, Kambayashi Y, Yamada-Sawada T. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of oral S-3304, a novel matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, in single and multiple dose escalation studies in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 43:282-93.

van Schaik RH, de Wildt SN, van Iperen NM, Uitterlinden AG, van den Anker JN, Lindemans J. CYP3A4-V polymorphism detection by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and its allelic frequency among 199 Dutch Caucasians. Clin Chem 2000; 46:1834-6.

van Veldhuizen PJ, Reed G, Aggarwal A, Baranda J, Zulfiqar M, Williamson S. Docetaxel and ketoconazole in advanced hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma: a phase I and pharmacokinetic study. Cancer 2003; 98:1855-62.

van Waterschoot RA, Rooswinkel RW, Sparidans RW, van Herwaarden AE, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH. Inhibition and stimulation of intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity: studies in humanized CYP3A4 transgenic mice using triazolam. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:2305-13.

van Waterschoot RA, Rooswinkel RW, Wagenaar E, van der Kruijssen CM, van Herwaarden AE, Schinkel AH. Intestinal cytochrome P450 3A plays an important role in the regulation of detoxifying systems in the liver. FASEB J 2009; 23:224-31.

Vanakoski J, Mattila MJ, Seppälä T. Grapefruit juice does not enhance the effects of midazolam and triazolam in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 50:501-8.

Vanden Bossche H, Ausma J, Bohets H et al. The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp. , and Microsporum canis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48:3272-8.

Varhe A, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Oral triazolam is potentially hazardous to patients receiving systemic antimycotics ketoconazole or itraconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994; 56:601-7.

Varhe A, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Fluconazole, but not terbinafine, enhances the effects of triazolam by inhibiting its metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 41:319-23.

Varhe A, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Diltiazem enhances the effects of triazolam by inhibiting its metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 59:369-75.

Varis T, Backman JT, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Diltiazem and mibefradil increase the plasma concentrations and greatly enhance the adrenal-suppressant effect of oral methylprednisolone. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67:215-21.

Varis T, Kaukonen KM, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Plasma concentrations and effects of oral methylprednisolone are considerably increased by itraconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 64:363-8.

Varis T, Kivistö KT, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Itraconazole decreases the clearance and enhances the effects of intravenously administered methylprednisolone in healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 85:29-32.

Varis T, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. The effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral prednisolone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56:57-60.

Vasilev NP, Julsing MK, Koulman A et al. Bioconversion of deoxypodophyllotoxin into epipodophyllotoxin in E. coli using human cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biotechnol 2006; 126:383-93.

Veeraputhiran M, Sundermeyer M. Rhabdomyolysis resulting from pharmacologic interaction between erlotinib and simvastatin. Clin Lung Cancer 2008; 9:232-4.

Veiga MI, Asimus S, Ferreira PE et al. Pharmacogenomics of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MDR1 in Vietnam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65:355-63.

Veinlichova A, Jancova P, Siller M et al. Effect of acetylcholinesterase oxime-type reactivators K-48 and HI-6 on human liver microsomal cytochromes P450 in vitro. Chem Biol Interact 2009; 180:449-53.

Velaparthi U, Saulnier MG, Wittman MD et al. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) kinase inhibitors: SAR of a series of 3-[6-(4-substituted-piperazin-1-yl)-4-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]-1H-pyridine-2-one. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010; 20:3182-5.

Velaparthi U, Wittman M, Liu P et al. Discovery and evaluation of 4-(2-(4-chloro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethylamino)-3-(6-(1-(3-fluoropropyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (BMS-695735), an orally efficacious inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor kinase with broad spectrum in vivo antitumor activity. J Med Chem 2008; 51:5897-900.

Venkatakrishnan K, Rader M, Ramanathan RK et al. Effect of the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bortezomib in patients with advanced solid tumors: a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-way crossover drug-drug interaction study. Clin Ther 2009; 31:2444-58.

Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. Nortriptyline E-10-hydroxylation in vitro is mediated by human CYP2D6 (high affinity) and CYP3A4 (low affinity): implications for interactions with enzyme-inducing drugs. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:567-77.

Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. Effects of the antifungal agents on oxidative drug metabolism: clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000; 38:111-80.

Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Obach RS, Greenblatt DJ. Microsomal binding of amitriptyline: effect on estimation of enzyme kinetic parameters in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 293:343-50.

Venkataramanan R, Ramachandran V, Komoroski BJ, Zhang S, Schiff PL, Strom SC. Milk thistle, a herbal supplement, decreases the activity of CYP3A4 and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase in human hepatocyte cultures. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1270-3.

Venkatesh P, Harisudhan T, Choudhury H, Mullangi R, Srinivas NR. Pharmacokinetics of etoposide in rats with uranyl nitrate (UN)-induced acute renal failure (ARF): optimization of the duration of UN dosing. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 32:189-96.

Verdier MC, Bentué-Ferrer D, Tribut O; le groupe Suivi Thérapeutique Pharmacologique de la Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Therapeutic drug monitoring of zonisamide. Therapie 2010; 65:29-34.

Verhoeven CH, van Munster TT, Groothuis GM, Vos RM, Rietjens IM. Identification of the human P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of the synthetic steroidal hormones Org 4060 and Org 30659. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:109-18.

Vermeir M, Hemeryck A, Cuyckens F et al. In vitro studies on the metabolism of trabectedin (Yondelis) in monkey and man, including human CYP reaction phenotyping. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 77:1642-54.

Vermeir M, Naessens I, Remmerie B et al. Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of paliperidone, a new monoaminergic antagonist, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:769-79.

Veronese L, Rautaureau J, Sadler BM et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of amprenavir, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor, in subjects with normal or impaired hepatic function. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44:821-6.

Veronese ML, Gillen LP, Burke JP et al. Exposure-dependent inhibition of intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 in vivo by grapefruit juice. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:831-9.

Veronese ML, Gillen LP, Dorval EP, Hauck WW, Waldman SA, Greenberg HE. Effect of mibefradil on CYP3A4 in vivo. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:1091-100.

Verslycke T, Goldstone JV, Stegeman JJ. Isolation and phylogeny of novel cytochrome P450 genes from tunicates (Ciona spp. ): a CYP3 line in early deuterostomes? Mol Phylogenet Evol 2006; 40:760-71.

Vicari-Christensen M, Repper S, Basile S, Young D. Tacrolimus: review of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics to facilitate practitioners’ understanding and offer strategies for educating patients and promoting adherence. Prog Transplant 2009; 19:277-84.

Vickers AE, Meyer E, Dannecker R, Keller B, Tynes RE, Maurer G. Human liver cytochrome P4503A biotransformation of the cyclosporin derivative SDZ IMM 125. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23:321-6.

Vickers AE, Sinclair JR, Zollinger M et al. Multiple cytochrome P-450s involved in the metabolism of terbinafine suggest a limited potential for drug-drug interactions. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1029-38.

Vignati L, Turlizzi E, Monaci S, Grossi P, Kanter R, Monshouwer M. An in vitro approach to detect metabolite toxicity due to CYP3A4-dependent bioactivation of xenobiotics. Toxicology 2005; 216:154-67.

Vignati LA, Bogni A, Grossi P, Monshouwer M. A human and mouse pregnane X receptor reporter gene assay in combination with cytotoxicity measurements as a tool to evaluate species-specific CYP3A induction. Toxicology 2004; 199:23-33.

Villikka K, Kivistö KT, Backman JT, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ. Triazolam is ineffective in patients taking rifampin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 61:8-14.

Villikka K, Kivistö KT, Lamberg TS, Kantola T, Neuvonen PJ. Concentrations and effects of zopiclone are greatly reduced by rifampicin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43:471-4.

Villikka K, Kivistö KT, Luurila H, Neuvonen PJ. Rifampin reduces plasma concentrations and effects of zolpidem. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62:629-34.

Villikka K, Kivistö KT, Mäenpää H, Joensuu H, Neuvonen PJ. Cytochrome P450-inducing antiepileptics increase the clearance of vincristine in patients with brain tumors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66:589-93.

Villikka K, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. The effect of dexamethasone on the pharmacokinetics of triazolam. Pharmacol Toxicol 1998; 83:135-8.

Villikka K, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. The effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous ondansetron. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 65:377-81.

Villikka K, Varis T, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Effect of methylprednisolone on CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism in vivo. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57:457-60.

Vincent SH, Reed JR, Bergman AJ et al. Metabolism and excretion of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor [14C]sitagliptin in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:533-8.

Vinholt P, Poulsen TS, Korsholm L et al. The antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel is not attenuated by statin treatment in stable patients with ischemic heart disease. Thromb Haemost 2005; 94:438-43.

Voets M, Antes I, Scherer C et al. Heteroaryl-substituted naphthalenes and structurally modified derivatives: selective inhibitors of CYP11B2 for the treatment of congestive heart failure and myocardial fibrosis. J Med Chem 2005; 48:6632-42.

Voets M, Antes I, Scherer C et al. Synthesis and evaluation of heteroaryl-substituted dihydronaphthalenes and indenes: potent and selective inhibitors of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) for the treatment of congestive heart failure and myocardial fibrosis. J Med Chem 2006; 49:2222-31.

Voice MW, Zhang Y, Wolf CR, Burchell B, Friedberg T. Effects of human cytochrome b5 on CYP3A4 activity and stability in vivo. Arch Biochem Biophys 1999; 366:116-24.

Voirol P, Jonzier-Perey M, Porchet F et al. Cytochrome P-450 activities in human and rat brain microsomes. Brain Res 2000; 855:235-43.

Volak LP, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Court MH. Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase enzymes, whereas piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1594-605.

von Ahsen N, Richter M, Grupp C, Ringe B, Oellerich M, Armstrong VW. No influence of the MDR-1 C3435T polymorphism or a CYP3A4 promoter polymorphism (CYP3A4-V allele) on dose-adjusted cyclosporin A trough concentrations or rejection incidence in stable renal transplant recipients. Clin Chem 2001; 47:1048-52.

von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Grassi JM et al. Multiple human cytochromes contribute to biotransformation of dextromethorphan in-vitro: role of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A. J Pharm Pharmacol 1998; 50:997-1004.

von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Giancarlo GM, Granda BW, Harmatz JS, Shader RI. Escitalopram (S-citalopram) and its metabolites in vitro: cytochromes mediating biotransformation, inhibitory effects, and comparison to R-citalopram. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1102-9.

von Moltke LL, Tran TH, Cotreau MM, Greenblatt DJ. Unusually low clearance of two CYP3A substrates, alprazolam and trazodone, in a volunteer subject with wild-type CYP3A4 promoter region. J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 40:200-4.

von Richter O, Burk O, Fromm MF, Thon KP, Eichelbaum M, Kivistö KT. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein expression in human small intestinal enterocytes and hepatocytes: a comparative analysis in paired tissue specimens. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:172-83.

von Rosensteil NA, Adam D. Macrolide antibacterials. Drug interactions of clinical significance. Drug Saf 1995; 13:105-22.

Voora D, Shah SH, Spasojevic I et al. The SLCO1B1*5 genetic variant is associated with statin-induced side effects. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54:1609-16.

Voorman RL, Maio SM, Hauer MJ, Sanders PE, Payne NA, Ackland MJ. Metabolism of delavirdine, a human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor, by microsomal cytochrome P450 in humans, rats, and other species: probable involvement of CYP2D6 and CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:631-9.

Voorman RL, Maio SM, Payne NA, Zhao Z, Koeplinger KA, Wang X. Microsomal metabolism of delavirdine: evidence for mechanism-based inactivation of human cytochrome P450 3A. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 287:381-8.

Voorman RL, Payne NA, Wienkers LC, Hauer MJ, Sanders PE. Interaction of delavirdine with human liver microsomal cytochrome P450: inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:41-7.

Vos RM, Krebbers SF, Verhoeven CH, Delbressine LP. The in vivo human metabolism of tibolone. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:106-12.

Voso MT, Fabiani E, D’Alo’ F et al. Increased risk of acute myeloid leukaemia due to polymorphisms in detoxification and DNA repair enzymes. Ann Oncol 2007; 18:1523-8.

Vossen M, Sevestre M, Niederalt C, Jang IJ, Willmann S, Edginton AN. Dynamically simulating the interaction of midazolam and the CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole using individual coupled whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) models. Theor Biol Med Model 2007; 4:13.

Vourvahis M, Gleave M, Nedderman AN et al. Excretion and metabolism of lersivirine (5-{[3,5-diethyl-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)(3,5-14C2)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]oxy}benzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile), a next-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, after administration of [14C]Lersivirine to healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:789-800.

Vrzal R, Kubesova K, Pavek P, Dvorak Z. Benzodiazepines medazepam and midazolam are activators of pregnane X receptor and weak inducers of CYP3A4: Investigation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and hepatocarcinoma cell lines. Toxicol Lett 2010; 193:183-8.

Vyas PM, Roychowdhury S, Khan FD et al. Enzyme-mediated protein haptenation of dapsone and sulfamethoxazole in human keratinocytes: I. Expression and role of cytochromes P450. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 319:488-96.

Vyhlidal CA, Gaedigk R, Leeder JS. Nuclear receptor expression in fetal and pediatric liver: correlation with CYP3A expression. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:131-7.

Waade RB, Christensen H, Rudberg I, Refsum H, Hermann M. Influence of comedication on serum concentrations of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole. Ther Drug Monit 2009; 31:233-8.

Wacher VJ, Salphati L, Benet LZ. Active secretion and enterocytic drug metabolism barriers to drug absorption. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001; 46:89-102.

Wacher VJ, Silverman JA, Zhang Y, Benet LZ. Role of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in limiting oral absorption of peptides and peptidomimetics. J Pharm Sci 1998; 87:1322-30.

Wada K, Takada M, Ueda T et al. Drug interactions between tacrolimus and phenytoin in Japanese heart transplant recipients: 2 case reports. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007; 45:524-8.

Walker AH, Jaffe JM, Gunasegaram S et al. Characterization of an allelic variant in the nifedipine-specific element of CYP3A4: ethnic distribution and implications for prostate cancer risk. Mutations in brief no. 191. Online. Hum Mutat 1998; 12:289.

Walker AH, Najarian D, White DL, Jaffe JF, Kanetsky PA, Rebbeck TR. Collection of genomic DNA by buccal swabs for polymerase chain reaction-based biomarker assays. Environ Health Perspect 1999; 107:517-20.

Walker AM, Szneke P, Weatherby LB et al. The risk of serious cardiac arrhythmias among cisapride users in the United Kingdom and Canada. Am J Med 1999; 107:356-62.

Walker D, Flinois JP, Monkman SC et al. Identification of the major human hepatic cytochrome P450 involved in activation and N-dechloroethylation of ifosfamide. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47:1157-63.

Walker DK, Alabaster CT, Congrave GS et al. Significance of metabolism in the disposition and action of the antidysrhythmic drug, dofetilide. In vitro studies and correlation with in vivo data. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:447-55.

Wallace K, Cowie DE, Konstantinou DK et al. The PXR is a drug target for chronic inflammatory liver disease. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2010; 120:137-48.

Walle UK, Walle T. Bioavailable flavonoids: cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of methoxyflavones. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1985-9.

Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS. Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 45:68-78.

Walsky RL, Obach RS. Validated assays for human cytochrome P450 activities. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:647-60.

Wan CK, Tse AK, Yu ZL, Zhu GY, Wang H, Fong DW. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity by schisandrol A and gomisin A isolated from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis. Phytomedicine 2010; 17:702-5.

Wandel C, Böcker RH, Böhrer H et al. Relationship between hepatic cytochrome P450 3A content and activity and the disposition of midazolam administered orally. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:110-4.

Wandel C, Lang CC, Cowart DC et al. Effect of CYP3A inhibition on vesnarinone metabolism in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63:506-11.

Wandel C, Witte JS, Hall JM, Stein CM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR. CYP3A activity in African American and European American men: population differences and functional effect of the CYP3A4*1B5’-promoter region polymorphism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68:82-91.

Wang A, Yu BN, Luo CH et al. Ile118Val genetic polymorphism of CYP3A4 and its effects on lipid-lowering efficacy of simvastatin in Chinese hyperlipidemic patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60:843-8.

Wang B, Sánchez RI, Franklin RB, Evans DC, Huskey SE. The involvement of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 in the metabolism of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1209-12.

Wang B, Yang LP, Zhang XZ, Huang SQ, Bartlam M, Zhou SF. New insights into the structural characteristics and functional relevance of the human cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme. Drug Metab Rev 2009; 41:573-643.

Wang D, Guo Y, Wrighton SA, Cooke GE, Sadee W. Intronic polymorphism in CYP3A4 affects hepatic expression and response to statin drugs. Pharmacogenomics J 2011; 11:274-86.

Wang E, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) characterized as direct inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res 2001; 18:800-6.

Wang E, Lew K, Barecki M, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW. Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Chem Res Toxicol 2001; 14:1596-603.

Wang EJ, Barecki-Roach M, Johnson WW. Quantitative characterization of direct P-glycoprotein inhibition by St John’s wort constituents hypericin and hyperforin. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004; 56:123-8.

Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport function by grapefruit juice psoralen. Pharm Res 2001; 18:432-8.

Wang G, Xiao CQ, Li Z et al. Effect of soy extract administration on losartan pharmacokinetics in healthy female volunteers. Ann Pharmacother 2009; 43:1045-9.

Wang H, LeCluyse EL. Role of orphan nuclear receptors in the regulation of drug-metabolising enzymes. Clin Pharmacokinet 2003; 42:1331-57.

Wang H, Li H, Moore LB et al. The phytoestrogen coumestrol is a naturally occurring antagonist of the human pregnane X receptor. Mol Endocrinol 2008; 22:838-57.

Wang H, Tompkins LM. CYP2B6: new insights into a historically overlooked cytochrome P450 isozyme. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:598-610.

Wang J. CYP3A polymorphisms and immunosuppressive drugs in solid-organ transplantation. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2009; 9:383-90.

Wang JS, Backman JT, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of metronidazole on midazolam metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56:555-9.

Wang JS, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in lidocaine N-deethylation and 3-hydroxylation in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:959-65.

Wang JS, Backman JT, Wen X, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Fluvoxamine is a more potent inhibitor of lidocaine metabolism than ketoconazole and erythromycin in vitro. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 85:201-5.

Wang JS, DeVane CL. Involvement of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6 in the metabolism of (R)- and (S)-methadone in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:742-7.

Wang JS, Neuvonen M, Wen X, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Gemfibrozil inhibits CYP2C8-mediated cerivastatin metabolism in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1352-6.

Wang JS, Wang W, Xie HG, Huang SL, Zhou HH. Effect of troleandomycin on the pharmacokinetics of imipramine in Chinese: the role of CYP3A. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:195-8.

Wang JS, Wen X, Backman JT, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Midazolam alpha-hydroxylation by human liver microsomes in vitro: inhibition by calcium channel blockers, itraconazole and ketoconazole. Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 85:157-61.

Wang JS, Zhu HJ, Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL. Evaluation of antipsychotic drugs as inhibitors of multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein. Psychopharmacology 2006; 187:415-23.

Wang K, Chen S, Xie W, Wan YJ. Retinoids induce cytochrome P450 3A4 through RXR/VDR-mediated pathway. Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 75:2204-13.

Wang K, Mendy AJ, Dai G, Luo HR, He L, Wan YJ. Retinoids activate the RXR/SXR-mediated pathway and induce the endogenous CYP3A4 activity in Huh7 human hepatoma cells. Toxicol Sci 2006; 92:51-60.

Wang L, Christopher LJ, Cui D et al. Identification of the human enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of dasatinib: an effective approach for determining metabolite formation kinetics. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1828-39.

Wang L, Zhang D, Raghavan N et al. In vitro assessment of metabolic drug-drug interaction potential of apixaban through cytochrome P450 phenotyping, inhibition, and induction studies. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:448-58.

Wang LH, Peck RW, Yin Y, Allanson J, Wiggs R, Wire MB. Phase I safety and pharmacokinetic trials of 1263W94, a novel oral anti-human cytomegalovirus agent, in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003; 47:1334-42.

Wang LS, Zhou G, Zhu B et al. St John’s wort induces both cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed sulfoxidation and 2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:191-7.

Wang MZ, Wu JQ, Bridges AS et al. Human enteric microsomal CYP4F enzymes O-demethylate the antiparasitic prodrug pafuramidine. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:2067-75.

Wang N, Tsuruoka S, Yamamoto H et al. The bioreactor with CYP3A4- and glutamine synthetase-introduced HepG2 cells: treatment of hepatic failure dog with diazepam overdosage. Artif Organs 2005; 29:681-4.

Wang RW, Liu L, Cheng H. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the in vitro metabolism of cyclobenzaprine. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:786-91.

Wang RW, Lu AY. Inhibitory anti-peptide antibody against human CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:762-7.

Wang RW, Newton DJ, Liu N, Atkins WM, Lu AY. Human cytochrome P-450 3A4: in vitro drug-drug interaction patterns are substrate-dependent. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:360-6.

Wang RW, Newton DJ, Liu NY, Shou M, Rushmore T, Lu AY. Inhibitory anti-CYP3A4 peptide antibody: mapping of inhibitory epitope and specificity toward other CYP3A isoforms. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:167-72.

Wang RW, Newton DJ, Scheri TD, Lu AY. Human cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation and erythromycin N-demethylation. Competition during catalysis. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:502-7.

Wang S, Wan NC, Harrison J et al. Design and synthesis of new templates derived from pyrrolopyrimidine as selective multidrug-resistance-associated protein inhibitors in multidrug resistance. J Med Chem 2004; 47:1339-50.

Wang T, Chen FY, Han JY, Zhong JH, Teng Y, Ouyang RR. The relationship between cytochrome P450, subfamily IIIA, polypeptide 5 gene and drug resistance in leukemia cell lines. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2004; 43:527-9.

Wang X, Medzihradszky KF, Maltby D, Correia MA. Phosphorylation of native and heme-modified CYP3A4 by protein kinase C: a mass spectrometric characterization of the phosphorylated peptides. Biochemistry 2001; 40:11318-26.

Wang XD, Li JL, Lu Y et al. Rapid and simultaneous determination of nifedipine and dehydronifedipine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application to a clinical herb-drug interaction study. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 852:534-44.

Wang XD, Li JL, Su QB et al. Impact of the haplotypes of the human pregnane X receptor gene on the basal and St John’s wort-induced activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 67:255-61.

Wang Y, Liao M, Hoe N et al. A role for protein phosphorylation in cytochrome P450 3A4 ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. J Biol Chem 2009; 284:5671-84.

Wang Y, Unadkat JD. Enzymes in addition to CYP3A4 and 3A5 mediate N-demethylation of dextromethorphan in human liver microsomes. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1999; 20:341-6.

Wang YH, Jones DR, Hall SD. Prediction of cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by verapamil enantiomers and their metabolites. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:259-66.

Wang YH, Jones DR, Hall SD. Differential mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by verapamil. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:664-71.

Wangensteen H, Molden E, Christensen H, Malterud KE. Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 58:663-8.

Wanwimolruk S, Paine MF, Pusek SN, Watkins PB. Is quinine a suitable probe to assess the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 54:643-51.

Wanwimolruk S, Wong K, Wanwimolruk P. Variable inhibitory effect of different brands of commercial herbal supplements on human cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2009; 24:17-35.

Ward BA, Morocho A, Kandil A, Galinsky RE, Flockhart DA, Desta Z. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyzing domperidone N-dealkylation and hydroxylation in vitro. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 58:277-87.

Ward RM, Tammara B, Sullivan SE et al. Single-dose, multiple-dose, and population pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole in neonates and preterm infants with a clinical diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:555-61.

Ward S, Back DJ. Metabolism of gestodene in human liver cytosol and microsomes in vitro. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993; 46:235-43.

Warrington JS, Shader RI, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. In vitro biotransformation of sildenafil (Viagra): identification of human cytochromes and potential drug interactions. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:392-7.

Washio T, Arisawa H, Kohsaka K, Yasuda H. Identification of human drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of SNI-2011. Biol Pharm Bull 2001; 24:1263-6.

Watabe M, Isogai Y, Numazawa S, Yoshida T. Role of c-Myc in nitric oxide-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 3A4. Life Sci 2003; 74:99-108.

Watanabe K, Matsunaga T, Kimura T et al. Major cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for microsomal aldehyde oxygenation of 11-oxo-Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol and 9-anthraldehyde in human liver. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:516-21.

Watanabe K, Yamaori S, Funahashi T, Kimura T, Yamamoto I. Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinols and cannabinol by human hepatic microsomes. Life Sci 2007; 80:1415-9.

Watanabe M, Kumai T, Matsumoto N et al. Expression of CYP3A4 mRNA is correlated with CYP3A4 protein level and metabolic activity in human liver. J Pharmacol Sci 2004; 94:459-62.

Watkins PB. Erythromycin breath test and clinical transplantation. Ther Drug Monit 1996; 18:368-71.

Watkins PB. The barrier function of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein in the small bowel. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1997; 27:161-170.

Watkins RE, Noble SM, Redinbo MR. Structural insights into the promiscuity and function of the human pregnane X receptor. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 2002; 5:150-8.

Waxman DJ, Holloway MG. Sex differences in the expression of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Mol Pharmacol 2009; 76:215-28.

Weaver RJ, Thompson S, Smith G et al. A comparative study of constitutive and induced alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation and individual cytochrome P450 forms in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), human, mouse, rat and hamster liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47:763-73.

Weber A, Kaplan M, Chughtai SA, Cohn LA, Smith AL, Unadkat JD. CYP3A inductive potential of the rifamycins, rifabutin and rifampin, in the rabbit. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2001; 22:157-68.

Weiss J, Sawa E, Riedel KD, Haefeli WE, Mikus G. In vitro metabolism of the opioid tilidine and interaction of tilidine and nortilidine with CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2008; 378:275-82.

Weiss JR, Baer MR, Ambrosone CB et al. Concordance of pharmacogenetic polymorphisms in tumor and germ line DNA in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16:1038-41.

Welker HA, Wiltshire H, Bullingham R. Clinical pharmacokinetics of mibefradil. Clin Pharmacokinet 1998; 35:405-23.

Wen B, Chen Y, Fitch WL. Metabolic activation of nevirapine in human liver microsomes: dehydrogenation and inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1557-62.

Wen B, Doneanu CE, Gartner CA, Roberts AG, Atkins WM, Nelson SD. Fluorescent photoaffinity labeling of cytochrome P450 3A4 by lapachenole: identification of modification sites by mass spectrometry. Biochemistry 2005; 44:1833-45.

Wen B, Doneanu CE, Lampe JN, Roberts AG, Atkins WM, Nelson SD. Probing the CYP3A4 active site by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and photoaffinity labeling. Arch Biochem Biophys 2005; 444:100-11.

Wen B, Lampe JN, Roberts AG, Atkins WM, David Rodrigues A, Nelson SD. Cysteine 98 in CYP3A4 contributes to conformational integrity required for P450 interaction with CYP reductase. Arch Biochem Biophys 2006; 454:42-54.

Wen B, Ma L, Rodrigues AD, Zhu M. Detection of novel reactive metabolites of trazodone: evidence for CYP2D6-mediated bioactivation of m-chlorophenylpiperazine. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:841-50.

Wen B, Ma L, Zhu M. Bioactivation of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline to arene oxide intermediates in human liver microsomes and recombinant P450s. Chem Biol Interact 2008; 173:59-67.

Wen B, Moore DJ. Bioactivation of glafenine by human liver microsomes and peroxidases: Identification of electrophilic iminoquinone species and GSH conjugates. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39:1511-21.

Wen H, Ding Q, Fang ZJ, Xia GW, Fang J. Population study of genetic polymorphisms and superficial bladder cancer risk in Han-Chinese smokers in Shanghai. Int Urol Nephrol 2009; 41:855-64.

Wen PY, Yung WK, Lamborn KR et al. Phase I/II study of imatinib mesylate for recurrent malignant gliomas: North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 99-08. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:4899-907.

Wen S, Wang H, Ding Y, Liang H, Wang S. Screening of 12 SNPs of CYP3A4 in a Chinese population using oligonucleotide microarray. Genet Test 2004; 8:411-6.

Wen X, Wang JS, Backman JT, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Gemfibrozil is a potent inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 2C9. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1359-61.

Wen X, Wang JS, Backman JT, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are selective inhibitors of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9, respectively. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:631-5.

Wen X, Wang JS, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. In vitro evaluation of valproic acid as an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 isoforms: preferential inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 52:547-53.

Wen X, Wang JS, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT. Isoniazid is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, 2A6, 2C19 and 3A4 isoforms in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 57:799-804.

Wen YH, Sahi J, Urda E et al. Effects of bergamottin on human and monkey drug-metabolizing enzymes in primary cultured hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:977-84.

Weng X, Li Y, Yang Q et al. Effects of Wuji pill compound with different compatibility on cytochrome P450 CYP3A1/3A2 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2010; 35:1164-9.

Wenk M, Todesco L, Krähenbühl S. Effect of St John’s wort on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2, and xanthine oxidase in healthy males and females. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:495-9.

Wenker MA, Kezić S, Monster AC, de Wolff FA. Metabolism of styrene in the human liver in vitro: interindividual variation and enantioselectivity. Xenobiotica 2001; 31:61-72.

Wennerholm A, Allqvist A, Svensson JO, Gustafsson LL, Mirghani RA, Bertilsson L. Alprazolam as a probe for CYP3A using a single blood sample: pharmacokinetics of parent drug, and of alpha- and 4-hydroxy metabolites in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:113-8.

Werba JP, Cavalca V, Veglia F et al. A new compound-specific pleiotropic effect of statins: modification of plasma gamma-tocopherol levels. Atherosclerosis 2007; 193:229-33.

Weschules DJ, Bain KT, Richeimer S. Actual and potential drug interactions associated with methadone. Pain Med 2008; 9:315-44.

Westlind A, Löfberg L, Tindberg N, Andersson TB, Ingelman-Sundberg M. Interindividual differences in hepatic expression of CYP3A4: relationship to genetic polymorphism in the 5’-upstream regulatory region. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999; 259:201-5.

Westlind A, Malmebo S, Johansson I et al. Cloning and tissue distribution of a novel human cytochrome p450 of the CYP3A subfamily, CYP3A43. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 281:1349-55.

Westlind-Johnsson A, Hermann R, Huennemeyer A et al. Identification and characterization of CYP3A4*20, a novel rare CYP3A4 allele without functional activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 79:339-49.

Westlind-Johnsson A, Malmebo S, Johansson A et al. Comparative analysis of CYP3A expression in human liver suggests only a minor role for CYP3A5 in drug metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:755-61.

Wexler D, Courtney R, Richards W, Banfield C, Lim J, Laughlin M. Effect of posaconazole on cytochrome P450 enzymes: a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study. Eur J Pharm Sci 2004; 21:645-53.

White IN, de Matteis F, Gibbs AH et al. Species differences in the covalent binding of [14C]tamoxifen to liver microsomes and the forms of cytochrome P450 involved. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49:1035-42.

White IN, Razvi N, Gibbs AH et al. Neoantigen formation and clastogenic action of HCFC-123 and perchloroethylene in human MCL-5 cells. Toxicol Lett 2001; 124:129-38.

White IN. Tamoxifen: is it safe? Comparison of activation and detoxication mechanisms in rodents and in humans. Curr Drug Metab 2003; 4:223-39.

Whitfield GK, Dang HT, Schluter SF et al. Cloning of a functional vitamin D receptor from the lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an ancient vertebrate lacking a calcified skeleton and teeth. Endocrinology 2003; 144:2704-16.

Wide K, Larsson H, Bertilsson L, Diczfalusy U. Time course of the increase in 4beta-hydroxycholesterol concentration during carbamazepine treatment of paediatric patients with epilepsy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65:708-15.

Wiegand H, Boesch-Saadatmandi C, Wein S, Wolffram S, Frank J, Rimbach G. Dietary flavonoids do not affect vitamin E status in growing rats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2010; 94:307-18.

Wieland E, Shipkova M, Schütz E et al. Preliminary report on the effect of xenoperfusion with human blood on cyclosporin A metabolism and cytochrome-P-4503A4-mRNA expression in a pig liver perfusion model. Clin Biochem 2001; 34:53-7.

Wieling J, Tamminga WJ, Sakiman EP, Oosterhuis B, Wemer J, Jonkman JH. Evaluation of analytical and clinical performance of a dual-probe phenotyping method for CYP2D6 polymorphism and CYP3A4 activity screening. Ther Drug Monit 2000; 22:486-96.

Wienkers LC, Allievi C, Hauer MJ, Wynalda MA. Cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of the individual enantiomers of the antidepressant agent reboxetine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1334-40.

Wienkers LC, Steenwyk RC, Hauer MJ, Fleishaker JC, Pearson PG. Biotransformation of tirilazad in human: 3. tirilazad A-ring reduction by human liver microsomal 5alpha-reductase type 1 and type 2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 287:583-90.

Wienkers LC, Steenwyk RC, Sanders PE, Pearson PG. Biotransformation of tirilazad in human: 1. Cytochrome P450 3A-mediated hydroxylation of tirilazad mesylate in human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 277:982-90.

Wienkers LC, Wynalda MA. Multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for the oxidative metabolism of the substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine, (S,S)-3-[3-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1-propylpiperidine hydrochloride, in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:1372-7.

Wienkers LC. Factors confounding the successful extrapolation of in vitro CYP3A inhibition information to the in vivo condition. Eur J Pharm Sci 2002; 15:239-42.

Wiercinska P, Squires EJ. Chlorzoxazone metabolism by porcine cytochrome P450 enzymes and the effect of cytochrome b5. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:857-62.

Wiese C, Grosse Maestrup E, Schepmann D et al. Pharmacological and metabolic characterisation of the potent sigma1 receptor ligand 1’-benzyl-3-methoxy-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4’-piperidine]. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 61:631-40.

Wijnen PA, Op den Buijsch RA, Cheung SC et al. Genotyping with a dried blood spot method: a useful technique for application in pharmacogenetics. Clin Chim Acta 2008; 388:189-91.

Wild CP, Yin F, Turner PC et al. Environmental and genetic determinants of aflatoxin-albumin adducts in the Gambia. Int J Cancer 2000; 86:1-7.

Wilde S, Jetter A, Rietbrock S et al. Population pharmacokinetics of the BEACOPP polychemotherapy regimen in Hodgkin’s lymphoma and its effect on myelotoxicity. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:319-33.

Wilke RA, Moore JH, Burmester JK. Relative impact of CYP3A genotype and concomitant medication on the severity of atorvastatin-induced muscle damage. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005; 15:415-21.

Willey JC, Coy E, Brolly C et al. Xenobiotic metabolism enzyme gene expression in human bronchial epithelial and alveolar macrophage cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1996; 14:262-71.

Williams D, Feely J. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic drug interactions with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41:343-70.

Williams ET, Leyk M, Wrighton SA et al. Estrogen regulation of the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 311:728-35.

Williams ET, Rodin AS, Strobel HW. Defining relationships between the known members of the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily, including five putative chimpanzee members. Mol Phylogenet Evol 2004; 33:300-8.

Williams GC, Sinko PJ. Oral absorption of the HIV protease inhibitors: a current update. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1999; 39:211-238.

Williams JA, Cook J, Hurst SI. A significant drug-metabolizing role for CYP3A5? Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1526-30.

Williams JA, Ring BJ, Cantrell VE et al. Comparative metabolic capabilities of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:883-91.

Williams PA, Cosme J, Vinkovic DM et al. Crystal structures of human cytochrome P450 3A4 bound to metyrapone and progesterone. Science 2004; 305:683-6.

Williamson KM, Patterson JH, McQueen RH, Adams KF Jr, Pieper JA. Effects of erythromycin or rifampin on losartan pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63:316-23.

Willrich MA, Hirata MH, Hirata RD. Statin regulation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expression. Pharmacogenomics 2009; 10:1017-24.

Windmill KF, McKinnon RA, Zhu X, Gaedigk A, Grant DM, McManus ME. The role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in arylamine toxicity and carcinogenesis: functional and localization studies. Mutat Res 1997; 376:153-60.

Winitthana T, Niwattisaiwong N, Patarapanich C, Tantisira MH, Lawanprasert S. In vitro inhibitory effects of asiaticoside and madecassoside on human cytochrome P450. Toxicol In Vitro 2011; 25:890-6.

Wink J, Veering BT, Kruit M et al. The effect of a long term epidural infusion of ropivacaine on CYP2D6 activity. Anesth Analg 2008; 106:143-6.

Winter HR, Unadkat JD. Identification of cytochrome P450 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase isoforms involved in sulfadiazine metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:969-76.

Winter HR, Wang Y, Unadkat JD. CYP2C8/9 mediate dapsone N-hydroxylation at clinical concentrations of dapsone. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:865-8.

Wire MB, Shelton MJ, Studenberg S. Fosamprenavir: clinical pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of the amprenavir prodrug. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45:137-68.

Wiseman H, Lewis DF. The metabolism of tamoxifen by human cytochromes P450 is rationalized by molecular modelling of the enzyme-substrate interactions: potential importance to its proposed anti-carcinogenic/carcinogenic actions. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17:1357-60.

Wiśniewska A, Mazerska Z. Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in metabolism of endo- and exogenic compounds. Postepy Biochem 2009; 55:259-71.

Wittayalertpanya S, Chompootaweep S, Thaworn N. The pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in Thai healthy subjects. J Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89:2116-22.

Witte LP, Mulder WM, de la Rosette JJ, Michel MC. Muscarinic receptor antagonists for overactive bladder treatment: does one fit all? Curr Opin Urol 2009; 19:13-9.

Wójcikowski J, Daniel WA. Perazine at therapeutic drug concentrations inhibits human cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) and caffeine metabolism-an in vitro study. Pharmacol Rep 2009; 61:851-8.

Wójcikowski J, Maurel P, Daniel WA. Characterization of human cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of the piperidine-type phenothiazine neuroleptic thioridazine. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:471-6.

Wójcikowski J, Pichard-Garcia L, Maurel P, Daniel WA. Perazine as a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2 but not CYP3A4. Pol J Pharmacol 2002; 54:407-10.

Wójcikowski J, Pichard-Garcia L, Maurel P, Daniel WA. Effects of cytochrome P-450 inducers on the perazine metabolism in a primary culture of human hepatocytes. Pol J Pharmacol 2003; 55:655-8.

Wójcikowski J, Pichard-Garcia L, Maurel P, Daniel WA. Contribution of human cytochrome p-450 isoforms to the metabolism of the simplest phenothiazine neuroleptic promazine. Br J Pharmacol 2003; 138:1465-74.

Wójcikowski J, Pichard-Garcia L, Maurel P, Daniel WA. The metabolism of the piperazine-type phenothiazine neuroleptic perazine by the human cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2004; 14:199-208.

Wojnowski L. Genetics of the variable expression of CYP3A in humans. Ther Drug Monit 2004; 26:192-9.

Wojnowski L, Kamdem LK. Clinical implications of CYP3A polymorphisms. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2006; 2:171-82.

Wojnowski L, Turner PC, Pedersen B et al. Increased levels of aflatoxin-albumin adducts are associated with CYP3A5 polymorphisms in The Gambia, West Africa. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14:691-700.

Wolbold R, Klein K, Burk O et al. Sex is a major determinant of CYP3A4 expression in human liver. Hepatology 2003; 38:978-88.

Wolbrette DL. Drugs that cause Torsades de pointes and increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. Curr Cardiol Rep 2004; 6:379-84.

Wong JY, Seah ES, Lee EJ. Pharmacogenetics: the molecular genetics of CYP2D6 dependent drug metabolism. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000; 29:401-6.

Wong SG, Fan PW, Subramanian R et al. Bioactivation of a novel 2-methylindole-containing dual chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type-2 cells/D-prostanoid receptor antagonist leads to mechanism-based CYP3A inactivation: glutathione adduct characterization and prediction of in vivo drug-drug interaction. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:841-50.

Wong SL, Cao G, Mack R, Granneman GR. Lack of CYP3A inhibition effects of sertindole on terfenadine in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 36:146-51.

Wong SL, Goldberg MR, Ballow CH, Kitt MM, Barriere SL. Effect of Telavancin on the pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P450 3A probe substrate midazolam: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in healthy subjects. Pharmacotherapy 2010; 30:136-43.

Wong SL, Locke C, Staser J, Granneman GR. Lack of multiple dosing effect of sertindole on the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 1998; 135:236-41.

Wong YW, Prakash R, Chew DP. Antiplatelet therapy in percutaneous coronary intervention: recent advances in oral antiplatelet agents. Curr Opin Cardiol 2010; 25:305-11.

Wonganan P, Zamboni WC, Strychor S, Dekker JD, Croyle MA. Drug-virus interaction: effect of administration of recombinant adenoviruses on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in a rat model. Cancer Gene Ther 2009; 16:405-14.

Woo S, Gardner ER, Chen X et al. Population pharmacokinetics of romidepsin in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and relapsed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:1496-503.

Wood N, Tan K, Purkins L et al. Effect of omeprazole on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of voriconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56 Suppl 1:56-61.

Wormhoudt LW, Ploemen JH, de Waziers I et al. Inter-individual variability in the oxidation of 1,2-dibromoethane: use of heterologously expressed human cytochrome P450 and human liver microsomes. Chem Biol Interact 1996; 101:175-92.

Wrishko RE, Dingemanse J, Yu A, Darstein C, Phillips DL, Mitchell MI. Pharmacokinetic interaction between tadalafil and bosentan in healthy male subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 48:610-8.

Wu D, Cederbaum AI. Removal of glutathione produces apoptosis and necrosis in HepG2 cells overexpressing CYP2E1. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001; 25:619-28.

Wu D, Cederbaum AI. Sodium salicylate increases CYP2E1 levels and enhances arachidonic acid toxicity in HepG2 cells and cultured rat hepatocytes. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 59:795-805.

Wu WN, McKown LA, Reitz AB. Metabolism of the new anxiolytic agent, a pyrido[1,2-]benzimidazole (PBI) analog (RWJ-53050), in rat and human hepatic S9 fractions, and in dog; identification of cytochrome p450 isoforms mediated in the human microsomal metabolism. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2006; 31:277-83.

Wu X, Li Q, Xin H, Yu A, Zhong M. Effects of berberine on the blood concentration of cyclosporin A in renal transplanted recipients: clinical and pharmacokinetic study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61:567-72.

Wu YJ, Davis CD, Dworetzky S et al. Fluorine substitution can block CYP3A4 metabolism-dependent inhibition: identification of (S)-N-[1-(4-fluoro-3- morpholin-4-ylphenyl)ethyl]-3- (4-fluorophenyl)acrylamide as an orally bioavailable KCNQ2 opener devoid of CYP3A4 metabolism-dependent inhibition. J Med Chem 2003; 46:3778-81.

Wu ZL, Huang SL, Ou-Yang DS, Xu ZH, Xie HG, Zhou HH. Clomipramine N-demethylation metabolism in human liver microsomes. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1998; 19:433-6.

Wurm M, Woess C, Libiseller K, Beer B, Pavlic M. Challenging small human hepatocytes with opiates: further characterization of a novel prototype BAL. Tissue Eng Part A 2010; 16:807-13.

Wustrow DJ, Maynard GD, Yuan J et al. Aminopyrazine CB1 receptor inverse agonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:3376-81.

Wynalda MA, Hauer MJ, Wienkers LC. Human biotransformation of bropirimine. Characterization of the major bropirimine oxidative metabolites formed in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:1048-51.

Wynalda MA, Hauer MJ, Wienkers LC. Oxidation of the novel oxazolidinone antibiotic linezolid in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1014-7.

Wynalda MA, Hutzler JM, Koets MD, Podoll T, Wienkers LC. In vitro metabolism of clindamycin in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:878-87.

Wynalda MA, Wienkers LC. Assessment of potential interactions between dopamine receptor agonists and various human cytochrome P450 enzymes using a simple in vitro inhibition screen. Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25:1211-4.

Xia C, Sun J, Wang G et al. Differential effect of Shenmai injection, a herbal preparation, on the cytochrome P450 3A-mediated 1’-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of midazolam. Chem Biol Interact 2009; 180:440-8.

Xia ZL, Ying JY, Sheng R, Zeng S, Hu YZ, Yao TW. In vitro metabolism of BYZX in human liver microsomes and the structural elucidation of metabolite by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 857:266-74.

Xiang H, Tschirret-Guth RA, Ortiz de Montellano PR. An A245T mutation conveys on cytochrome P450eryF the ability to oxidize alternative substrates. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:35999-6006.

Xiang Q, Zhao X, Zhou Y, Duan JL, Cui YM. Effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and MDR1 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its active moiety. J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 50:659-66.

Xie HG, Wood AJ, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR. Genetic variability in CYP3A5 and its possible consequences. Pharmacogenomics 2004; 5:243-72.

Xie HJ, Lundgren S, Broberg U, Finnström N, Rane A, Hassan M. Effect of cyclophosphamide on gene expression of cytochromes p450 and beta-actin in the HL-60 cell line. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 449:197-205.

Xie Y, Ke S, Ouyang N et al. Epigenetic regulation of transcriptional activity of pregnane X receptor by protein arginine methyltransferase 1. J Biol Chem 2009; 284:9199-205.

Xin HW, Wu XC, Li Q, Yu AR, Zhong MY, Liu YY. The effects of berberine on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A in healthy volunteers. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2006; 28:25-9.

Xin X, Luan X, Xiao J et al. Association study of four activity SNPs of CYP3A4 with the precocious puberty in Chinese girls. Neurosci Lett 2005; 381:284-8.

Xiong H, Carr RA, Locke CS et al. Dual effects of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of atrasentan. J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 47:423-9.

Xu FY, Queen G, Brandes L, Hatch GM. The phospholipidosis-lnducing potential of the chemopotentiating drug, N,N-Diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy]ethanamine (DPPE, tesmilifene) correlates with its stimulation of phosphatidylserine synthesis and exposure on the plasma membrane in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2007; 50:61-3.

Xu H, Rajesan R, Harper P et al. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A by cow milk-based formula: a comparative study between human milk and formula. Br J Pharmacol 2005; 146:296-305.

Xu L, Chen Y, Pan Y, Skiles GL, Shou M. Prediction of human drug-drug interactions from time-dependent inactivation of CYP3A4 in primary hepatocytes using a population-based simulator. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:2330-9.

Xu L, Desai MC. Pharmacokinetic enhancers for HIV drugs. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2009; 10:775-86.

Xu Y, Hashizume T, Shuhart MC et al. Intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 catalyze hydroxylation of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3): implications for drug-induced osteomalacia. Mol Pharmacol 2006; 69:56-65.

Xu Y, Iwanaga K, Zhou C, Cheesman MJ, Farin F, Thummel KE. Selective induction of intestinal CYP3A23 by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in rats. Biochem Pharmacol 2006; 72:385-92.

Xue L, Zgoda VG, Arison B, Almira Correia M. Structure-function relationships of rat liver CYP3A9 to its human liver orthologs: site-directed active site mutagenesis to a progesterone dihydroxylase. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003; 409:113-26.

Yakkundi A, McErlane V, Murray M et al. Tumor-selective drug activation: a GDEPT approach utilizing cytochrome P450 1A1 and AQ4N. Cancer Gene Ther 2006; 13:598-605.

Yale SH, Glurich I. Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11:433-9.

Yamada Y, Ichihara S, Kato K et al. Genetic risk for metabolic syndrome: examination of candidate gene polymorphisms related to lipid metabolism in Japanese people. J Med Genet 2008; 45:22-8.

Yamada Y, Kato K, Oguri M et al. Genetic risk for myocardial infarction determined by polymorphisms of candidate genes in a Japanese population. J Med Genet 2008; 45:216-21.

Yamada Y, Kato K, Yoshida T et al. Association of polymorphisms of ABCA1 and ROS1 with hypertension in Japanese individuals. Int J Mol Med 2008; 21:83-9.

Yamada Y, Matsuo H, Warita S et al. Prediction of genetic risk for dyslipidemia. Genomics 2007; 90:551-8.

Yamada Y, Matsuo H, Watanabe S et al. Association of a polymorphism of CYP3A4 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Med 2007; 20:703-7.

Yamada Y, Metoki N, Yoshida H et al. Genetic factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in Japanese individuals. Stroke 2008; 39:2211-8.

Yamaguchi Y, Khan KK, He YA, He YQ, Halpert JR. Topological changes in the CYP3A4 active site probed with phenyldiazene: effect of interaction with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5 and of site-directed mutagenesis. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:155-61.

Yamamoto N, Tamura T, Kamiya Y, Sekine I, Kunitoh H, Saijo N. Correlation between docetaxel clearance and estimated cytochrome P450 activity by urinary metabolite of exogenous cortisol. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18:2301-8.

Yamamoto N, Tamura T, Murakami H et al. Randomized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of docetaxel: dosing based on body-surface area compared with individualized dosing based on cytochrome P450 activity estimated using a urinary metabolite of exogenous cortisol. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:1061-9.

Yamamoto T, Hagima N, Fukasawa M et al. Metabolism of N,N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenyl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-ethyl-amine-monohydrochloride (NE-100), a novel sigma ligand: contribution of cytochrome P450 forms involved in the formation of individual metabolites in human liver and small intestine. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 18:173-85.

Yamamoto T, Hagima N, Nakamura M, Kohno Y, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y. Differences in cytochrome P450 forms involved in the metabolism of N,N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE-100), a novel sigma ligand, in human liver and intestine. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:60-6.

Yamamoto T, Hagima N, Nakamura M, Kohno Y, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y. Prediction of differences in in vivo oral clearance of N,N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl] ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE-100) between extensive and poor metabolizers from in vitro metabolic data in human liver microsomes lacking CYP2D6 activity and recombinant CYPs. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:687-703.

Yamamoto T, Kubota T, Ozeki T et al. Effects of the CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem. Clin Chim Acta 2005; 362:147-54.

Yamamoto T, Nagafuchi N, Ozeki T et al. CYP3A4*18: it is not rare allele in Japanese population. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2003; 18:267-8.

Yamamoto T, Suzuki A, Kohno Y. Application of microtiter plate assay to evaluate inhibitory effects of various compounds on nine cytochrome P450 isoforms and to estimate their inhibition patterns. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:437-48.

Yamamoto T, Suzuki A, Kohno Y. High-throughput screening for the assessment of time-dependent inhibitions of new drug candidates on recombinant CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 using a single concentration method. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:87-101.

Yamamoto Y, Yamazaki H, Ikeda T et al. Formation of a novel quinone epoxide metabolite of troglitazone with cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:155-60.

Yamaori S, Yamazaki H, Iwano S et al. CYP3A5 Contributes significantly to CYP3A-mediated drug oxidations in liver microsomes from Japanese subjects. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004; 19:120-9.

Yamaori S, Yamazaki H, Iwano S et al. Ethnic differences between Japanese and Caucasians in the expression levels of mRNAs for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7: lack of co-regulation of the expression of CYP3A in Japanese livers. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:69-83.

Yamaori S, Yamazaki H, Suzuki A et al. Effects of cytochrome b(5) on drug oxidation activities of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3As: similarity of CYP3A5 with CYP3A4 but not CYP3A7. Biochem Pharmacol 2003; 66:2333-40.

Yamashita F, Hara H, Ito T, Hashida M. Novel hierarchical classification and visualization method for multiobjective optimization of drug properties: application to structure-activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P450 metabolism. J Chem Inf Model 2008; 48:364-9.

Yamazaki H, Gillam EM, Dong MS, Johnson WW, Guengerich FP, Shimada T. Reconstitution of recombinant cytochrome P450 2C10(2C9) and comparison with cytochrome P450 3A4 and other forms: effects of cytochrome P450-P450 and cytochrome P450-b5 interactions. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 342:329-37.

Yamazaki H, Hiroki S, Urano T, Inoue K, Shimada T. Effects of roxithromycin, erythromycin and troleandomycin on their N-demethylation by rat and human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Xenobiotica 1996; 26:1143-53.

Yamazaki H, Inoue K, Shaw PM, Checovich WJ, Guengerich FP, Shimada T. Different contributions of cytochrome P450 2C19 and 3A4 in the oxidation of omeprazole by human liver microsomes: effects of contents of these two forms in individual human samples. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 283:434-42.

Yamazaki H, Nakajima M, Nakamura M et al. Enhancement of cytochrome P-450 3A4 catalytic activities by cytochrome b(5) in bacterial membranes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:999-1004.

Yamazaki H, Nakamura M, Komatsu T et al. Roles of NADPH-P450 reductase and apo- and holo-cytochrome b5 on xenobiotic oxidations catalyzed by 12 recombinant human cytochrome P450s expressed in membranes of Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif 2002; 24:329-37.

Yamazaki H, Shibata A, Suzuki M et al. Oxidation of troglitazone to a quinone-type metabolite catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 2C8 and P-450 3A4 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:1260-6.

Yamazaki H, Shimada T. Progesterone and testosterone hydroxylation by cytochromes P450 2C19, 2C9, and 3A4 in human liver microsomes. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 346:161-9.

Yamazaki H, Shimada T. Comparative studies of in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4-dependent testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation by roxithromycin and its metabolites, troleandomycin, and erythromycin. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:1053-7.

Yamazaki H, Suzuki M, Tane K, Shimada N, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. In vitro inhibitory effects of troglitazone and its metabolites on drug oxidation activities of human cytochrome P450 enzymes: comparison with pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Xenobiotica 2000; 30:61-70.

Yamazaki H, Urano T, Hiroki S, Shimada T. Effects of erythromycin and roxithromycin on oxidation of testosterone and nifedipine catalyzed by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. J Toxicol Sci 1996; 21:215-26.

Yamazaki Y, Fujita K, Nakayama K et al. Establishment of ten strains of genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 each co-expressing a form of human cytochrome P450 with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase sensitive to various promutagens. Mutat Res 2004; 562:151-62.

Yamreudeewong W, DeBisschop M, Martin LG, Lower DL. Potentially significant drug interactions of class III antiarrhythmic drugs. Drug Saf 2003; 26:421-38.

Yan Z, Caldwell GW, Wu WN et al. In vitro identification of metabolic pathways and cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of etoperidone. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:949-62.

Yang CY, Chao PD, Hou YC, Tsai SY, Wen KC, Hsiu SL. Marked decrease of cyclosporin bioavailability caused by coadministration of ginkgo and onion in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2006; 44:1572-8.

Yang D, Wang X, Chen YT, Deng R, Yan B. Pyrethroid insecticides: isoform-dependent hydrolysis, induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and evidence on the involvement of the pregnane X receptor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 237:49-58.

Yang GZ, Yu HR, Yuan Y, Zhou QX, Liu YJ. RNA interference-mediated silencing of cytochrome P450 3A4 gene in CHL-3A4 cells. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2008; 28:2227-9.

Yang GZ, Yuan Y, Zhou QX, Yang JQ, Liu YJ. Effect of ketoconazole on the activity of CYP4503A4 and CYP450 1A2 of hepatic microsomes in healthy adults. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2008; 28:1634-5, 1639.

Yang HY, Lee QP, Rettie AE, Juchau MR. Functional cytochrome P4503A isoforms in human embryonic tissues: expression during organogenesis. Mol Pharmacol 1994; 46:922-8.

Yang J, Yan B. Photochemotherapeutic agent 8-methoxypsoralen induces cytochrome P450 3A4 and carboxylesterase HCE2: evidence on an involvement of the pregnane X receptor. Toxicol Sci 2007; 95:13-22.

Yang JD, Shang HT, Wei H, Yang WS, Liu X. Expression of CYP3A29 mRNA in Chinese experimental miniature pig’s livers quantitated with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Yi Chuan 2007; 29:575-80.

Yang LJ, Fan L, Liu ZQ et al. Effects of allicin on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activity in healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65:601-8.

Yang LQ, Li SJ, Cao YF et al. Different alterations of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform and its gene expression in livers of patients with chronic liver diseases. World J Gastroenterol 2003; 9:359-63.

Yang LQ, Yu WF, Cao YF, Gong B, Chang Q, Yang GS. Potential inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by propofol in human primary hepatocytes. World J Gastroenterol 2003; 9:1959-62.

Yang YH, Miranda CL, Henderson MC, Wang-Buhler JL, Buhler DR. Heterologous expression of CYP2K1 and identification of the expressed protein (BV-CYP2K1) as lauric acid (omega-1)-hydroxylase and aflatoxin B1 exo-epoxidase. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1279-83.

Yanni SB, Annaert PP, Augustijns P et al. Role of flavin-containing monooxygenase in oxidative metabolism of voriconazole by human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1119-25.

Yanni SB, Annaert PP, Augustijns P, Ibrahim JG, Benjamin DK Jr, Thakker DR. In vitro hepatic metabolism explains higher clearance of voriconazole in children versus adults: role of CYP2C19 and flavin-containing monooxygenase 3. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:25-31.

Yantsevich AV, Gilep AA, Usanov SA. Electron transfer properties and catalytic competence of cytochrome b5 in the fusion protein Hmwb5-EGFP in reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry 2009; 74:862-73.

Yao D, Ding S, Burchell B, Wolf CR, Friedberg T. Detoxication of vinca alkaloids by human P450 CYP3A4-mediated metabolism: implications for the development of drug resistance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 294:387-95.

Yao H, McCullough CR, Costache AD, Pullela PK, Sem DS. Structural evidence for a functionally relevant second camphor binding site in P450cam: model for substrate entry into a P450 active site. Proteins 2007; 69:125-38.

Yao HT, Chang YW, Lan SJ, Chen CT, Hsu JT, Yeh TK. The inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on human CYP enzymes. Life Sci 2006; 79:2432-40.

Yao M, Srinivas NR. Bioanalytical methods for the determination of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole: overview from clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and metabolism perspectives. Biomed Chromatogr 2009; 23:677-91.

Yao TW, Zhou Q, Zeng S. Stereoselective determination of propafenone enantiomers in transgenic Chinese hamster CHL cells expressing human cytochrome P450. Biomed Chromatogr 2000; 14:498-501.

Yao YM, Cao W, Cao YJ et al. Effect of sinomenine on human cytochrome P450 activity. Clin Chim Acta 2007; 379:113-8.

Yap CW, Chen YZ. Prediction of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9 inhibitors and substrates by using support vector machines. J Chem Inf Model 2005; 45:982-92.

Yap KY, Chui WK, Chan A. Drug interactions between chemotherapeutic regimens and antiepileptics. Clin Ther 2008; 30:1385-407.

Yardley DA. Proactive management of adverse events maintains the clinical benefit of ixabepilone. Oncologist 2009; 14:448-55.

Yasar U, Annas A, Svensson JO, Lazorova L, Artursson P, Al-Shurbaji A. Ketobemidone is a substrate for cytochrome P4502C9 and 3A4, but not for P-glycoprotein. Xenobiotica 2005; 35:785-96.

Yasar U, Tybring G, Hidestrand M et al. Role of CYP2C9 polymorphism in losartan oxidation. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1051-6.

Yasuda K, Ranade A, Venkataramanan R et al. A comprehensive in vitro and in silico analysis of antibiotics that activate pregnane X receptor and induce CYP3A4 in liver and intestine. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1689-97.

Yasui H, Deo K, Ogura Y et al. Evidence for singlet oxygen involvement in rat and human cytochrome P450-dependent substrate oxidations. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2002; 17:416-26.

Yasui N, Kondo T, Furukori H et al. Effects of repeated ingestion of grapefruit juice on the single and multiple oral-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alprazolam. Psychopharmacology 2000; 150:185-90.

Yasui N, Kondo T, Otani K et al. Effect of itraconazole on the single oral dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alprazolam. Psychopharmacology 1998; 139:269-73.

Yasui N, Kondo T, Otani K et al. Effects of itraconazole on the steady-state plasma concentrations of haloperidol and its reduced metabolite in schizophrenic patients: in vivo evidence of the involvement of CYP3A4 for haloperidol metabolism. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 19:149-54.

Yasui N, Kondo T, Suzuki A et al. Lack of significant pharmacokinetic interaction between haloperidol and grapefruit juice. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 14:113-8.

Yasui N, Otani K, Kaneko S et al. A kinetic and dynamic study of oral alprazolam with and without erythromycin in humans: in vivo evidence for the involvement of CYP3A4 in alprazolam metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 59:514-9.

Yasui N, Otani K, Ohkubo T et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral triazolam in relation to cytochrome P4502C19 (CYP2C19) activity. Ther Drug Monit 1997; 19:371-4.

Yasui-Furukori N, Hidestrand M, Spina E, Facciolá G, Scordo MG, Tybring G. Different enantioselective 9-hydroxylation of risperidone by the two human CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1263-8.

Yasui-Furukori N, Kondo T, Kubota T et al. No correlations between the urinary ratio of 6beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol and pharmacokinetics of alprazolam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57:285-8.

Yasui-Furukori N, Mihara K, Takahata T et al. Effects of various factors on steady-state plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone: lack of impact of MDR-1 genotypes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57:569-75.

Yasui-Furukori N, Saito M, Uno T, Takahata T, Sugawara K, Tateishi T. Effects of fluvoxamine on lansoprazole pharmacokinetics in relation to CYP2C19 genotypes. J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 44:1223-9.

Yasunami Y, Hara H, Iwamura T, Kataoka T, Adachi T. C-jun N-terminal kinase modulates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced cytochrome P450 3A4 gene expression. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:685-8.

Yates CR, Zhang W, Song P et al. The effect of CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphic expression on cyclosporine oral disposition in renal transplant patients. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:555-64.

Ye L, Tang L, Gong Y et al. Characterization of metabolites and human P450 isoforms involved in the microsomal metabolism of mesaconitine. Xenobiotica 2011; 41:46-58.

Ye X, Li W, Yan Y et al. Effects of cytochrome P4503A inducer dexamethasone on the metabolism and toxicity of triptolide in rat. Toxicol Lett 2010; 192:212-20.

Yengi LG, Xiang Q, Pan J et al. Quantitation of cytochrome P450 mRNA levels in human skin. Anal Biochem 2003; 316:103-10.

Yen-Revollo JL, van Booven DJ, Peters EJ et al. Influence of ethnicity on pharmacogenetic variation in the Ghanaian population. Pharmacogenomics J 2009; 9:373-9.

Yeo KP, Lowe SL, Lim MT, Voelker JR, Burkey JL, Wise SD. Pharmacokinetics of ruboxistaurin are significantly altered by rifampicin-mediated CYP3A4 induction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 61:200-10.

Yeo KR, Yeo WW. Inhibitory effects of verapamil and diltiazem on simvastatin metabolism in human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:461-70.

Yeum CH, Choi JS. Effect of naringin pretreatment on bioavailability of verapamil in rabbits. Arch Pharm Res 2006; 29:102-7.

Yeung EY, Sueyoshi T, Negishi M, Chang TK. Identification of Ginkgo biloba as a novel activator of pregnane X receptor. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2270-6.

Yeung JH, Wong JK, Park BK. Development of a screening method for anti-6 beta-hydroxycortisol antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its applications. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1997; 19:79-86.

Yi P, Hadden C, Kulanthaivel P et al. Disposition and metabolism of semagacestat, a {gamma}-secretase inhibitor, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:554-65.

Yi S, Cho JY, Lim KS et al. Effects of Angelicae tenuissima radix, Angelicae dahuricae radix and Scutellariae radix Extracts on Cytochrome P450 Activities in Healthy Volunteers. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2009; 105:249-56.

Yin OQ, Shi XJ, Tomlinson B, Chow MS. Effect of cyp2d6*10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of loratadine in chinese subjects. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:1283-7.

Yin OQ, Tomlinson B, Chow MS. CYP3A5 but not CYP2D6 polymorphism contributes significantly to the variability in dextropropoxyphene disposition. J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 50:1136-41.

Yin W, Mitra K, Stearns RA, Baillie TA, Kumar S. Conversion of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine moiety to a 2,2-dimethylpyrrolidine by cytochrome P450: evidence for a mechanism involving nitroxide radicals and heme iron. Biochemistry 2004; 43:5455-66.

Yokoi T. Essentials for starting a pediatric clinical study (1): Pharmacokinetics in children. J Toxicol Sci 2009; 34 Suppl 2:307-12.

Yokose T, Doy M, Kakiki M, Horie T, Matsuzaki Y, Mukai K. Expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in foveolar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia of the human stomach. Jpn J Cancer Res 1998; 89:1028-32.

Yokose T, Doy M, Taniguchi T et al. Immunohistochemical study of cytochrome P450 2C and 3A in human non-neoplastic and neoplastic tissues. Virchows Arch 1999; 434:401-11.

Yoneda K, Matsumoto I, Sutoh F et al. In vitro metabolism and inhibitory effects of pranlukast in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2009; 32:688-93.

Yoo HH, Kim NS, Lee J, Sohn DR, Jin C, Kim DH. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the biotransformation of eperisone. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:1-10.

Yoo HH, Lee SH, Jin C, Kim DH. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by methylenedioxyphenyl lignans from Acanthopanax chiisanensis. Planta Med 2008; 74:822-7.

Yoon YJ, Kim KB, Kim H et al. Characterization of benidipine and its enantiomers’ metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1518-24.

Yoshida M, Matsumoto T, Suzuki T, Kitamura S, Mayama T. Effect of concomitant treatment with a CYP3A4 inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2008; 17:70-5.

Yoshikawa Y, Hosomi H, Fukami T, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. Establishment of knockdown of superoxide dismutase 2 and expression of CYP3A4 cell system to evaluate drug-induced cytotoxicity. Toxicol In Vitro 2009; 23:1179-87.

Yoshitomi S, Ikemoto K, Takahashi J, Miki H, Namba M, Asahi S. Establishment of the transformants expressing human cytochrome P450 subtypes in HepG2, and their applications on drug metabolism and toxicology. Toxicol In Vitro 2001; 15:245-56.

Yoshitsugu H, Nishimura M, Tateno C et al. Evaluation of human CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression in hepatocytes from chimeric mice with humanized liver. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2006; 21:465-74.

Youdim KA, Lyons R, Payne L, Jones BC, Saunders K. An automated, high-throughput, 384 well Cytochrome P450 cocktail IC50 assay using a rapid resolution LC-MS/MS end-point. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2008; 48:92-9.

Youdim KA, Zayed A, Dickins M et al. Application of CYP3A4 in vitro data to predict clinical drug-drug interactions; predictions of compounds as objects of interaction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65:680-92.

Youlten L. The effect of repeat dosing with cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous granisetron in healthy volunteers. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004; 56:169-75.

Yu A, Haining RL. Comparative contribution to dextromethorphan metabolism by cytochrome P450 isoforms in vitro: can dextromethorphan be used as a dual probe for both CTP2D6 and CYP3A activities? Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:1514-20.

Yu AM, Fukamachi K, Krausz KW, Cheung C, Gonzalez FJ. Potential role for human cytochrome P450 3A4 in estradiol homeostasis. Endocrinology 2005; 146:2911-9.

Yu AM, Haining RL. Expression, purification, and characterization of mouse CYP2d22. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1167-74.

Yu AM, Idle JR, Krausz KW, Küpfer A, Gonzalez FJ. Contribution of individual cytochrome P450 isozymes to the O-demethylation of the psychotropic beta-carboline alkaloids harmaline and harmine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 305:315-22.

Yu B, Handelsman DJ. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms of the AR and metabolism and susceptibility to hormone-induced azoospermia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:4406-11.

Yu BN, Chen GL, He N et al. Pharmacokinetics of citalopram in relation to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1255-9.

Yu C, Shin YG, Kosmeder JW, Pezzuto JM, van Breemen RB. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric determination of inhibition of human cytochrome P450 isozymes by resveratrol and resveratrol-3-sulfate. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2003; 17:307-13.

Yu C, Ye S, Sun H et al. PXR-mediated transcriptional activation of CYP3A4 by cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA. Chem Biol Interact 2009; 177:58-64.

Yu J, Brown DG, Burdette D. In vitro metabolism studies of nomifensine monooxygenation pathways: metabolite identification, reaction phenotyping, and bioactivation mechanism. Drug Metab Dispos 2010; 38:1767-78.

Yu J, Buslig BS, Haun C, Cancalon P. New furanocoumarins detected from grapefruit juice retentate. Nat Prod Res 2009; 23:498-506.

Yu KS, Cho JY, Jang IJ et al. Effect of the CYP3A5 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous midazolam during inhibited and induced metabolic states. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76:104-12.

Yu RZ, Geary RS, Flaim JD et al. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction of mipomersen sodium (ISIS 301012), a 2’-O-methoxyethyl modified antisense oligonucleotide targeting apolipoprotein B-100 messenger RNA, with simvastatin and ezetimibe. Clin Pharmacokinet 2009; 48:39-50.

Yuan J, Liu L, Shimada M et al. Induction, expression and maintenance of cytochrome P450 isoforms in long-term cultures of primary human hepatocytes. ALTEX 2004; 21 Suppl 3:3-11.

Yuan JH, Stolzenbach JC, Salamon CM, Snook SS, Schoenhard GL. Improvement of bioavailability of the HIV protease inhibitor SC-52151 in the beagle dog by coadministration of the CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole. Xenobiotica 1997; 27:489-97.

Yue QY, Säwe J. Different effects of inhibitors on the O- and N-demethylation of codeine in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 52:41-7.

Yueh MF, Kawahara M, Raucy J. High volume bioassays to assess CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions: induction and inhibition in a single cell line. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:38-48.

Yukinaga H, Takami T, Shioyama SH et al. Identification of cytochrome P450 3A4 modification site with reactive metabolite using linear ion trap-Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol 2007; 20:1373-8.

Yumibe N, Huie K, Chen KJ, Snow M, Clement RP, Cayen MN. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes that metabolize the nonsedating antihistamine loratadine. Formation of descarboethoxyloratadine by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Biochem Pharmacol 1996; 51:165-72.

Yun CH, Lee HS, Lee HY et al. Roles of human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 and 1A2 enzymes in the oxidation of myristicin. Toxicol Lett 2003; 137:143-50.

Zalma A, von Moltke LL, Granda BW, Harmatz JS, Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ. In vitro metabolism of trazodone by CYP3A: inhibition by ketoconazole and human immunodeficiency viral protease inhibitors. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47:655-61.

Zamule SM, Strom SC, Omiecinski CJ. Preservation of hepatic phenotype in lentiviral-transduced primary human hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 2008; 173:179-86.

Zamuner S, Johnson BM, Pagliarusco S et al. Effect of single and repeat doses of casopitant on the pharmacokinetics of CYP450 3A4 substrates midazolam and nifedipine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 70:537-46.

Zangar RC, Bollinger N, Verma S, Karin NJ, Lu Y. The nuclear factor-kappa B pathway regulates cytochrome P450 3A4 protein stability. Mol Pharmacol 2008; 73:1652-8.

Zanger UM, Klein K, Richter T, Toscano C, Zukunft J. Impact of genetic polymorphism in relation to other factors on expression and function of human drug-metabolizing p450s. Toxicol Mech Methods 2005; 15:121-4.

Zanger UM, Turpeinen M, Klein K, Schwab M. Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Anal Bioanal Chem 2008; 392:1093-108.

Zdravkovic M, Olsen AK, Christiansen T et al. A clinical study investigating the pharmacokinetic interaction between NN703 (tabimorelin), a potential inhibitor of CYP3A4 activity, and midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 58:683-8.

Zebothsen I, Kunze T, Clement B. Inhibitory effects of cytostatically active 6-aminobenzo[c]phenanthridines on cytochrome P450 enzymes in human hepatic microsomes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 99:37-43.

Zeigler-Johnson C. CYP3A4: a potential prostate cancer risk factor for high-risk groups. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2001; 5:153-4.

Zeigler-Johnson C, Friebel T, Walker AH et al. CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A43 genotypes and haplotypes in the etiology and severity of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2004; 64:8461-7.

Zeigler-Johnson CM, Walker AH, Mancke B et al. Ethnic differences in the frequency of prostate cancer susceptibility alleles at SRD5A2 and CYP3A4. Hum Hered 2002; 54:13-21.

Zeldin RK, Petruschke RA. Pharmacological and therapeutic properties of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor therapy in HIV-infected patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 53:4-9.

Zeng Y, He YJ, He FY, Fan L, Zhou HH. Effect of bifendate on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in relation to the CYP3A4*18B genotype in healthy subjects. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2009; 30:478-84.

Zeng Z, Andrew NW, Arison BH, Luffer-Atlas D, Wang RW. Identification of cytochrome P4503A4 as the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ivermectin by human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 1998; 28:313-21.

Zhang A, London R, Schulz FM et al. Human liver progenitor cell lines are readily established from non-tumorous tissue adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma. Stem Cells Dev 2010; 19:1277-84.

Zhang C, Wong S, Delarosa EM et al. Inhibitory properties of trapping agents: glutathione, potassium cyanide, and methoxylamine, against major human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Drug Metab Lett 2009; 3:125-9.

Zhang D, Ly VT, Lago M et al. CYP3A4-mediated ester cleavage as the major metabolic pathway of the oral taxane 3’-tert-butyl-3’-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-4-deacetyl-3’-dephenyl-3’-N-debenzoyl-4-O-methoxycarbonyl-paclitaxel (BMS-275183). Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:710-8.

Zhang FF, Zheng YF, Zhu HJ, Shen XY, Zhu XQ. Effects of kaempferol and quercetin on cytochrome 450 activities in primarily cultured rat hepatocytes. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2006; 35:18-22.

Zhang H, Cui D, Wang B et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving 17alpha-ethinylestradiol: a new look at an old drug. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:133-57.

Zhang H, Shibata T, Krawczyk T et al. Facile detection of proteins on a solid-phase membrane by direct binding of dextran-based luminol-biotin chemiluminescent polymer. Talanta 2009; 79:700-5.

Zhang H, Wong CW, Coville PF, Wanwimolruk S. Effect of the grapefruit flavonoid naringin on pharmacokinetics of quinine in rats. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2000; 17:351-63.

Zhang H, Wu X, Wang H, Mikheev AM, Mao Q, Unadkat JD. Effect of pregnancy on cytochrome P450 3a and P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the mouse: mechanisms, tissue specificity, and time course. Mol Pharmacol 2008; 74:714-23.

Zhang H, Zhang D, Li W et al. Reduction of site-specific CYP3A-mediated metabolism for dual angiotensin and endothelin receptor antagonists in various in vitro systems and in cynomolgus monkeys. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:795-805.

Zhang J, Ha PT, Lou Y, Hoogmartens J, van Schepdael A. Kinetic study of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity on warfarin by capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A 2005; 1082:235-9.

Zhang J, Kuehl P, Green ED et al. The human pregnane X receptor: genomic structure and identification and functional characterization of natural allelic variants. Pharmacogenetics 2001; 11:555-72.

Zhang J, Lou Y, Hoogmartens J, van Schepdael A. Screening of drug metabolism by CE. Electrophoresis 2006; 27:4827-35.

Zhang J, Thi Thanh Ha P, Lou Y, Hoogmartens J, van Schepdael A. Kinetic study of CYP3A4 activity on verapamil by capillary electrophoresis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2005; 39:612-7.

Zhang J, Tian Q, Chan SY, Duan W, Zhou S. Insights into oxazaphosphorine resistance and possible approaches to its circumvention. Drug Resist Updat 2005; 8:271-97.

Zhang J, Tian Q, Zhu YZ, Xu AL, Zhou SF. Reversal of resistance to oxazaphosphorines. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2006; 6:385-407.

Zhang JG, Dehal SS, Ho T et al. Human cytochrome p450 induction and inhibition potential of clevidipine and its primary metabolite h152/81. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:734-7.

Zhang JW, Ge GB, Liu Y et al. Taxane’s substituents at C3’ affect its regioselective metabolism: different in vitro metabolism of cephalomannine and paclitaxel. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:418-26.

Zhang JW, Liu Y, Cheng J et al. Inhibition of human liver cytochrome P450 by star fruit juice. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2007; 10:496-503.

Zhang JW, Liu Y, Li W, Hao DC, Yang L. Inhibitory effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62:497-502.

Zhang JW, Liu Y, Zhao JY et al. Metabolic profiling and cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping of medroxyprogesterone acetate. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2292-8.

Zhang L, Fitzloff JF, Engel LC, Cook CS. Species difference in stereoselective involvement of CYP3A in the mono-N-dealkylation of disopyramide. Xenobiotica 2001; 31:73-83.

Zhang L, Liu SY, Chen Q, Shi QY, Zou H, Wu L. Association between polymorphisms of CYP17 and CYP3A4 genes and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in Chengdu. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2006; 37:551-3, 582.

Zhang LF, Hu X, Wang P, Zhang L. Metabolism of osthol in isolated hepatocytes of rat. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2009; 44:1131-5.

Zhang QX, Melnikov Z, Feierman DE. Characterization of the acetaminophen-induced degradation of cytochrome P450-3A4 and the proteolytic pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2004; 94:191-200.

Zhang QY, Dunbar D, Kaminsky L. Human cytochrome P-450 metabolism of retinals to retinoic acids. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:292-7.

Zhang QY, Dunbar D, Ostrowska A, Zeisloft S, Yang J, Kaminsky LS. Characterization of human small intestinal cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:804-9.

Zhang QY, Kaminsky LS, Dunbar D, Zhang J, Ding X. Role of small intestinal cytochromes p450 in the bioavailability of oral nifedipine. Drug Metab Dispos 2007; 35:1617-23.

Zhang R, Liu C, Wang N, Mi S. Determination of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity with testosterone probe using high performance liquid chromatography. Se Pu 2008; 26:80-3.

Zhang T, Zhu Y, Gunaratna C. Rapid and quantitative determination of metabolites from multiple cytochrome P450 probe substrates by gradient liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2002; 780:371-9.

Zhang W, Chang YZ, Kan QC et al. CYP3A4*1G genetic polymorphism influences CYP3A activity and response to fentanyl in Chinese gynecologic patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66:61-6.

Zhang W, Han F, Guo P et al. Simultaneous determination of tolbutamide, omeprazole, midazolam and dextromethorphan in human plasma by LC-MS/MS-a high throughput approach to evaluate drug-drug interactions. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010; 878:1169-77.

Zhang W, Kilicarslan T, Tyndale RF, Sellers EM. Evaluation of methoxsalen, tranylcypromine, and tryptamine as specific and selective CYP2A6 inhibitors in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29:897-902.

Zhang W, Lim LY. Effects of spice constituents on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:1283-90.

Zhang W, Purchio A, Chen K, Burns SM, Contag CH, Contag PR. In vivo activation of the human CYP3A4 promoter in mouse liver and regulation by pregnane X receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 2003; 65:1889-96.

Zhang W, Purchio AF, Chen K et al. A transgenic mouse model with a luciferase reporter for studying in vivo transcriptional regulation of the human CYP3A4 gene. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:1054-64.

Zhang W, Purchio AF, Coffee R, West DB. Differential regulation of the human CYP3A4 promoter in transgenic mice and rats. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:163-7.

Zhang W, Ramamoorthy Y, Kilicarslan T, Nolte H, Tyndale RF, Sellers EM. Inhibition of cytochromes P450 by antifungal imidazole derivatives. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:314-8.

Zhang W, Ramamoorthy Y, Tyndale RF, Sellers EM. Interaction of buprenorphine and its metabolite norbuprenorphine with cytochromes p450 in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2003; 31:768-72.

Zhang W, Shannon WD, Duncan J, Scheffer GL, Scheper RJ, McLeod HL. Expression of drug pathway proteins is independent of tumour type. J Pathol 2006; 209:213-9.

Zhang WV, D’Esposito F, Edwards RJ, Ramzan I, Murray M. Interindividual variation in relative CYP1A2/3A4 phenotype influences susceptibility of clozapine oxidation to cytochrome P450-specific inhibition in human hepatic microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36:2547-55.

Zhang X, Jones DR, Hall SD. Prediction of the effect of erythromycin, diltiazem, and their metabolites, alone and in combination, on CYP3A4 inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:150-60.

Zhang X, Lalezari JP, Badley AD et al. Assessment of drug-drug interaction potential of enfuvirtide in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75:558-68.

Zhang X, Quinney SK, Gorski JC, Jones DR, Hall SD. Semiphysiologically based pharmacokinetic models for the inhibition of midazolam clearance by diltiazem and its major metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos 2009; 37:1587-97.

Zhang Y, Gaikwad NW, Olson K, Zahid M, Cavalieri EL, Rogan EG. Cytochrome P450 isoforms catalyze formation of catechol estrogen quinones that react with DNA. Metabolism 2007; 56:887-94.

Zhang Y, Guo X, Lin ET, Benet LZ. Overlapping substrate specificities of cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein for a novel cysteine protease inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:360-6.

Zhang Y, Guo X, Lin ET, Benet LZ. In vitro biotransformation of a novel antimalarial cysteine protease inhibitor in human liver microsomes. Pharmacology 1999; 58:147-59.

Zhang Y, Lin H. Quantum tunneling in testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450: reaction dynamics calculations employing multiconfiguration molecular-mechanical potential energy surfaces. J Phys Chem A 2009; 113:11501-8.

Zhang YY, Liu Y, Zhang JW et al. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of 7-epi-paclitaxel. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:283-92.

Zhang Z, Li Y, Shou M et al. Influence of different recombinant systems on the cooperativity exhibited by cytochrome P4503A4. Xenobiotica 2004; 34:473-86.

Zhang Z, Li Y, Stearns RA, Ortiz de Montellano PR, Baillie TA, Tang W. Cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated oxidative conversion of a cyano to an amide group in the metabolism of pinacidil. Biochemistry 2002; 41:2712-8.

Zhang ZY, Chen M, Chen J, Padval MV, Kansra VV. Biotransformation and in vitro assessment of metabolism-associated drug-drug interaction for CRx-102, a novel combination drug candidate. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2009; 50:200-9.

Zhang ZY, King BM, Mollova NN, Wong YN. In vitro interactions between a potential muscle relaxant E2101 and human cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos 2002; 30:805-13.

Zhang ZY, King BM, Pelletier RD, Wong YN. Delineation of the interactions between the chemotherapeutic agent eribulin mesylate (E7389) and human CYP3A4. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008; 62:707-16.

Zhang ZY, Wong YN. Enzyme kinetics for clinically relevant CYP inhibition. Curr Drug Metab 2005; 6:241-57.

Zhao G, Allis JW. Kinetics of bromodichloromethane metabolism by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in human liver microsomes. Chem Biol Interact 2002; 140:155-68.

Zhao W, Elie V, Roussey G et al. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of tacrolimus in de novo pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 86:609-18.

Zhao XJ, Ishizaki T. Metabolic interactions of selected antimalarial and non-antimalarial drugs with the major pathway (3-hydroxylation) of quinine in human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44:505-11.

Zhao XJ, Jones DR, Wang YH, Grimm SW, Hall SD. Reversible and irreversible inhibition of CYP3A enzymes by tamoxifen and metabolites. Xenobiotica 2002; 32:863-78.

Zhao XJ, Kawashiro T, Ishizaki T. Mutual inhibition between quinine and etoposide by human liver microsomes. Evidence for cytochrome P4503A4 involvement in their major metabolic pathways. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26:188-91.

Zhao XJ, Koyama E, Ishizaki T. An in vitro study on the metabolism and possible drug interactions of rokitamycin, a macrolide antibiotic, using human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 1999; 27:776-85.

Zhao XJ, Yokoyama H, Chiba K, Wanwimolruk S, Ishizaki T. Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine by human live microsomes and nine recombinant human cytochromes P450. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 279:1327-34.

Zhao XP, Zhong J, Liu XQ, Wang GJ. CYP3A4 mediated in vitro metabolism of vinflunine in human liver microsomes. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2007; 28:118-24.

Zhao Y, Hellum BH, Liang A, Nilsen OG. The in vitro inhibition of human CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by tetrahydropalmatine, neferine and berberine. Phytother Res 2011. doi:10. 1002/ptr. 3554.

Zhao Z, Koeplinger KA, Waldon DJ. Stereoselective hydroxylation of nonpeptidic HIV protease inhibitors by CYP2D6. Chirality 1999; 11:731-9.

Zharikova OL, Fokina VM, Nanovskaya TN et al. Identification of the major human hepatic and placental enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of glyburide. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 78:1483-90.

Zheng J, Zhou HH. Effects of the flavonoids on cytochrome P-450 CYP1, 2E1, 3A4 and 19. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2007; 42:8-12.

Zheng M, Wang J, Lubinski J et al. Studies on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of a gamma-secretase inhibitor BMS-299897, and exploratory investigation of CYP enzyme induction. Xenobiotica 2009; 39:544-55.

Zheng N, Pang S, Oe T, Felix CA, Wehrli S, Blair IA. Characterization of an etoposide-glutathione conjugate derived from metabolic activation by human cytochrome p450. Curr Drug Metab 2006; 7:897-911.

Zhou C, Assem M, Tay JC et al. Steroid and xenobiotic receptor and vitamin D receptor crosstalk mediates CYP24 expression and drug-induced osteomalacia. J Clin Invest 2006; 116:1703-12.

Zhou C, Poulton EJ, Grün F et al. The dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane is an antagonist of the human steroid and xenobiotic nuclear receptor. Mol Pharmacol 2007; 71:220-9.

Zhou C, Tabb MM, Sadatrafiei A, Grün F, Blumberg B. Tocotrienols activate the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, and selectively regulate expression of its target genes. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:1075-82.

Zhou D, Afzelius L, Grimm SW, Andersson TB, Zauhar RJ, Zamora I. Comparison of methods for the prediction of the metabolic sites for CYP3A4-mediated metabolic reactions. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:976-83.

Zhou D, Andersson TB, Grimm SW. In vitro evaluation of potential drug-drug interactions with ticagrelor: cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping, inhibition, induction, and differential kinetics. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39:703-10.

Zhou L, Erickson RR, Hardwick JP, Park SS, Wrighton SA, Holtzman JL. Catalysis of the cysteine conjugation and protein binding of acetaminophen by microsomes from a human lymphoblast line transfected with the cDNAs of various forms of human cytochrome P450. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 281:785-90.

Zhou L, Naraharisetti SB, Liu L et al. Contributions of human cytochrome P450 enzymes to glyburide metabolism. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2010; 31:228-42.

Zhou LX, Pihlstrom B, Hardwick JP, Park SS, Wrighton SA, Holtzman JL. Metabolism of phenytoin by the gingiva of normal humans: the possible role of reactive metabolites of phenytoin in the initiation of gingival hyperplasia. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60:191-8.

Zhou Q, Sparreboom A, Tan EH et al. Pharmacogenetic profiling across the irinotecan pathway in Asian patients with cancer. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 59:415-24.

Zhou Q, Yao TW, Yu YN, Zeng S. Stereoselective metabolism of propafenone by human liver CYP3A4 expressed in transgenic Chinese hamster CHL cells lines. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2001; 22:944-8.

Zhou Q, Yao TW, Zeng S. Chiral metabolism of propafenone in rat hepatic microsomes treated with two inducers. World J Gastroenterol 2001; 7:830-5.

Zhou Q, Zhang L, Zuniga MA, Tombes RM, Stewart JK. Mixed inhibition of P450 3A4 as a chemoprotective mechanism against aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity with cis-terpenones. Chem Res Toxicol 2008; 21:732-8.

Zhou Q, Zhou S, Chan E. Effect of omeprazole on the hydroxylation of warfarin enantiomers in human: in-vitro studies with liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 isozymes. Curr Drug Metab 2005; 6:399-411.

Zhou S, Chan E, Li X, Huang M. Clinical outcomes and management of mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2005; 1:3-13.

Zhou S, Chan E, Lim LY et al. Therapeutic drugs that behave as mechanism-based inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4. Curr Drug Metab 2004; 5:415-42.

Zhou S, Gao Y, Jiang W, Huang M, Xu A, Paxton JW. Interactions of herbs with cytochrome P450. Drug Metab Rev 2003; 35:35-98.

Zhou S, Koh HL, Gao Y, Gong ZY, Lee EJ. Herbal bioactivation: the good, the bad and the ugly. Life Sci 2004; 74:935-68.

Zhou S, Lim LY, Chowbay B. Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Rev 2004; 36:57-104.

Zhou S, Paxton JW, Tingle MD, Kestell P. Identification of the human liver cytochrome P450 isoenzyme responsible for the 6-methylhydroxylation of the novel anticancer drug 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid. Drug Metab Dispos 2000; 28:1449-56.

Zhou S, Yung Chan S, Cher Goh B et al. Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by therapeutic drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:279-304.

Zhou SF. Drugs behave as substrates, inhibitors and inducers of human cytochrome P450 3A4. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:310-22.

Zhou SF. Potential strategies for minimizing mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14:990-1000.

Zhou SF, Chan E, Zhou ZW, Xue CC, Lai X, Duan W. Insights into the Structure, Function, and Regulation of Human Cytochrome P450 1A2. Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:713-29.

Zhou SF, Di YM, Chan E et al. Clinical pharmacogenetics and potential application in personalized medicine. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:738-84.

Zhou SF, Lai X. An update on clinical drug interactions with the herbal antidepressant St. John’s wort. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9:394-409.

Zhou SF, Xue CC, Yu XQ, Li C, Wang G. Clinically important drug interactions potentially involving mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring. Ther Drug Monit 2007; 29:687-710.

Zhou SF, Xue CC, Yu XQ, Wang G. Metabolic activation of herbal and dietary constituents and its clinical and toxicological implications: an update. Curr Drug Metab 2007; 8:526-53.

Zhou X, Barber WH, Moore CK et al. Frequency distribution of cytochrome P450 3A4 gene polymorphism in ethnic populations and in transplant recipients. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 2006; 119:89-104.

Zhou-Pan XR, Sérée E, Zhou XJ et al. Involvement of human liver cytochrome P450 3A in vinblastine metabolism: drug interactions. Cancer Res 1993; 53:5121-6.

Zhu HJ, Wang JS, Markowitz JS et al. Characterization of P-glycoprotein inhibition by major cannabinoids from marijuana. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 317:850-7.

Zhu HJ, Wang JS, Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, Gibson BB, DeVane CL. Risperidone and paliperidone inhibit p-glycoprotein activity in vitro. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007; 32:757-64.

Zhu LR, Thomas PE, Lu G et al. CYP2A13 in human respiratory tissues and lung cancers: an immunohistochemical study with a new peptide-specific antibody. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:1672-6.

Zhu M, Kaul S, Nandy P, Grasela DM, Pfister M. Model-based approach to characterize efavirenz autoinduction and concurrent enzyme induction with carbamazepine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:2346-53.

Zhu M, Zhao W, Jiménez H et al. Cytochrome P450 3A-mediated metabolism of buspirone in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33:500-7.

Zhu Z, Puglisi J, Connors D et al. Use of cryopreserved transiently transfected cells in high-throughput pregnane X receptor transactivation assay. J Biomol Screen 2007; 12:248-54.

Zhu ZJ, Krasnykh O, Pan D et al. Structure-activity relationships of macrolides against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 2008; 88 Suppl 1:49-63.

Zhuang XM, Wen YY, Li H et al. Metabolism of 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK, a new anti-HIV candidate, in human intestinal microsomes. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2010; 45:1116-22.

Zhuo X, Gu J, Zhang QY, Spink DC, Kaminsky LS, Ding X. Biotransformation of coumarin by rodent and human cytochromes P-450: metabolic basis of tissue-selective toxicity in olfactory mucosa of rats and mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 288:463-71.

Zhuo X, Zheng N, Felix CA, Blair IA. Kinetics and regulation of cytochrome P450-mediated etoposide metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32:993-1000.

Zienolddiny S, Campa D, Lind H et al. A comprehensive analysis of phase I and phase II metabolism gene polymorphisms and risk of non-small cell lung cancer in smokers. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29:1164-9.

Zientek M, Miller H, Smith D et al. Development of an in vitro drug-drug interaction assay to simultaneously monitor five cytochrome P450 isoforms and performance assessment using drug library compounds. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2008; 58:206-14.

Zimmermann C, van Waterschoot RA, Harmsen S, Maier A, Gutmann H, Schinkel AH. PXR-mediated induction of human CYP3A4 and mouse Cyp3a11 by the glucocorticoid budesonide. Eur J Pharm Sci 2009; 36:565-71.

Zimmermann K, Wittman MD, Saulnier MG et al. Balancing oral exposure with Cyp3A4 inhibition in benzimidazole-based IGF-IR inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18:4075-80.

Zingg W, Renner-Schneiter EC, Pauli-Magnus C et al. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver in an adult with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Infection 2004; 32:299-302.

Ziviani L, Da Ros L, Squassante L, Milleri S, Cugola M, Iavarone LE. The effects of lacidipine on the steady/state plasma concentrations of simvastatin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51:147-52.

Zollinger M, Waldmeier F, Hartmann S et al. Pimecrolimus: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in healthy volunteers after a single oral dose and supplementary investigations in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34:765-74.

Zöllner A, Parr MK, Drăgan CA et al. CYP21-catalyzed production of the long-term urinary metandienone metabolite 17beta-hydroxymethyl-17 alpha-methyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one: a contribution to the fight against doping. Biol Chem 2010; 391:119-27.

Zollner G, Wagner M, Fickert P et al. Expression of bile acid synthesis and detoxification enzymes and the alternative bile acid efflux pump MRP4 in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Liver Int 2007; 27:920-9.

Zou L, Harkey MR, Henderson GL. Effects of herbal components on cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzyme catalytic activity. Life Sci 2002; 71:1579-89.

Zschiesche M, Lemma GL, Klebingat KJ et al. Stereoselective disposition of talinolol in man. J Pharm Sci 2002; 91:303-11.

Zuber R, Modrianský M, Dvorák Z et al. Effect of silybin and its congeners on human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activities. Phytother Res 2002; 16:632-8.

Zurbonsen K, Bressolle F, Solassol I, Aragon PJ, Culine S, Pinguet F. Simultaneous determination of dexamethasone and 6 beta-hydroxydexamethasone in urine using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography: applications to in vivo measurement of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2004; 804:421-9.

Zusman RM, Morales A, Glasser DB, Osterloh IH. Overall cardiovascular profile of sildenafil citrate. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83:35-44.

Zweers-Zeilmaker WM, van Miert AS, Horbach GJ, Witkamp RF. In vitro complex formation and inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P450 activity by different macrolides and tiamulin in goats and cattle. Res Vet Sci 1999; 66:51-5.

 A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z