EudraPharm is intended to be a source of information on all medicinal products for human or veterinary use that have been authorized in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA). EudraPharm is available in the European official languages. EudraPharm currently provides the following functionality: Displays product information for all products approved via the Centralized Procedure; Displays Product-Information Documents for all products approved via the Centralized Procedure; Search: finds product by searching for a set category of product information; A to Z Product List: browses product details indexed alphabetically by Product Name; and Advanced Search: finds product by searching for specific categories of product information.

European Medicines Agency (EMEA)
The European Medicines Agency is a decentralized body of the European Union with headquarters in London. Its main responsibility is the protection and promotion of public and animal health, through the evaluation and supervision of medicines for human and veterinary use. Human Medicines area of the website provides access to all information produced by the European Medicines Agency relating to medicines for human use and their regulation.

European Union
EUROPA is the portal site of the European Union. It provides up-to-date coverage of European Union affairs and essential information on European integration. Users can also consult all legislation currently in force or under discussion, access the websites of each of the EU institutions and find out about the policies administered by the European Union under the powers devolved to it by the Treaties.

European Comission
The European Commission is the EU’s executive body. It represents and upholds the interests of Europe as a whole. It drafts proposals for new European laws. It manages the day-to-day business of implementing EU policies and spending EU funds. The Commission also makes sure that everyone abides by the European treaties and laws.

Enterprise and Industry-European Commission
This website is developed and managed by the European Commission’s Directorate General for Enterprise and Industry. It aims to disseminate information on all EU policies, actions and initiatives promoting economic growth and development, with a view to strengthening the competitiveness of EU enterprises. The site offers: an up-to-date coverage of EU enterprise policies, specific pages covering the industry sectors, news, events, speeches, electronic publications, EU business statistics and benchmarking open consultations and forums, and multimedia content: videos as well as recordings of website streamed events. General information is available in all EU official languages. A list of community register products by INN is available in this website. Links to different European comission agencies and databases.

Heads of Medicines Agencies
The Heads of Medicines Agencies (HMA) is a network of the Heads of the National Competent Authorities whose Organizations are responsible for the regulation of Medicinal Products for human and veterinary use in the European Economic Area. This is the common website for the human and veterinary medicine authorities in Europe. The Human Medicines section provides access to the Product Index, including medicines approved in the Member States of the European Union according to the procedure for Mutual Recognition.


Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES)
The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) is responsible for several tasks regarding nutrition for the Austrian government. The organization researches, analyzes and performs inspections according to the policy guidelines of Austrian Food Laws. The agency demands veterinary inspections and is devoted to the prevention and control of infectious diseases in the population.

AGES PharmMed
AGES PharmMed was set up in January 2006 and is responsible for marketing authorization of medicinal products in Austria and assessment of medicinal products and medical devices which are already on the market regarding efficacy, adverse reactions, production, shipment and storage. Fully owned by the Republic of Austria, AGES PharmMed acts on behalf of the Republic as represented by the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG).


Center for Pharmacotherapeutic Information (CBIP)
The Center for Pharmacotherapeutic Information (CBIP) is a a non-profit association founded in 1970 by professors of pharmacology of Belgian universities. The Center’s goal is to provide training and to update knowledge in the field of pharmacotherapy of doctors, pharmacists and dentists.

Commented Drug Directory
The CBIP website contains electronic versions of the Commented Drug Directory, Information on drugs registered and marketed in Belgium, and Pharmacotherapeutics Folia, monthly magazine on drugs. Since 1998, information for veterinarians is also published.


Bulgarian Drug Agency
The Bulgarian Drug Agency at the Ministry of Healthcare was defined as a body for the supervision of the quality, efficiency and safety of medicines. It has extended rights and functions, including the ones on the issuance of manufacturing authorizations, marketing authorizations (medical devices and in vitro diagnostic means), keeping different registers, registration of drugstores, etc. The Ministry of Healthcare and the Bulgarian Drug Agency are indicated as the two institutions, conducting the pharmaceutical policy of the country.

Register of Marketing Authorization of Medicinal Products
At the official website of the Bulgarian Drug Agency, a register with all national authorized drugs for marketing in Bulgaria is available.

Bulgarian Drug Agency
Since 2009 the Bulgarian Drug Agency has a new website that offers drug information for citizens, medical specialists and pharmaceutical companies.

The BDA Bulletin online
Pharmaceuticals with marketing authorization in the Republic of Bulgaria.

Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Group Ltd. (BPG Ltd.)
BPG Ltd. Official website. Website information is currently available and constantly updated. It is primarily related to the four major categories of products: namely pharmaceuticals, including natural products and dietary supplements, cosmetics and personal care products, essential oils and herbs. The information comes from Bulgarian sources, including but not limited to business organizations, scientific institutions, government archives and other relevant sources.

Product Information Sheets
BPG Ltd Product Information Sheets are available.


Ministry of Public Health of the Republic of Cyprus
The website of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Cyprus. In its pages information on activities, departments and on the promotion, prevention and protection of health is available.

Pharmaceutical Services of the Ministry of Health
Pharmaceutical Services of the Ministry of Health that includes a link to an Excel list of the last approved drugs in Cyprus.


State Institute for Drug Control of Czech Republic
The mission of the Institute is to ensure -for public health protection purposes- that only those human medicinal products which demonstrate good pharmaceutical quality, efficacy and safety be used in the Czech Republic, and that only safe and functional medical devices be used in the Czech Republic.

Database of medicinal products in Czech Republic
Database of medicinal products authorized in the country.


Danish Medicines Agency
Official website of Danish Medicines Agency. The Danish Medicines Agency is an agency under the Ministry of Interior and Health. Its aim is that medicinal products used in Denmark are of satisfactory quality, are safe to use and that they have the desired effect.

Medicinal Products
At the Danish Medicines Agency, information about medicinal products’ contents, adverse reactions, reimbursement, packaging and pricing is available. Medicines Agency is a database developed by the Danish Medicines Agency with the purpose of giving consumers information on prices and development of medicinal products, as well as giving the consumer an opportunity to calculate his/her payment and reimbursement. For business users an extended search has been developed to improve the search for specific medicinal products. Includes medicinal products currently in Denmark or previously registered on – An Independent information portal for health, diseases, symptoms, laboratory values, medications, surgery and therapy. Available for different countries, this is the version for Denmark.


State Agency of Medicines of Estonia
Official website of State Agency of Medicines of Estonia. State Agency of Medicines is a governmental body under the Ministry of Social Affairs. Its main responsibility is the protection and promotion of public and animal health, through the supervision of medicines for human and veterinary use.

Medicinal products authorized in Estonia
This page allows you to find medicinal products authorized for use in Estonia (by national or EU central procedure). As the search results, basic data for products will be presented in tabular format with links to more detailed data, summaries of product characteristics and package inserts.


Finnish Medicines Agency-Fimea
The Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea is the national competent authority for regulating pharmaceuticals. As a central administrative agency operating under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health it promotes the health and safety of the population by regulating medicinal, blood and tissue products, and by developing the pharmaceuticals sector.
Fimea’s aim is to improve the pharmaceutical service for the population and the safety, appropriateness and economy of pharmacotherapy. Fimea also enhances and provides the general population and other interested parties with impartial information on medicinal products.

FimeaWeb is a free search service that enables you to look for information on medicinal products intended for human or veterinary use in Finland. The service covers all medicinal products with a valid marketing authorisation as well as those products for which the marketing authorisation has been withdrawn and are no longer on the market.

National Agency for Medicines of Finland
The National Agency for Medicines responsibilities are to maintain and promote the safety and safe use of medicinal products, medical devices and blood products.

NamWeb-National Agency For Medicines
NamWebsite is a free search service that enables you to look for information on medicinal products intended for human or veterinary use in Finland. The service covers all medicinal products with a valid marketing authorization as well as those products for which the marketing authorization has been withdrawn and are no longer on the market. Database developed by the National Agency for Medicines.


French Agency for the safety of health products (Afssaps)
The French Agency for the Safety of Health Products (AFSSAPS) was created by the Act of 1 July 1998 establishing security and safety. This is a public institution under the State supervision of the Ministry of Health. Afssaps’s mission is to ensure the safety, quality and proper use of health products.

Pharmaceutical Specialities Directory
This official directory developed by the French Agency for the Safety of Health products (Afssaps) is part of the the official information on authorized pharmaceutical specialities, whether marketed or not. The files contain the results of studies undertaken to demonstrate the quality, efficacy and safety in use of specialty pharmaceuticals (the benefit/risk). They are filed either with Afssaps (so-called national procedure known as mutual recognition), or from the EMEA: European Agency (centralized procedure for which Afssaps can achieve scientific expertise).

Vidal-Reference Information on Health Products
Vidal is a subsidiary of Medica UBM (United Business Media). It carries information on drugs and tools for decision support, based on validated reference. VIDAL disseminates this information on paper and electronic tools within the software business.

Drug sheets- Vidal
This page allows access to the abbreviated drug files.

The portal provides information on medicinal products from the drug information system of the competent authorities BfArM (Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices), PEI (Paul-Ehrlich-Institut) and BVL (Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety) in order to improve transparency and safety of medicinal products and to monitor the appropriate therapeutic use of medicinal products. Sections of this information are public and can be accessed for searching.


National Organization for Medicines
The National Organization for Medicines (EOF) was established in 1983 and is a public entity of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity.

Human Medicines database (Greece)
Official database of authorized medical products marketed or not in Greece, developed by the National Organization for Medicines of Greece. Database includes information about drugs, brand names, active substance, ATC classification, marketing authorization holder, etc.


National Institute of Pharmacy of Hungary
The National Institute of Pharmacy was formed from the Technical Development Section of The Ministry of Health in 1962. In 1968 NIP merged with the Chemical Section of the National Institute of Public Health in order to produce a unified drug control agency with general responsibility for marketing authorization and supervision of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade of medicinal products.

Drug Database
Official Drug database of the National Institute of Pharmacy of Hungary.


Irish Medicines Board
The fundamental role of the IMB is to protect and enhance public and animal health through the regulation of human and veterinary medical products. The Irish Medicines Board is an official body under the supervision of the Ministry of Health & Children of Ireland.

Human Medicines List
Database of Human Medicines products (initially showing authorized products). The drug list included mutual-recognition, decentralized and centralized (EMEA) authorized human medicines. Decentralized Medicinal products marketed in Ireland must be authorized by the Irish Medicines Board.


Drug Guide-The Italian Drug Agency (AIFA)
Official authorized drug database in Italy, designed by the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA). The Italian Drug Agency is a public organism that operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Health. The Drug Guide, in its fifth edition, continues to be a valuable tool and an important reference for the healthcare provider who must take into account the right balance between efficiency and safety. As in previous editions, it is based on the latest volume of the largest British National Formulary.

Higher Institute of Health (Italy)
The ISS is the leading technical and scientific public body of the Italian National Health Service. Its activities include research, control, training and consultation in the interest of public health protection.

Drug Database
Search database for Chemicals, classified and labeled, provided by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) in Italy.


State Agency of Medicine
Official website of the State Agency of Medicine, a regulatory authority under the direct jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health of Latvia. The objective of the Agency is ensuring availability of efficient, safe and qualitative medicines to the Latvian population.

Drug Register
Updated Drug Register containing information on medicines authorized in Latvia within the national and centralized procedures. This official database was developed by the State Agency of Medicine.


State Medicines Control Agency
The State Medicines Control Agency (SMCA) is a governmental body of the Republic of Lithuania whose main responsibility is the protection of public health, through the evaluation and supervision of medicines for humans. The SMCA is involved in working groups of the Ministry of Health of Lithuania as well as in scientific and regulatory bodies of the European Union including Committees and working parties of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), European Commission, and European Council.

Database of medicinal products for human use of the Republic of Lithuania
Database of medicinal products for human use of the Republic of Lithuania. Includes community and national registered drugs and parallelly imported medicinal products.


Lexi-Comp ONLINE
Lexi-Comp ONLINE is a hospital-wide, Internet-based platform delivering trusted drug and clinical information. This resource offers multiple databases and modules and an easy-to-use interface. Its content is continually updated, providing access to the most current information available.

Merck & Co., Inc.
Homepage of, Merck’s corporate website.

On-line Merck Manual of Diagnosis
Online version of The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, part of the Merck’s corporate Website. The Merck Manuals and the Online Medical Library are updated periodically with new information, and contains photographs, and audio and video material not present in the print versions. The Merck website also provides access to Lexi-Comp drug information sheets.


Medicines Authority-Ministry of Health, Elderly and Community Care of Malta
The mission of the Medicines Authority is the protection of public health in Malta through the regulation of medicinal products and pharmaceutical activities. Medicines Authority is a public organism under the Goverment of Malta.

Database of medicinal authorized products in Malta
Official database of authorized medicinal products in Malta, national market authorizations and centralized authorized medicines, through a link to European Medicines Agency (EMEA). This authorized medicines list is a service provided by the Medicines Authority.


Medicines Evaluation Board-Netherlands
Official website of Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB). The MEB evaluates and monitors the efficacy, risks and quality of human and veterinary medicinal products in the Netherlands. It also assesses the safety of novel foods for human consumption.

Medicines data bank
The medicines data bank contains information on all medicinal products that are authorized for marketing in the Netherlands. Information on the date of authorization and recent new authorizations can be found in the lists. Under search for characteristic(s) of a medicinal product, various search parameters can be used to retrieve the most important information on a medicinal product, for example the SPC (scientific information on the medicinal product), the package leaflet and the Public Assessment Report. This human medicines database is part of Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) official website.


Ministry of Health of Poland
Official website of the Ministry of Health of Poland.

Medicines information database
Official database provides information on medicines on the market in Poland. The site provides information about all the medicines that for the last 5 years are currently available in the pharmacy market, were registered in Poland but never entered in production, and were registered in Poland, but their production was halted. Search tool provided by the Ministry of Health´s website.

Registration Office of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products of Poland
Official website of the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products in Poland. The Office is a governmental agency competent for the issues related to evaluation of quality, efficacy and safety of medicinal products, medical devices and biocidal products in Poland. It is subordinated directly to the Minister of Health.


National Authority of Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED, I.P.)-Portugal
INFARMED – National Authority of Medicines and Health Products, IP is a Government agency accountable to the Health Ministry. The objective is to monitor, assess and regulate all activities relating to human medicines and health products for the protection of Public Health.

Infomed database
Infomed is the official medicines database in Portugal. This database contains information on medicinal products for human use, including the names of drugs, active substances (INN/generic name), strength, dosage form, the sale price to the public, contribution rate, etc. Querying the Product Details the information on the pharmaco-therapeutic classification may be accessed. The Infomed is updated daily through the transfer of data from the internal database Infarmed.


National Medicines Agency of Romania
The mission of the National Medicines Agency is to contribute to the protection and promotion of public health in Romania.

Human authorized medicinal products
Human authorized medicinal products search tool provided by the National Medicines Agency of Romania. Includes centralized and national authorized medicines and information about drugs, active substances, dosage forms, brand names, authorization holders, etc.


State Institute for Drug Control of Slovak Republic
State Institute for Drug Control (SIDC) in Bratislava is the institution of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic responsible for ensuring surveillance of the quality, efficacy and safety of medicinal products for human use and medicinal products used in health care.

Database of medicinal products marketed in Slovakia
Database of medicinal products marketed in Slovakia provided by the State Institute for Drug Control (SIDC), including all types of authorization procedures for medicines.


Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the Republic of Slovenia (JAZMP)
Official website of the Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the Republic of Slovenia (JAZMP). JAZMP was formed on 1st Jan. 2007 by the merger of the Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, which operated under the Ministry of Health, and the National Institute for Pharmacy and Drug Research. Link to Database on Medicinal Products authorized in the Republic of Slovenia (BZP database) is included in this website.

BPZ database
BPZ is the official public database on medicinal products authorized in Republic of Slovenia. BPZ is managed by the Public Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices and is published by the Public Health Institute Maribor (Maribor pharmacy). Offers a list of national authorized medicines and includes a link to European Medicines Agency (EMEA) for community authorizations.

Ministry of Health, Government of Republic of Slovenia
Official website of Ministry of Health, Government of Republic of Slovenia.

Slovene Chamber of Pharmacies
Official website of Slovene Chamber of Pharmacies. It is an independent organization whose members are all community pharmacies and hospital pharmacies in Slovenia. It was established in 1992 to protect professional honor, to ensure that professional obligations are met and to protect economic interests of its members.

SPAIN Website contains list of medicines marketed in Spain, showing guidance obtained from the website of the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs.

Prescription Therapy Guide (GPT)
The Prescription Therapy Guide (GPT) is a online service provided by Imedicines. GPT is a translation and adaptation for the Spanish market of the original 51st edition of the British National Formulary, and aims to provide doctors, pharmacists and other health professionals updated information about the use of medications. It provides a wide access to drug information classified by drug name, indications, precautions, contraindications, adverse effects and dosage.

Spanish Agency of Medicines and Health Products (AEMPS)
The Spanish Agency of Medicines and Health Products has been consolidated as the health authority of reference for citizens and health professionals in the field of quality assurance, safety, efficiency, information and accessibility of drugs and medical devices.

AEMPS Medicines Online Information Center
Spanish Agency of Medicines and Health Products (AEMPS) Medicines Online Information Center. This application includes all the medicines authorized in Spain and its purpose consists exclusively of informing health professionals. For each medicine there is a Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) related document. An SPC bears the description of the medicine, therapeutic indications, posology and method of administration, contraindications, special warnings and precautions for use and pharmaceutical properties. The SPC is the result of evaluatory and regulatory work and is granted by the AEMPS.

Vademecum Spain
Online information about drugs and active ingredients marketed in Spain: any drug information, pharmaceutical laboratories, doping & sports and interactions between substances. International drug equivalences are included.


Medical Products Agency of Sweden
Medical Products Agency (MPA) is the Swedish national authority responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and marketing of drugs and other medicinal products. The Medical Products Agency is a government body under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs.

Pharmaceutical Facts
Human and veterinary medicinal products authorized for the Swedish market can be found in the Läkemedelsfakta database, provided by the Medical Products Agency (MPA).

Medicine information website provided by Datapharm Communications Ltd. Its aim is to improve public health and safety by giving information on medicines that is up-to-date, accurate and comprehensive. Working closely with the NHS, the pharmaceutical industry, patients and healthcare professionals to create simple and accessible medicine information services.

electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC)
The electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) contains up-to-date, easily accessible information about medicines licensed for use in the UK. The eMC has more than 6000 documents, all of which have been checked and approved by either the UK or European government agencies which license medicines. These agencies are the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA).
The eMC was launched in 1999 and has become an established website, trusted for reliable information about medicines.

SearchMedica is a dedicated medical search engine for healthcare professionals which allows you to search the area of the worldwide website that is of direct relevance in your work. Available in different countries, this is a version for UK.



Health Canada
Health Canada is the Federal department responsible for helping Canadians maintain and improve their health, while respecting individual choices and circumstances.

DPD-Drug Product Database
The Canadian Drug Product Database (DPD) contains product-specific information on drugs approved for use in Canada. The database is managed by Health Canada and includes human pharmaceutical and biological drugs, veterinary drugs and disinfectant products. It contains approximately 23000 products which companies have notified Health Canada as being marketed. Information available in the database includes the following parameters: Brand Name, Drug Identification Number (DIN), Company, Active Ingredient(s), Route of Administration, Product Monograph, Pharmaceutical Form, Package Sizes, Therapeutic Classification, Active Ingredient Group Number, Pharmaceutical Standard, and Veterinary Species.


FDA-U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Official website of U.S. Food and Drugs Administration (FDA).
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It consists of six product centers, one research center, and two offices. FDA is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products, medical devices, the USA’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and products that give off radiation.

Drugs@FDA Database
Drugs@FDA allows you to search for official information about FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) approved brand name and generic drugs and therapeutic biological products in USA. The main uses of Drugs@FDA are: finding labels for approved drug products, generic drug products for a brand name drug product, therapeutically equivalent drug products for a brand name or generic drug product, consumer information for drugs approved from 1998 on, all drugs with a specific active ingredient, and viewing the approval history of a drug.



PR Vademecum on-line
Online information about drugs, their interactions and indications; pharmacological laboratories, medical atlas and reference laboratory values.
Gathers all relevant information related to medicinal and pharmaceutical products, and is aimed at doctors, pharmacists, dentists and other health professionals. Since its launch in Argentina in 1993, the PR Vademecum was published progressively in many countries of Latin America.


PR Vademecum on-line


Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS)
Official website of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS). The IMSS mission is to be the basic instrument of social security, established as a public service of national nature for all workers and their families.

PR Vademecum on-line


KEGG DRUG Database
KEGG DRUG is a unified drug information resource that contains chemical structures and/or chemical components of all prescription and OTC drugs in Japan, most prescription drugs in the USA, and many prescription drugs in Europe. Thus, all the marketed drugs in Japan are fully represented in KEGG DRUG and linked to the package insert information (label information). These include crude drugs and TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) drugs, which are very popular in Japan and some of which are specified in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia.

National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS)
The National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) conducts testing, research, and studies toward the proper evaluation of the quality, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical products, foods, and the numerous chemicals in the living environment.

Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Fourteenth Edition
Online English version of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Fourteenth Edition.


AHFS Drug Information (American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information)-American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, ASHP (Ed.)
AHFS DI contains information from medical literature and expert advice from over 500 medical scientists, physicians, pharmacists, pharmacologists, and other professionally qualified individuals that goes beyond FDA-approved labeling. Expert advice, peer-reviewed by over 500 medical scientists, physicians, pharmacists, pharmacologists, and other professionally qualified individuals; Over 40000 represented medicines and over 100000 drug products; Off-label and labeled uses; Over 70000 uniquely sited references.

American Medical Association
Official website of American Medical Association. Since 1847 the American Medical Association has had the mission to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health. This website includes several resources for physicians.

United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council
This section lists names that have been adopted as United States Adopted Names (USAN) since 2000. A name published by the USAN Program in the USP Dictionary of USAN and International Nonproprietary Names, and posted on the USAN Website, shall be the effective equivalent of an intellectual property right on the part of the relevant entities.

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system
WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology-Norwegian Institute of Public Health
This website includes the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) as a measuring unit which has become the gold standard for international drug utilization research. The ATC/DDD system is a tool for exchanging and comparing data on drug use at international, national or local levels. Modern Herbal by Mrs. M. Grieve
Electronic version of “A Modern Herbal” by Maud Grieve. A Modern Herbal, first published in 1931, contains Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-Lore of Herbs. Includes more than 800 varieties of herbs & plants. provides free, accurate and independent advice on more than 24000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines & natural products. Data sources include Micromedex™, Cerner Multum™, Wolters Kluwer™ and others.

MedFacts Consumer Drug Information
Sourced from leading health information provider Wolters Kluwer Health, Facts & Comparisons Integrated MedFacts consumer drug information leaflets provide detailed information on drug indications, contraindications and interactions as well as notes on safety and instructions for use. Facts and Comparisons has been a key source of drug information for pharmacists for more than fifty years. Also known as Medispan IMM.

eHerbal provides a collection of plants used as herbal medicines, including information on each one, such as potential uses, dosage, side-effects or precautions, other names, and other details. Browsing through the list of herbs either by common or scientific name reveals herbal information. New entries are added to the database periodically.

Herbs 2000
Source of traditional and nutritional health care. Website includes list of medicinal herbs, homeopathic products, vitamins, minerals, aminoacids, bee products, aromatherapy products, and related articles.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices-Spanish delegation
The Institute for Safe Use of Medicines is the Spanish delegation of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), an interdisciplinary non-profit organization dedicated to promoting safety and improving the quality of the process of using drugs. Its purpose is to prevent medication errors and reduce adverse drug events.

Addresses of interest from Institute for Safe Medication Practices-Spanish delegation web
Links offered by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Website- Spain.

International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)
The ICTV is a Committee of the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiology Societies (IUMS). The objects of the Committee shall be for the public benefit and in particular for the advancement of education in the taxonomy of viruses and in furtherance thereof. The objectives are: to develop an internationally-agreed taxonomy for viruses; to establish internationally-agreed names for virus taxa, virus species and subviral agents; to communicate the decisions reached concerning the classification and nomenclature of viruses and subviral agents to virologists by holding meetings and publishing reports, and to maintain an Official Index of virus names.

The international code of virus classification and nomenclature-August 2002
Principles and rules of virus classification and nomenclature.

Internet Mental Health
Internet Mental Health is a free encyclopedia of mental health information created by a Canadian psychiatrist, Dr. Phillip Long. The website includes information about the most common mental disorders, online diagnostic programs, the most common psychiatric medications, a magazine with scientific articles and links to the most popular mental health sites. The medications section includes: Brand names, Pharmacology, Indications, Contraindications, Warnings, Precautions, Adverse Effects, Overdose, Dosage, Supplied and Research. The information for these drugs is from Canadian monographs. There may be differences in indications, dosage forms and warnings for these drugs in other countries.

IPCS (International Progamme on Chemical Safety)-INCHEM
IPCS INCHEM is an invaluable tool with rapid access to internationally peer-reviewed information on chemicals commonly used throughout the world, which may also occur as contaminants in the environment and food. It consolidates information from a number of intergovernmental organizations whose goal is to assist in the sound management of chemicals. Produced through cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS).

Lexi-Comp ONLINE
Lexi-Comp ONLINE is a hospital-wide, Internet-based platform delivering trusted drug and clinical information. This resource offers multiple databases and modules and an easy-to-use interface. Its content is continually updated, providing access to the most current information available.

MedicinesComplete is an online platform which offers access to world-leading drug and healthcare resources. This website offers access to comprehensive and regularly updated medical information. It offers the confidence to safely prescribe medication to patients, to be sure that research can be supported with unbiased facts and to provide globally relevant information for the best education.

Medsafe Website
This site provides information on the regulation of medicines and medical devices in New Zealand and the safe use of medicines. Medsafe is the New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority. It is a business unit of the Ministry of Health and is the authority responsible for the regulation of therapeutic products in New Zealand. Medsafe regulates products used for a therapeutic purpose.

Medsafe Website
Data sheets contain detailed prescribing information on a specific medicine. Pharmaceutical companies are required to prepare data sheets for all prescription medicines and restricted (pharmacist-only) medicines in accordance with the Medicines Regulations 1984 and regulatory guidelines published by Medsafe. Data sheets contain detailed prescribing information on a specific medicine. Data sheets are updated as required to include newly approved dose forms, strengths or indications, or to update warnings, adverse effects, contra-indications, etc. as new safety information becomes available.

Merck & Co., Inc.
Homepage of, Merck’s corporate website.

On-line Merck Manual of Diagnosis
Online version of The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, part of the Merck’s corporate Website. The Merck Manuals and the Online Medical Library are updated periodically with new information, and contain photographs, and audio and video material not present in the print versions. The Merck website also provides access to Lexi-Comp drug information sheets.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is the Federal Government’s lead agency for scientific research on the diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine.

Herbs at a Glance-NCCAM
Herbs at a Glance is a series of fact sheets that provides basic information about specific herbs or botanicals-common names, uses, potential side-effects, and resources for more information.

National Library of Medicine (NLM)-U.S. National Institutes of Health
The National Library of Medicine (NLM), on the campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, is the world’s largest medical library. The Library collects materials and provides information and research services in all areas of biomedicine and health care.

Daily Med, Current Medication Information
DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Website provides health information providers and the public with a standard, comprehensive, up-to-date, look-up and download resource of medication content and labeling as found in medication package inserts.

Drug Information Portal
The NLM Drug Information Portal gives users a gateway to selected drug information from the U.S. National Library of Medicine and other key U.S. Government agencies. At the top of the page are links to individual resources with potential drug information, including summaries tailored to various audiences. Resources include the NLM search systems useful in searching for a drug, NLM research resources, resources organized by audience and class, and other NIH and government resources such as FDA and CDC. The search box in the middle of the page lets you search many of these resources simultaneously. More than 17000 drugs can be searched using this facility. The portal covers drugs from the time they are entered into clinical trials ( through their entry in the U.S. market place (Drugs@FDA). Many drugs in other countries are covered, but not as thoroughly as U.S. drugs. The PubMed link provides medical literature describing research, and TOXLINE provides toxicology literature. Resources such as MedlinePlus provide easy-to-read summaries of the uses and efficacy of a drug.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Scientific Gold Standard for Evidence-Based, Clinical Information on Natural Medicines. The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database gives information on natural medicine brand name products and ingredients. Online access includes: Ratings on safety & effectiveness for 1100+ natural medicines; Product information on over 50000 brands; Natural Product/Drug Interaction Checker.

Orphanet-The portal for rare diseases and orphan drugs
Orphanet is a database of information on rare diseases and orphan drugs for all publics. Its aim is to contribute to the improvement of the diagnosis, care and treatment of patients with rare diseases. Orphanet includes a professional encyclopedia, which is expert-authored and peer-reviewed, a patient encyclopedia and a directory of expert services.
PDR Network product safety alerts, and REMS programs include the Physicians’ Desk Reference® (PDR®), the most trusted and commonly-used drug information reference,®, mobilePDR®, and PDR Drug Alerts, the only service providing electronic delivery of mandated safety alerts to physicians and other prescribers. PDR now integrates a broad suite of services into Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and includes the adverse event reporting service.

Official website of Pfizer, a large research-based pharmaceutical company.

Product Finder-Pfizer Prescription Products
Product finder is an online search tool about Pfizer products.

Medical reference site for medical professionals. Contains a dictionary of medical concepts, pharmaceuticals, pharmacological effects, etc. Medical information from National Library of Medicine 2007 Medical Subject Headings, National Institutes of Health Unified Medical Language System, Drugs@FDA, Federal Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System.
Owned and Operated by WebsiteMD and part of the WebsiteMD network.
RxList is an online medical resource dedicated to offering detailed and current pharmaceutical information on brand and generic drugs. Founded by pharmacists in 1995, RxList is the premier Internet Drug Index resource. RxList continuously reviews and updates the site with articles written by pharmacists and physicians and data provided by credible and reliable sources like the FDA and First Data Bank, Inc.

South African electronic package inserts
The purpose of this site is to make the package inserts for South African medicines available to the public in electronic format. The site is not complete, in that the information for some drug companies still needs to be captured, and other companies have not yet given permission to make their package inserts available. However, the site is constantly being updated to provide information for all medicines available in South Africa. The package inserts are indexed by Generic Name, Trade Name, and Pharmacological Classification.
Website developed by the Foundation for the study of Infection, School of Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. The website includes the vaccination guidelines in Spain.

World Health Organization
WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.

Index of Pharmacopoeias
The Index of Pharmacopoeias has been circulated to national pharmacopoeia commissions for their feedback and the data received from them have been used to update the previous list (document WHO/EDM/QSM/2004.4). Links to online pharmacopoeias were provided where available. Where no specific links to online pharmacopoeias available online were found, links to organizations of national pharmacopoeial commissions are listed. The list is provided for reference purposes only and does not pretend to be complete.

International Nonproprietary Names
International Nonproprietary Names (INN) facilitate the identification of pharmaceutical substances or active pharmaceutical ingredients. Each INN is a unique name that is globally recognized and is public property. A nonproprietary name is also known as a generic name. The website includes the lists of recommended and proposed INNs classified according to year of publication.

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision
ICD-10 was endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly in May 1990 and came into use in WHO Member States as from 1994. The classification is the latest in a series which has its origins in the 1850s. The first edition, known as the International List of Causes of Death, was adopted by the International Statistical Institute in 1893. WHO took over the responsibility for the ICD at its creation in 1948 when the Sixth Revision, which included causes of morbidity for the first time, was published. The World Health Assembly adopted in 1967 the WHO Nomenclature Regulations that stipulate use of ICD in its most current revision for mortality and morbidity statistics by all Member States. The ICD is the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological, many health management purposes and clinical use. These include the analysis of the general health situation of population groups and monitoring of the incidence and prevalence of diseases and other health problems in relation to other variables such as the characteristics and circumstances of the individuals affected, reimbursement, resource allocation, quality and guidelines. It is used to classify diseases and other health problems recorded on many types of health and vital records including death certificates and health records. In addition to enabling the storage and retrieval of diagnostic information for clinical, epidemiological and quality purposes, these records also provide the basis for the compilation of national mortality and morbidity statistics by WHO Member States.

WHO Drug Information
WHO Drug Information is a quarterly journal providing an overview of topics relating to medicine development and regulation which is targeted to a wide audience of health professionals and policy makers.
Launched in 1987, WHO Drug Information communicates the latest international news and trends to regulatory agencies, academic and training institutions, researchers, consumer bodies, and pharmaceutical manufacturers and focuses on topics impacting the safety, efficacy and quality of medicines, medical products, herbals and biomedicines. It presents a range of perspectives on how current challenges impact the manufacture, prescribing and access of medicines throughout the world and introduces newly-released guidance documents.


ALlele FREquency Database
A resource of gene frequency data on human populations supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

Arizona State University
Official website of the Arizona State University, USA.

SNPshot-Arizona State University
SNPshot contains information on phenotypic effects of genetic variants, focusing on effects on drug response. Drug responses in individual patients are mostly influenced by variants in drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, drug receptors, and ion channels (apart from cultural and nutritional influences). Its aim is to make available summarized information linking genes, SNPs, drug efficacy, adverse drug reactions, populations, diseases, and literature references. The basis data for this repository are collected via literature search in Medline abstracts. The database currently covers information from 95537 abstracts, involving the species human, mouse, and rat, with more than 500000 relations and 240000 different bio-entities. SNPshot aims at complementing expert-curated knowledge bases such as PharmGKB and PharmGED, which rely on manual curation, but of a much smaller number of underlying publications. SNPshot is an online service provided by Arizona State University.

Assay Designs
Assay Designs Website. Since its founding in 1992, Assay Designs has continued to provide the worldwide biomedical, pharmaceutical and scientific research communities with quality, rapid, and easy-to-use products designed to simplify the lab work in Science.

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Hematology
The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Hematology is a peer-reviewed online journal and database in free access on internet devoted to genes, cytogenetics, and clinical entities in cancer, and cancer-prone diseases. The aim is to cover the entire field under study; as the task is huge, the Atlas is -and will be- incomplete by that very fact. It presents concise and updated reviews (cards) or longer texts (deep insights), a huge portal towards genetics and/or cancer databases and journals, teaching items in Genetics for students in Medicine and in Sciences, and a case report section. It is made for and by: clinicians and researchers in cytogenetics, molecular biology, oncology, hematology, and pathology. Contributions are reviewed before acceptance.

Blocks WWW Server
A service for biological sequence analysis at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, USA. Blocks are multiply aligned ungapped segments corresponding to the most highly conserved regions of proteins. Block Searcher, Get Blocks and Block Maker are aids to detection and verification of protein sequence homology. They compare a protein or DNA sequence to a database of protein blocks (current version), retrieve blocks, and create new blocks, respectively. The blocks for the Blocks Database are made automatically by looking for the most highly conserved regions in groups of proteins documented in InterPro. The blocks created by Block Maker are created in the same manner as the blocks in the Blocks Database but with sequences provided by the user. Results are reported in a multiple sequence alignment format without calibration and in the standard Block format for searching.

Broad Institute
The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard was launched in 2004 with the investment of Eli and Edythe Broad, who joined with leaders at Harvard and its affiliated hospitals, MIT, and the Whitehead Institute to pioneer a “new model” of collaborative science that would transform medicine. The Broad Institute brings together world-class faculty, professional staff, and students from throughout the MIT and Harvard communities and beyond, empowering them to work together to identify and overcome the most critical obstacles to realizing the full promise of genomic medicine.

Diabetes Genetics Initiative
The Diabetes Genetics Initiative is a collaboration of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Lund University, and Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research. The Diabetes Genetics Initiative combines the resources and expertise of the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Lund University to identify the genetic determinants of type 2 diabetes. This unique collaboration aims to collect and analyze samples from type 2 diabetic patients from nations across the globe, performing whole genome scans to provide a comprehensive view of the DNA sequence variants associated with the disease. This partnership has been forged with the explicit goal of making this vast amount of crucial data available to researchers globally and free of cost, which should lead to a greater understanding of disease biology and speed the development of more effective therapies.

Cancer Index
The aim of “Guide to Internet Resources for Cancer” is to make it easier to find more specific information quickly. This is achieved by providing an directory of some of the key cancer-related sites and pages. Links are sorted into categories (by disease-type, medical speciality country, etc.), and where possible annotation is provided to give the reader a brief description of each site/organization. As well as links the site presents basic information about cancer-related topics. Also, the site aims to draw the reader’s attention to issues about cancer-related information on the Internet, especially those relating to the quality of information.

Cancer GeneticsWeb
The aim of the site is to provide comprehensive links to reliable information about genes, their associated proteins, and genetic mutations associated with cancer and related disorders. Each gene page includes links to major genetic databases and where possible links to other related websites, abstract references, external searches, and summary information. The site is integrated with Guide to Internet Resources for Cancer to provide links to related clinical and research information sources.

Cardiff University
Cardiff is one of Britain’s major teaching and research universities. Located in the centre of the capital city of Wales, it has an international reputation for the quality of its work which attracts staff and students from around the world.

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
The Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) represents an attempt to collate known (published) gene lesions responsible for human inherited disease. This database, whilst originally established for the study of mutational mechanisms in human genes (Cooper and Krawczak 1993), has now acquired a much broader utility in that it embodies an up-to-date and comprehensive reference source to the spectrum of inherited human gene lesions. Thus, HGMD provides information of practical diagnostic importance to (i) researchers and diagnosticians in human molecular genetics, (ii) physicians interested in a particular inherited condition in a given patient or family, and (iii) genetic counsellors.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin
The website of the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, a joint institution of the Freie Universität Berlin and the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

Charité-Structural Bioinformatics Group
Founded to undertake bioinformatics-related research and education with emphasis on structural bioinformatics to improve our understanding of living systems. This understanding covers research into evolution, structure, function and interaction of proteins, disease relationships with focus on immunology and cancer.

In SuperCyp you can find information about the isoforms of the Cytochrome P450 enzymes and about drugs which interact with those enzymes. If your focus is on enzymes, you can find information about drugs that interact with a particular isoform and known DNA sequence variations of a particular isoform.

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Since its start in 1855 as the nation’s first hospital devoted exclusively to caring for children, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has been the birthplace for many dramatic firsts in pediatric medicine. The Hospital has fostered medical discoveries and innovations that have improved pediatric healthcare and saved countless children’s lives.

eGenome Release v2.3
eGenome is a comprehensive, position-based catalog of the human genome. eGenome catalogs a wide range of genomic landmarks, including transcripts, markers, polymorphisms, large-insert clones, and DNA sequences. The goals of eGenome are to eliminate boundaries between data sets and provide the most relevant data to users in a useful form.

The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information. The database contains nearly 4800 drug entries including >1350 FDA-approved small molecule drugs, 123 FDA-approved biotech (protein/peptide) drugs, 71 nutraceuticals and >3243 experimental drugs. Additionally, more than 2500 non-redundant protein (i.e. drug target) sequences are linked to these FDA-approved drug entries. Each DrugCard entry contains more than 100 data fields with half of the information being devoted to drug/chemical data and the other half devoted to drug target or protein data. DrugBank is supported by David Wishart, Departments of Computing Science & Biological Sciences, University of Alberta.

The Ensembl project produces genome databases for vertebrates and other eukaryotic species, and makes this information freely available online. A software system producing and maintaining automatic annotation on eukaryotic genomes, which provides identification of known human genes in the genome sequence and prediction of additional genes with supporting evidence.

European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI)
Official Website. The European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) is a non-profit academic Organization that forms part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). The EBI is a centre for research and services in bioinformatics. The Institute manages databases of biological data including nucleic acid, protein sequences and macromolecular structures.

The CluSTr database offers an automatic classification of UniProt Knowledgebase and IPI proteins into groups of related proteins. The clustering is based on analysis of all pairwise comparisons between protein sequences. The database provides links to InterPro, which integrates information on protein families, domains and functional sites from PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, Gene3D, SUPERFAMILY, PIR Superfamily and PANTHER.

European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI)-ChEBI
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on ‘small’ chemical compounds. The term ‘molecular entity’ refers to any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer, etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity. The molecular entities in question are either products of nature or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms.

HGVBASE is an attempt to summarize all known sequence variations in the human genome and to facilitate research into how genotypes affect common diseases, drug responses, and other complex phenotypes. Sequence variations are presented with details of how they are physically and functionally related to the closest neighboring gene. Records include SNPs, Indels, simple tandem repeats, and other sequence alternatives, regardless of location, allele frequencies, or known effect upon phenotype. All records are highly curated and annotated, ensuring maximal utility and data accuracy. HGVBASE is the product of a European consortium involving the Karolinska Institute (Sweden), the European Bioinformatics Institute (UK), and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (Germany), with additional support from Interactiva GmbH (Germany) who host a parallel HGBASE Website with genotyping products.

IntAct provides a freely available, open source database system and analysis tools for protein interaction data. All interactions are derived from literature curation or direct user submissions and are freely available.

InterPro is an integrated database of predictive protein “signatures” used for the classification and automatic annotation of proteins and genomes. InterPro classifies sequences at superfamily, family and subfamily levels, predicting the occurrence of functional domains, repeats and important sites. InterPro adds in-depth annotation, including GO terms, to the protein signatures.

PDBsum provides an at-a-glance overview of every macromolecular structure deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), giving schematic diagrams of the molecules in each structure and of the interactions between them.

ExPASy (Expert Protein Analysis System)
The ExPASy (Expert Protein Analysis System) proteomics server of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB) is dedicated to the analysis of protein sequences and structures as well as 2-D PAGE.

ENZYME Enzyme nomenclature database-ExPASy Proteomics Server
ENZYME is a repository of information relative to the nomenclature of enzymes. It is primarily based on the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and it describes each type of characterized enzyme for which an EC (Enzyme Commission) number has been provided.

PROSITE consists of documentation entries describing protein domains, families and functional sites as well as associated patterns and profiles to identify them. PROSITE is complemented by ProRule, a collection of rules based on profiles and patterns, which increases the discriminatory power of profiles and patterns by providing additional information about functionally and/or structurally critical amino acids.

fast DB
fast DB is an alternative splicing database that gathers several bioinformatic tools aiming to study expression of human gene products. Website created and maintained by Pierre de la Grange.

Gene Ontology project
The Gene Ontology project is a major bioinformatics initiative with the aim of standardizing the representation of gene and gene product attributes across species and databases. The project provides a controlled vocabulary of terms for describing gene product characteristics and gene product annotation data from GO Consortium members, as well as tools to access and process this data.

AmiGO Version: 1.7
AmiGO is the official GO browser and search engine.

GeneCards Gene Database
GeneCards® is a searchable, integrated database of human genes that provides concise genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, genetic and functional information on all known and predicted human genes. Information featured in GeneCards includes orthologies, disease relationships, mutations and SNPs, gene expression, gene function, pathways, protein-protein interactions, related drugs & compounds and direct links to cutting edge research reagents and tools such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, clones, expression assays and RNAi reagents. Academic website developed at the Crown Human Genome Center & Weizmann Institute of Science.

Genecards information sources are:

Abcam maintains a catalog of antibodies, some are made internally, while others are sourced from institutes, academic laboratories and primary manufacturers.
Abnova offers a unique complete monoclonal antibody and protein experience for the customer that is different from traditional custom production companies and laboratories.
AceView offers an integrated view of the human and nematode genes as reconstructed by mRNA and EST alignments.
AKS extracts knowledge from biological databases and text repositories, enabling users to uncover the knowledge hidden within these data sources.
The Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) maintains a database of alternative splice events and the resultant isoform splice patterns of genes from human, and other model species.
Applied Biosystems is a supplier of life science tools worldwide, including gene expression and genotyping assays and resequencing sets.
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Hematology.
BLOCKS is a database of Blocks (multiply-aligned ungapped segments corresponding to the most highly conserved regions of proteins).
BioGPS is a service from the Genomics Institute of Novartis Research Foundation which provides an integrated portal which displays gene-centric annotation, including “annotation” based on reference gene expression data sets.
BIOMOL is a supplier of specialty biochemicals, with applications in signal transduction, lipid research, apoptosis, neuroscience and drug discovery.
The Breast Cancer Gene Database (BCGD) lists facts about genes implicated in breast cancer.
CGAP (The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project) determines the gene expression profiles of normal, precancer, and cancer cells, leading eventually to improved detection, diagnosis, and treatment for the patient.
CroW21 is the Human Chromosome 21 Database at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
CST (Cell Signaling Technology) provides discovery tools for cell signaling research, including information about pathways and phosphorylation sites.
Doctor’s Guide to the Internet: a Website service presenting news about biomedical research and its applications. GeneCards presents links and titles of interesting articles stored there.
DOTS (Database Of Transcribed Sequences) developed by the Computational Biology and Informatics Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania.
ECgene: a new EST clustering method that produces gene models based on genomic alignment of mRNA and ESTs.
Ensembl: a software system producing and maintaining automatic annotation on eukaryotic genomes, which provides identification of known human genes in the genome sequence and prediction of additional genes with supporting evidence.
EntrezGene at NCBI provides a single query interface to curated sequence and descriptive information about genetic loci.
euGenes: Genomic Information for Eukaryotic Organisms Database for more details on similar genes in other organisms.
EXPOLDB: a database of expression variation in blood leukocytes in monozygotic twins and unrelated individuals.
FlyBase: a database of the Drosophila genome.
Genatlas: a catalog of genes, markers and phenotypes with many links to major data sources. GeneCards offers the short description of the gene that often contains interesting, concise information about its cellular functions and/or role in diseases.
GenBank: the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences.
GeneAnnot: Annotation of high-density oligunocleotide arrays at the Weizmann Institute of Science, with links to Affymetrix probe-sets.
GeneLoc (formerly The Unified DataBase (UDB)) integrates information on the human genome, with emphasis on mapping information. Mapped DNA segments, classified by categories (such as genes, EST clusters and STSs mapped by various methods) are presented on a Megabase-scale integrated map, with further links to relevant databases.
GeneNote: the Gene Normal Tissue Expression database at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
GeneTests (formerly GeneClinics): a clinical information resource relating genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of individuals and families with specific inherited disorders.
The Genetic Association Database (GAD) is an archive of human genetic association studies of complex diseases and disorders.
GeneTide, the Gene Terra Incognita Discovery Endeavor, is an automated system for human transcript (mRNAs & ESTs) annotation and elucidation of de-novo genes.
GeneWiki is a project that facilitates transferring information on human genes to Wikipedia article stubs with the goal of promoting collaboration and expansion of the articles.
GO, the Gene Ontology, is a dynamic controlled vocabulary that can be applied to all organisms even as knowledge of gene and protein roles in cells is accumulating and changing.
The International HapMap Project aims to develop a public resource that will help researchers find genes associated with human disease and response to pharmaceuticals.
HGMD (Human Gene Mutation Database): information about disease-causing mutations in genes. GeneCards presents a link to specific entries in this database whenever they can be found.
HInv-DB: H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB) is an integrated database of curated annotations of human genes and transcripts.
HomoloGene: a resource of curated and calculated orthologs for genes as represented by UniGene or by annotation of genomic sequences.
HORDE is the Human Olfactory Receptor Data Exploratorium at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
HUGE: the Database of Human Unidentified Gene-Encoded Large Proteins.
The Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator (HuGE Navigator) provides access to a continuously updated knowledge base in human genome epidemiology, including information on population prevalence of genetic variants, gene-disease associations, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and evaluation of genetic tests.
HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is the central clearinghouse for assigning gene names.
ImMunoGeneTics Information System (IMGT): a high-quality integrated information system specializing in Immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules of all vertebrate species.
IntAct: IntAct provides a freely available, open-source database system and analysis tools for protein interaction data. All interactions are derived from literature curation or direct user submissions and are freely available.
InterPro: a database of protein families, domains and functional sites in which identifiable features found in known proteins can be applied to unknown protein sequences.
Invitrogen is a supplier of life science tools worldwide, including RNAi, pathways, antibodies, and recombinant proteins.
IUBMB: The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; the Nomenclature Committee.
Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) provides pathway information.
Leiden Muscular Dystrophy pages.
LSDB: The Human Genome Variation Society’s Locus-Specific Mutation Databases.
MGI (Mouse Genome Informatics, formerly MGD) provides a comprehensive source of information on the experimental genetics of the laboratory mouse; it includes information on mouse markers, mammalian homologies, probes and clones. GeneCards presents links to mammalian homology pages, the name of the mouse gene, its location (in centiMorgan), phenotypic alleles, and links to the entries for the mouse gene.
Millipore offers a broad range of Life Science tools, technologies, and services, and creates personalized solutions to industry challenges and assure scientific success.
MINT (Molecular Interactions Database) focuses on experimentally-verified protein interactions with special emphasis on proteomes from mammalian organisms; consists of entries mined in the scientific literature by curators.
miRBase is the new home for microRNA data, incorporating the database and gene-naming roles previously provided by the miRNA Registry, and including the new miRBase Target database.
Nature 405, 311-319: is the chromosome 21 mapping and sequencing consortium paper entitled “The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21”.
Novus Biologicals provides the biological research community with a mechanism for commercializing unique biological materials.
OCA: a browser-database for protein structure/function.
OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders with a lot of information about many different aspects (medical and genetic). GeneCards presents a list of diseases listed as allelic variants in the respective entry for the gene, synonyms for the gene, and a link to the OMIM database entry.
OriGene is a worldwide supplier of authentic full-length CDNA clones in a standard expression vector.
The PharmGKB is an integrated resource about how variation in human genes leads to variation in our response to drugs.
PhosphoSite from CST is a curated, sequence-oriented protein database dedicated to in vivo phosphorylation sites.
Proteopedia is a project that provides structural and functional knowledge about protein, RNA, DNA, and other macromolecules, and their assemblies and interactions with small molecules, in a manner that is relevant and broadly accessible to students and scientists.
ProtoNet at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem provides global classification of the proteins into hierarchical clusters., a project of the Gerstein Lab at Yale University, provides information on pseudogenes and intergenic analyses.
PubMed: NLM’s search service to access the 9 million citations in MEDLINE and Pre-MEDLINE (with links to participating online journals), and other related databases.
PupaSUITE is an interactive website-based SNP analysis tool.
R&D Systems: a specialty manufacturer of biological products with two operating divisions: Biotechnology and Hematology.
SALK Institute: Dr. Jonas Salk, developer of the polio vaccine, established the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, to pursue questions about the basic principles of life. Today, the Salk Institute conducts its biological research under the guidance of 59 faculty investigators.
SGD™ (Saccharomyces Genome Database) is a scientific database of the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly known as baker’s or budding yeast.
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma-Aldrich Corporation is a leading Life Science and High Technology company, providing biochemical and organic chemical products and kits.
SNP Database at NCBI provides information on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.
SOURCE (The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs) compiles information from several publicly accessible databases, including UniGene, dbEST, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, GeneMap99, GeneCards and EntrezGene.
STRING is a database of known and predicted protein-protein interactions.
Tocris Bioscience is a leading supplier of high-performance life science reagents, peptides and antibodies, with customers in virtually all of the world’s major pharmaceutical companies, universities and research institutes.
Tufts University: founded in 1852, Tufts University is one of the premier universities in the United States.
The Tumor Gene Database (TGDB) contains information about genes that are targets for cancer-causing mutations.
UCSC Golden Path: the University of California at Santa Cruz Human Draft Genomic Assembly.
UniGene: an experimental system for automatically partitioning GenBank sequences into a non-redundant set of gene-oriented clusters. GeneCards extracts from UniGene the cluster (Hs.) number, gene symbol or title, GenBank accession, EST’s clone identifier and library ID.
UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot stores information about proteins (the sequence, some notes about cellular functions, and many other useful data, as well as links to related sites on the website). GeneCards extracts from Swiss-Prot the name of the product(s) of the gene and data about the cellular functions, similarities, involvement in diseases, and links to other databases related to the gene product(s).
UniprotKB/TrEMBL: a computer-annotated supplement of Swiss-Prot that contains all the translations of EMBL nucleotide sequence entries not yet integrated in Swiss-Prot. GeneCards extracts from TrEMBL the name of the product(s) of the gene and data about the cellular functions, similarities, involvement in diseases, and links to other databases related to the gene product(s).
WormBase, the genome and biology of C. elegans.
Yeda: Yeda Research and Development Company Ltd. is responsible for technology transfer from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel’s leading center of research and graduate education.

GeneMedRx-Drug Interaction Checker
GeneMedRx is the first software tool available to prescribers that predicts potential drug-drug and drug-gene interaction risk based on both cytochrome P450 metabolism and genetic testing. This information helps physicians gain enhanced understanding of metabolism-based adverse drug interactions and/or lack of efficacy. GeneMedRx is the upgraded, pharmacogenetics-ready version of Mental Health Connections P450 Interactions program.

GenomeNet Database Resources
GenomeNet is a Japanese network of database and computational services for genome research and related research areas in biomedical sciences, operated by the Kyoto University Bioinformatics Center. GenomeNet was established in September 1991 under the Human Genome Program of the then Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (Monbusho). The GenomeNet service has been developed by the Kanehisa Laboratory in Kyoto University as part of the research projects.
Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation
The Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) is one of the Novartis International Corporate Research Institutes. GNF applies integrated state-of-the-art technologies to pursue new approaches towards the understanding of complex biomedical problems in cancer biology, immunology, neuroscience, and metabolic as well as infectious disease. These technologies include genomic and proteomic tools, medicinal chemistry, cell-based high throughput screening of genes or compounds, structural genomics, and forward/reverse mammalian genetics.

A free extensible and customizable gene annotation portal, a complete resource for learning about gene and protein function. Gene information, Gene Atlas expression profiles, and information on protein domains can easily be found in this portal.

HHT Mutation Database-Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
This site was originally designed by a team from Heriot Watt University with input from various scientists and clinicians.The site is based upon the architecture developed by the Image Systems Engineering Laboratory as part of the SCANwebsite Project, a collaborative project with the NHS funded by the New Opportunities Fund. It is maintained on behalf of the HHT Foundation International by the Molecular Genetics Service at the Western General Hospital in Edinburgh. It is a locus-specific database, registered at the HGVS Waystation database project, designed to catalog all of the mutations and polymorphisms found in the HHT-associated genes, Endoglin (ENG) and Activin-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1). Website
Resource for healthcare professionals and scientists who are interested in the expanding field of HIV pharmacogenomics. The website includes a Pharmacogenomics databank. Nomenclature
Site contents are related to the nomenclature for Factors of the HLA System. This committee meets regularly to discuss issues of nomenclature and has published 16 major reports documenting firstly the HLA antigens and more recently the genes and alleles. The standardization of HLA antigenic specifications has been controlled by the exchange of typing reagents and cells in the International Histocompatibility Workshops.

HuGE Navigator (version 1.4)
HuGE Navigator provides access to a continuously updated knowledge base in human genome epidemiology, including information on population prevalence of genetic variants, gene-disease associations, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and evaluation of genetic tests.

HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee
Official website of HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. HGNC is a non-profit making body which is jointly funded by the US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the Wellcome Trust (UK). It operates under the auspices of HUGO, with key policy advice from an International Advisory Committee (IAC). For each known human gene HGNC approves a gene name and symbol (short-form abbreviation). All approved symbols are stored in the HGNC database. HUGO ensures that each gene is only given one approved gene symbol. HUGO has already approved over 28000 symbols; the vast majority of these are for protein-coding genes, but also include symbols for pseudogenes, non-coding RNAs, phenotypes and genomic features (see HGNC Search).

Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee
Allele nomenclature for Cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Human Genome Variation Genotype-to-Phenotype database (HGVbaseG2P)
The Human Genome Variation Genotype-to-Phenotype database (HGVbaseG2P) aims to provide an extensive, centralized compilation of summary level findings from human genetic association studies, both large and small. This is needed so that researchers have an easy way to access the totality of association study data in existence for their genes, genome regions, or diseases of interest. Such a depository will allow true positive signals to be more readily distinguished from false positives (type I error) that fail to consistently replicate; it will aid in the identification of technical artefacts in genotyping procedures; it will elucidate population-specific signals, and it will minimize the serious problems of publication bias that cannot be solved unless sites like HGVbaseG2P are created where negative studies can be reported just as easily and as quickly as positive studies.

Human Metabolome Database Version 2.5
The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) is a freely available electronic database containing detailed information about small molecule metabolites found in the human body. It is intended to be used for applications in metabolomics, clinical chemistry, biomarker discovery and general education. The database is designed to contain or link three kinds of data: (i) chemical data, (ii) clinical data, and (iii) molecular biology/biochemistry data. The database (version 2.5) contains over 7900 metabolite entries including both water-soluble and lipid-soluble metabolites as well as metabolites that would be regarded as either abundant (>1 uM) or relatively rare (<1 nM). Additionally, approximately 7200 protein (and DNA) sequences are linked to these metabolite entries. Each MetaboCard entry contains more than 110 data fields with 2/3 of the information being devoted to chemical/clinical data and the other 1/3 devoted to enzymatic or biochemical data. Many data fields are hyperlinked to other databases (KEGG, PubChem, MetaCyc, ChEBI, PDB, Swiss-Prot, and GenBank) and a variety of structure and pathway viewing applets. The HMDB database supports extensive text, sequence, chemical structure and relational query searches. Four additional databases, DrugBank, T3DB, SMPDB and FooDB are also part of the HMDB suite of databases. DrugBank contains equivalent information on ~1500 drugs, T3DB contains information on 2900 common toxins and environmental pollutants, SMPDB contains pathway diagrams for 350 human metabolic and disease pathways, while FooDB contains equivalent information on ~2000 food components and food additives.

Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD)
Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) is an object database that integrates a wealth of information relevant to the function of human proteins in health and disease. Data pertaining to thousands of protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications, enzyme/substrate relationships, disease associations, tissue expression, and subcellular localization were extracted from the literature for a nonredundant set of 2750 human proteins. This database, which has an intuitive query interface allowing easy access to all the features of proteins, was built by using open source technologies and will be freely available to the academic community. This unified bioinformatics platform will be useful in cataloging and mining the large number of proteomic interactions and alterations that will be discovered in the postgenomic era.

iHOP-Information Hyperlinked over Proteins
iHOP provides this network as a natural way of accessing millions of PubMed abstracts. By using genes and proteins as hyperlinks between sentences and abstracts, the information in PubMed can be converted into one navigable resource, bringing all advantages of the internet to scientific literature research.

imaGenes is the spin-off from the German Resource Center for Genome Research (RZPD) which has proven its benefit for German and international genome research as a research infrastructure for many years. The RZPD was established in 1995 within the German Human Genome Project (DHGP) at the Department of Hans Lehrach, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, and the Department of Annemarie Poustka, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg. More than 35 million clones and related products and services are included in this page.

Indiana University
Indiana University is a major multi-campus public research institution.

euGenes. Genomic Information for Eukaryotic Organisms
euGenes provides a common summary of gene and genomic information from eukaryotic organism databases. This includes: Gene symbol and full name; Chromosome, genetic and molecular map information; Gene Ontology (Function/Location/Process) and gene homology.

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), a partnership between Indiana and Purdue Universities, is Indiana’s urban research and academic health sciences campus.

P450 Drug Interaction Table-School of Medicine of IUPUI page.
The table contains lists of drugs in columns under the designation of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms. A drug appears in a column if there is published evidence that it is metabolized, at least in part, via that isoform. It does not necessarily follow that the isoform is the principal metabolic pathway in vivo, or that alterations in the rate of the metabolic reaction catalyzed by that isoform will have large effects on the pharmacokinetics of the drug.

Institute of Biomedical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Institute of Biomedical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences performs medical and biological studies on the basis of postgenomic technologies. The Institute is the Research-Educational Center for students of Medical-Biological Faculty of Russian State Medical University and some other Moscow Universities.

Cytochrome P450 Knowledgebase (Release 2006)
Integrated informational resource on cytochromes P450, developed since 1990. Sponsored by Center for Molecular Design (division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV).

Institute for Biomedical Technologies ITB – CNR
The ITB is the largest institute of its kind in Italy and was established to pioneer new types of cross-disciplinary biomedical research by bringing biology, engineering, medicine, and the basic sciences together.

Genes-to-Systems Breast Cancer (G2SBC) Database
The Genes-to-Systems Breast Cancer (G2SBC) Database is a bioinformatics resource that collects and integrates data about genes, transcripts and proteins which have been reported in literature to be altered in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the resource includes a section dedicated to mathematical models related to cancerogenesis, tumor growth and tumor response to treatments. The G2SBC Database is a multilevel resource dedicated to the molecular and systems biology of breast cancer, including both the building-blocks level (genes, transcripts and proteins) and the systems level (molecular and cellular systems, cell populations).

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
The International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology provides a scientific and educational environment of the highest standard and conducts innovative research in life sciences for the benefit of developing countries. The Centre is dedicated to advanced research and training in molecular biology and biotechnology.

Directory of P450-containing Systems
The goal of this www Directory is to facilitate access to electronic resources worldwide for all researchers working in the field of P450 proteins and P450-containing systems. Databases currently linked are: SWISS-PROT, EMBL, PDB, Entrez, PROSITE, PRINTS, ENZYME, and LIGAND.

International HapMap Project
The International HapMap Project is a partnership of scientists and funding agencies from Canada, China, Japan, Nigeria, the United Kingdom and the United States to develop a public resource that will help researchers find genes associated with human disease and response to pharmaceuticals.

Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory (MDIBL)
With a commitment to preserving the marine environment, MDIBL’s community extends beyond the world of scientific research.

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
CTD is a community-supported public resource. It is being developed at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory (MDIBL), with support from the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) (ES014065) and the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) (RR016463) of the National Institutes of Health.

National Cancer Institute (NCI)-U.S. National Institutes of Health
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of 11 agencies that compose the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The NCI, established under the National Cancer Institute Act of 1937, is the Federal Government’s principal agency for cancer research and training.

Cancer Genome Anatomy Project-NCI-U.S. National Institutes of Health
The NCI’s Cancer Genome Anatomy Project sought to determine the gene expression profiles of normal, precancer, and cancer cells, leading eventually to improved detection, diagnosis, and treatment for the patient. Interconnected modules provide access to all CGAP data, bioinformatic analysis tools, and biological resources.

CGAP Genetic Annotation Initiative (GAI)-National Cancer Institute
he CGAP Genetic Annotation Initiative (GAI) is a research program to explore and apply technology for identification and characterization of genetic variation in genes important in cancer. It offers a service to locate SNPs in genetic and physical maps.

Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer
The information in the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer relates chromosomal aberrations to tumor characteristics, based either on individual cases or associations. CGAP (Cancer Genome Anatomy Project) has developed six website search tools to help analyze the information within the Mitelman Database: the Cases Quick Searcher, the Cases Full Searcher, the Molecular Biology Associations Searcher, the Clinical Associations Searcher, the Recurrent Chromosome Aberrations Searcher and the Reference Searcher.

Pathways Biocarta-CGAP (Cancer Genome Anatomy Project)
Pathways on the CGAP website have been obtained directly from BioCarta and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes). BioCarta Pathways on CGAP provide displays of gene interactions within pathways for human cellular processes, such as apoptosis and signal transduction.

Pathway Interaction Database
The Pathway Interaction Database is a highly-structured, curated collection of information about known biomolecular interactions and key cellular processes assembled into signaling pathways. It is a collaborative project between the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Nature Publishing Group (NPG), and is an open access online resource.

Project-SNP500Cancer Database-Cancer Genome Anatomy
The goal of the SNP500Cancer project is to resequence 102 reference samples to find known or newly-discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are of immediate importance to molecular epidemiology studies in cancer. SNP500Cancer provides a central resource for sequence verification of SNPs.

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information. As a national resource for molecular biology information, NCBI’s mission is to develop new information technologies to aid in the understanding of fundamental molecular and genetic processes that control health and disease. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) was established on November 4, 1988, as a division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

AceView genes
AceView provides a curated, comprehensive and non-redundant sequence representation of all public mRNA sequences (mRNAs from GenBank or RefSeq, and single pass cDNA sequences from dbEST and Trace).

The Bookshelf is a searchable collection of online biomedical textbooks and other literature. In addition to some classic biology and medical textbooks and monographs, it also includes books and databases produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).

Consensus CDS (CCDS) project
The Consensus CDS (CCDS) project is a collaborative effort to identify a core set of human and mouse protein coding regions that are consistently annotated and of high quality.

Conserved Domains Database
CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins. These are available as position-specific score matrices (PSSMs) for fast identification of conserved domains in protein sequences via RPS-BLAST. CDD content includes NCBI-curated domains, which use 3D-structure information to explicitly define domain boundaries and provide insights into sequence/structure/function relationships, as well as domain models imported from a number of external source databases.

Entrez Gene is a searchable database of genes, from RefSeq genomes, and defined by sequence and/or located in the NCBI Map Viewer.

Entrez Map Viewer
The Entrez Map Viewer is a software component of Entrez Genomes.

Entrez Nucleotide
The Entrez Nucleotide database is a collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, and PDB.

Entrez SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism)
The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database (dbSNP) is a public-domain archive for a broad collection of simple genetic polymorphisms. dbSNP is now incorporated into NCBI’s Entrez system and can be queried using the same approach as the other Entrez databases such as PubMed and GenBank. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information.

GenBank® is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences (Nucleic Acids Research, 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D25-30). There are approximately 106533156756 bases in 108431692 sequence records in the traditional GenBank divisions and 148165117763 bases in 48443067 sequence records in the WGS division as of August 2009.

GeneTests Website
GeneTests Website, a publicly-funded medical genetics information resource developed for physicians, other healthcare providers, and researchers.

HomoloGene is a system for automated detection of homologs among the annotated genes of several completely sequenced eukaryotic genomes.

International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria
This volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria approved by the Plenary Session of the Fifteenth International Congress of Microbiology, Osaka, 1990, together with lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. The statutes of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB) and the statutes of the Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS), formerly the Bacteriology Section of the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS), are also included.

NCBI Genome Assemblies and Resources
An online guide to the use of NCBI resources. Titles of selected chapters that refer to human genome resources are: Genome Assemblies and Annotation: Information concerning how assemblies are produced, maintained and annotated; Eukaryotic Genome Guides: provides easy access to specific data for selected organisms.

OMIM ®-Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man®
OMIM is a comprehensive, authoritative, and timely compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes. The full-text, referenced overviews in OMIM contain information on all known mendelian disorders and over 12000 genes. OMIM focuses on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.

PubChem, released in 2004, provides information on the biological activities of small molecules. It is a component of NIH’s Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiative. PubChem is organized as three linked databases within the NCBI’s Entrez information retrieval system. These are PubChem Substance, PubChem Compound, and PubChem BioAssay. PubChem also provides a fast chemical structure similarity search tool.

PubMed comprises more than 19 million citations for biomedical articles from Medline and life science journals. Citations may include links to full-text articles from PubMed Central or publisher websites.

SAGEmap-Serial Analysis of Gene Expression
SAGEmap is a public gene expression resource supporting public use and dissemination of SAGE data. All of the SAGE libraries present on this website have been uploaded and accessioned through the GEO repository.

UniGene is an organized view of the transciptome. Each UniGene entry is a set of transcript sequences that appear to come from the same transcription locus (gene or expressed pseudogene), together with information on protein similarities, gene expression, cDNA clone reagents, and genomic location.

National Eye Institute Website-National Institutes of Health (USA)
As part of the federal government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind. This page includes a Professional Resources section with a link to NEIBank Database .

NEIBank Database
The EyeSite Website is a resource for the ocular genomics community. Currently, the website includes data for several new human eye cDNA libraries.

National Human Genome Research Institute
Home page of the National Human Genome Research Institute. The National Human Genome Research Institute began as the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR), which was established in 1989 to carry out the role of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the International Human Genome Project (HGP).

Catalog of Genome-Wide Association Studies
The genome-wide association study (GWAS) publications listed here include only those attempting to assay at least 100000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the initial stage.

National Library of Medicine (NLM)-U.S. National Institutes of Health
The National Library of Medicine (NLM), on the campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, is the world’s largest medical library. The Library collects materials and provides information and research services in all areas of biomedicine and health care.

Medline Plus
MedlinePlus will direct you to information to help answer health questions. MedlinePlus brings together authoritative information from the National Library of Medicines (NLM), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other government agencies and health-related organizations.

SLC gene family
Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variations on human health. SLC gene family information was reviewed in this Website.

Pharmacogenomics Laboratory website-Canada Research Chair in Pharmacogenomics
The aim of the Pharmacogenomics Resarch Chair is to adapt medications to genetic and genomic profiles, and early detection and prevention of disease.

Nomenclature for the human polymorphic UGT genes
The recommended nomenclature for the human polymorphic UGT genes.

PharmGKB-Pharmacogenomics Knowledge base
PharmGKB is a publicly available Internet research tool developed by Stanford University with funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and is part of the NIH Pharmacogenetics Research Network (PGRN), a nationwide collaborative research consortium.

ProGene Biosciences
ProGene Biosciences, an academic bioinformatics training and research institute started in May 2004.

DoD2007: 1082 Molecular Biology Databases
DoD2007, an updated version of Database of Databases, is an online resource maintained collectively by ProGene Biosciences and Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Andhra University.

RefGene provides a tool to search and query publicly-available information about genes, proteins, and gene-specific antibodies.

Homo sapiens Genes
Homo sapiens Genes directory.

Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB)
Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) website, dedicated to improving understanding of the function of biological systems through the study of the 3-D structure of biological macromolecules.

Protein Data Bank (PDB)
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and nucleic acids.

Sanger Institute
Sanger Institute is a charitably-funded genomic research centre located in Hinxton, south of Cambridge in the UK. A leader in the Human Genome Project, it is focused on understanding the role of genetics in health and disease.

Pfam database
The Pfam database is a large collection of protein families, each represented by multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models (HMMs).

Stanford University
Stanford University is one of the world’s leading research and teaching institutions. It is located in Palo Alto, California.

Stanford Microarray Database
The Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) stores raw and normalized data from microarray experiments, and provides website interfaces for researchers to retrieve, analyze and visualize their data. The database is a joint project in the Departments of Biochemistry and Genetics at the School of Medicine, Stanford University.

TCDB- Transport Classification Database
TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group. The database details a comprehensive IUBMB-approved classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC) system.

Tree Families database
TreeFam (Tree families database) is a database of phylogenetic trees of animal genes.

UniProt Knowledgebase
The UniProt Knowledgebase consists of: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation, a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases. These databases are developed by the Swiss-Prot groups at SIB (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics) and at EBI (European Bioinformatics Institute).

University of Bari (Aldo Moro)
Official website of University of Bari, Italy.

Resources of Molecular Citogenetics
Resources of Molecular Cytogenetics is the online information tool of the Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Bari University, Italy.

University of California (Los Angeles)
UCLA -the University of California, Los Angeles- is a public research university and a member of the Association of American Universities.

Database of Interacting Proteins
The DIPTM (Database of Interacting Proteins) database lists protein pairs that are known to interact with each other.

University of California (San Francisco)
University of California, San Francisco is a leading university dedicated to defining health worldwide.

MODBASE is a queryable database of annotated protein structure models.

University of California (Santa Cruz)
A public institution.

UCSC Genome Bioinformatics Site
This site contains the reference sequence and working draft assemblies for a large collection of genomes. It also provides a portal to the ENCODE project. The UCSC Genome Browser is developed and maintained by the Genome Bioinformatics Group, a cross-departmental team within the Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering (CBSE) at the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC).

University of Louisville (Kentucky)
The University of Louisville is a state-supported research university.

Consensus Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase Gene Nomenclature
Website of the arylamine N-acetyltransferase nomenclature committee. The website provides an up-to-date listing of arylamine N-acetyltransferase alleles and contains the information regarding the nomenclature at subsequent international arylamine N-acetyltransferase workshops. The current nomenclature is posted in order to make this information widely available to the international scientific community via the internet.

University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS)
Official website of the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS)-USA.

This resource includes regulatory molecules and their interactions, such as regulatory proteins and their DNA/RNA target sites, small silencing RNAs and their RNA targets, and protein-protein interaction.

HugeIndex Database
Human Gene Expression Index (HuGE Index) aims to provide a comprehensive database to aid in understanding the expression of human genes in normal human tissues.

University of Paris-Descartes-Medicine School Website
Official website of Medicine School-University of Paris-Descartes.

GENATLAS contains relevant information with respect to gene mapping and genetic diseases.

University of Tennessee Health Science Center
The University of Tennessee (UT) Health Science Center Official website.

Cytochrome P450 Homepage
Cytochrome P450 Homepage developed by Dr. David Nelson, Associate Professor, Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center.

University of Tokyo
As a leading research university, the University of Tokyo conducts research across the full spectrum of academic activity.

JSNP® database
The project counts on the collaboration of Human Genome Center (HGC), Institute of Medical Science (IMS), University of Tokyo and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).

University of Utah
Official site of the University of Utah.

Utah Genome Depot
Official website of Utah Genome Depot at University of Utah.

Sponsored by The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and developed by The University of Utah Genome Center, this Environmental Genome Project website resource integrates gene, sequence and polymorphism data into individually annotated gene models.

University of Washington, USA
Founded in 1861, the University of Washington is one of the oldest state-supported institutions of higher education on the West Coast and is one of the preeminent research universities in the world.

Department of Genome Sciences (University of Washington-USA)
Department of Genome Sciences, which began in September 2001 by the fusion of the Departments of Genetics and Molecular Biotechnology.

NIEHS SNPs Program-National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
The NIEHS Environmental Genome Project is a multi-disciplinary, collaborative effort focused on examining the relationships between environmental exposures, inter-individual sequence variation in human genes and disease risk in U.S. populations.

WarfarinDosing is a free Website to help doctors and other clinicians begin warfarin therapy by estimating the therapeutic dose in patients new to warfarin.

Washington University in St. Louis
Saint Louis, MO. Private teaching and research university.

PromoLign Database
PromoLign provides graphical presentation for SNPs and transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region of genes in the context of human-mouse orthologous sequence alignment.

Weizmann Institute of Science
Weizmann Institute of Science is an international center of scientific research and graduate study located in Rehovot, Israel.

OCA Browser
OCA©, a browser-database for protein structure/function.

XenoTech is a Contract Research Organization (CRO) serving clients with unparalleled experience and expertise in evaluating drug candidates as substrates, inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes.


Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND)
The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) provides a central source, freely available to all, for the storage of allele frequencies from different polymorphic areas in the Human Genome. Users can contribute the results of their work into one common database and can perform database searches on information already available. The AFND is an online repository that contains information on the frequencies of immune genes and their corresponding alleles in different populations. The extensive variability observed in genes and alleles related to the immune system response and its significance in transplantation, disease association studies and diversity in populations led to the development of this electronic resource. The system contains data from 1133 populations in 608813 individuals on the frequency of genes from different polymorphic regions such as human leukocyte antigens, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, major histocompatibility complex Class I chain-related genes and a number of cytokine gene polymorphisms. The project was designed to create a central source for the storage of frequency data and provide individuals with a set of bioinformatics tools to analyze the occurrence of these variants in worldwide populations.

Alzheimer Research Forum
The Alzheimer Research Forum is the web’s most dynamic scientific community dedicated to understanding Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. The web site reports on the latest scientific findings, from basic research to clinical trials; creates and maintains public databases of essential research data and reagents, and produces discussion forums to promote debate, speed the dissemination of new ideas, and break down barriers across the numerous disciplines that can contribute to the global effort to cure Alzheimer’s disease.

ALZGENE-Field synopsis of genetic association studies in AD
The AlzGene database provides a comprehensive, unbiased and regularly updated field synopsis of genetic association studies performed in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, hundreds of up-to-date meta-analyses are available for all eligible polymorphisms with sufficient data.

The AlzRisk database aims to provide a comprehensive, unbiased, centralized, publicly available and regularly updated collection of epidemiologic reports that evaluate environmental (i.e. non-genetic) risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in well-defined study cohorts. Eligible publications are identified through contact with each cohort study supplemented by a systematic review of the literature.

The Alzheimer Research Forum maintains lists of mutations that have been reported in amyloid-b precursor protein (AbPP), presenilin-1 (PSEN1) and presenilin-2 (PSEN2), the three known genetic causes of autosomal dominant, familial Alzheimer’s disease. There is also a list of mutations in the tau gene that cause inherited frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism (FTDP). This disorder is characterized by paired helical filaments of tau protein, a lesion that is also a classic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.

CardioGenomics PGA
The primary goal of the CardioGenomics PGA is to link genes to structure, function, dysfunction and structural abnormalities of the cardiovascular system caused by clinically relevant genetic and environmental stimuli. The principal biological theme is how the transcriptional network of the cardiovascular system responds to genetic and environmental stresses to maintain normal function and structure, and how this network is altered in disease. This PGA will generate a high-quality, comprehensive data set for the functional genomics of structural and functional adaptation of the cardiovascular system by integrating expression data from animal models and human tissue samples, mutation screening of candidate genes in patients, and DNA polymorphisms in a well-characterized general population. Such a data set will serve as a benchmark for future basic, clinical, and pharmacogenomic studies.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the premier public health agency working to ensure healthy people in a healthy world. CDC’s mission is to collaborate to create the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health- through health promotion, prevention of disease, injury and disability, and preparedness for new health threats.

Emerging Infectious Diseases journal
Emerging Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal published monthly by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ranked as no. 5 of 70 infectious disease journals.

Emerging Infectious Disease Journal-Scientific Nomenclature
The following references were used in creating a style for the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal: American Medical Association Manual of Style. 10th ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007. ASM Style Manual. 4th ed. Washington: American Society for Microbiology; 2001. Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; 2003. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 31st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. Springfield (MA): Merriam-Webster, Incorporated; 2005.

Public Health Genomics
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG) in 1997. OPHG aims to integrate genomics into public health research, policy, and programs, which could improve interventions designed to prevent and control the USA’s leading chronic, infectious, environmental, and occupational diseases. OPHG’s efforts focus on conducting population-based genomic research, assessing the role of family health history in disease risk and prevention, supporting a systematic process for evaluating genetic tests, translating genomics into public health research and programs, and strengthening capacity for public health genomics in disease prevention programs.

European Heart Network
The European Heart Network (EHN) is a Brussels-based alliance of heart foundations and likeminded non-governmental organisations throughout Europe, with member organisations in 25 countries. The EHN plays a leading role in the prevention and reduction of cardiovascular diseases, in particular heart disease and stroke, through advocacy, networking, education and patient support, so that they are no longer a major cause of premature death and disability throughout Europe.

European Nutrigenomics Organisation
NuGO evolved from a European-funded Network of Excellence, the full title of which was ‘The European Nutrigenomics Organisation: linking genomics, nutrition and health research’. NuGO was funded by the European Commission’s Research Directorate General under the Food Quality and Safety Priority of the Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. The project began in January 2004 and was funded until June 2010.
The primary aims of the project were to: Train European scientists to use post-genomic technologies in nutrition research; Develop and integrate genomic technologies for the benefit of European nutritional science; Facilitate the application of these technologies in nutritional research worldwide; Create the world-leading virtual centre of excellence in nutrigenomics.

European Public Health Association
EUPHA is an international, multidisciplinary, scientific organisation, bringing together around 12000 public health experts for professional exchange and collaboration throughout Europe. This scientific organisation encourages a multidisciplinary approach to public health. The goal is to build capacity and knowledge in the field of public health, and to support practice and policy decisions through scientific evidence and producing and sharing knowledge with association members and partners in Europe.

Public health genomics
The section aims to:
Promote and strengthen research in the field of public health genomics.
Provide a platform for the exchange of information, experience and research in the field of public health genomics.
Encourage joint activities in the field of public health genomics.
Develop and promote strategies to influence national and European policy-making in the field of public health genomics.

Genetic Alliance
Genetic Alliance is the world’s leading nonprofit health advocacy organization committed to transforming health through genetics and promoting an environment of openness centered on the health of individuals, families, and communities. Genetic Alliance’s network includes more than 1000 disease-specific advocacy organizations, as well as thousands of universities, private companies, government agencies, and public policy organizations. The network is a dynamic and growing open space for shared resources, creative tools, and innovative programs.

International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC)
The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) has been organized to launch and coordinate a large number of research projects that have the common aim of elucidating comprehensively the genomic changes present in many forms of cancers that contribute to the burden of disease in people throughout the world. The primary goals of the ICGC are to generate comprehensive catalogs of genomic abnormalities (somatic mutations, abnormal expression of genes, epigenetic modifications) in tumors from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes which are of clinical and societal importance across the globe and make the data available to the entire research community with minimal restrictions, to accelerate research into the causes and control of cancer. The ICGC facilitates communication among the members and provides a forum for coordination with the objective of maximizing efficiency among the scientists working to understand, treat, and prevent these diseases.

International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE)
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) is the world’s preeminent association of physicians and other health professionals working towards a world where no person’s life is limited by epilepsy. ILAE’s mission is to ensure that health professionals, patients and their care providers, governments, and the public worldwide have the educational and research resources that are essential in understanding, diagnosing and treating persons with epilepsy.

March of Dimes
The March of Dimes acts globally, sharing best practices in perinatal health and helping improve birth outcomes where the needs are the most urgent. New standards for newborn screening were issued to help promote consistency among states so that all babies are screened for life-threatening identifiable, but treatable, disorders regardless of where they live.

MITOMAP. A human mitochondrial genome database
The role of MITOMAP is to report, not to analyze, published and unpublished data on human mitochondrial DNA variation.

National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the USA’s medical research agency. NIH is made up of 27 Institutes and Centers, each with a specific research agenda, often focusing on particular diseases or body systems.

Genetic Association Database
The Genetic Association Database is an archive of human genetic association studies of complex diseases and disorders. This includes summary data extracted from published papers in peer reviewed journals on candidate gene and GWAS studies. The goal of this database is to allow the user to rapidly identify medically relevant polymorphism from the large volume of polymorphism and mutational data, in the context of standardized nomenclature.

Genetics Home Reference
Genetics Home Reference is the National Library of Medicine’s Web site for consumer information about genetic conditions and the genes or chromosomes associated with those conditions.

Human Genome Project
Begun formally in 1990, the U.S. Human Genome Project was a 13-year effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project was originally planned to last 15 years, but rapid technological advances accelerated the completion date to 2003. Project goals identify all the approximately 20000-25000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. To help achieve these goals, researchers also studied the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms. These include the common human gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse. A unique aspect of the U.S. Human Genome Project is that it was the first large scientific undertaking to address potential ELSI implications arising from project data. Another important feature of the project was the federal government’s long-standing dedication to the transfer of technology to the private sector. By licensing technologies to private companies and awarding grants for innovative research, the project catalyzed the multibillion-dollar U.S. biotechnology industry and fostered the development of new medical applications.

National Cancer Institute (NCI)
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of 11 agencies that compose the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The NCI, established under the National Cancer Institute Act of 1937, is the Federal Government’s principal agency for cancer research and training. The NCI coordinates the National Cancer Program, which conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to the cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer, rehabilitation from cancer, and the continuing care of cancer patients and the families of cancer patients.

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)
The mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences is to catalyze the generation of innovative methods and technologies that will enhance the development, testing, and implementation of diagnostics and therapeutics across a wide range of human diseases and conditions.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) provides global leadership for a research, training, and education program to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, and blood diseases and enhance the health of all individuals so that they can live longer and more fulfilling lives. The NHLBI stimulates basic discoveries about the causes of disease, enables the translation of basic discoveries into clinical practice, fosters training and mentoring of emerging scientists and physicians, and communicates research advances to the public. It creates and supports a robust, collaborative research infrastructure in partnership with private and public organizations, including academic institutions, industry, and other government agencies. The Institute collaborates with patients, families, health-care professionals, scientists, professional societies, patient advocacy groups, community organizations, and the media to promote the application of research results and leverage resources to address public health needs. The NHLBI also collaborates with international organizations to help reduce the burden of heart, lung, and blood diseases worldwide.

National Institute on Aging (NIA)
The Institute conducts and supports research on aging through extramural and intramural programs, focusing on aging processes, age-related diseases, and special problems and needs of the aged.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
The mission of NIMH is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving the way for prevention, recovery, and cure.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
The mission of NINDS is to reduce the burden of neurological disease- a burden borne by every age group, by every segment of society, by people all over the world. To accomplish this goal the NINDS supports and conducts basic, translational, and clinical research on the normal and diseased nervous system. The Institute also fosters the training of investigators in the basic and clinical neurosciences, and seeks better understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of neurological disorders.

Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR)
The ORDR web site aims to answer questions about rare diseases and the activities of the ORDR for patients, their families, healthcare providers, researchers, educators, students, and anyone with concern for and interest in rare diseases. The site provides information about ORDR-sponsored biomedical research, scientific conferences, and rare and genetic diseases. It also serves as a portal to information on major topics of interest to the rare diseases community.

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a 501(c)(3) organization, is a unique federation of voluntary health organizations dedicated to helping people with rare “orphan” diseases and assisting the organizations that serve them. NORD is committed to the identification, treatment, and cure of rare disorders through programs of education, advocacy, research, and service. NORD supports innovative research, fair and consistent government policies, and access to medically necessary treatments.

Orphanet is the reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs, for all audiences. Orphanet’s aim is to help improve the diagnosis, care and treatment of patients with rare diseases. Orphanet is led by a European consortium of around 40 countries, coordinated by the French team. National teams are responsible for the collection of information on specialized clinics, medical laboratories, ongoing research and patient organizations in their country. The French coordinating team is responsible for the infrastructure of Orphanet, management tools, quality control, rare disease inventory, classifications and production of the encyclopedia.

The PDGene database provides a comprehensive, unbiased and regularly-updated field synopsis of genetic association studies performed in Parkinson’s disease. In addition, hundreds of up-to-date meta-analyses are available for all eligible polymorphisms with sufficient data.

Schizophrenia Research Forum (SRF). SZGene (SchizophreniaGene)
The mission of the SRF is to help in the search for causes, treatments, and understanding of the devastating disease of schizophrenia. The objective is to foster collaboration among researchers by providing an international online forum where ideas, research news, and data can be presented and discussed. The website is intended to bring together scientists working specifically on schizophrenia, scientists researching related diseases, and basic scientists whose work can shed light on these diseases. The SZGene database provides a comprehensive, unbiased and regularly-updated field synopsis of genetic association studies performed in schizophrenia. In addition, hundreds of up-to-date meta-analyses are available for all eligible polymorphisms with sufficient data.

WebMD is the leading provider of health information services, serving consumers, physicians, other healthcare professionals, employers and health plans. This web site is designed to help consumers to take an active role in managing their health by providing objective healthcare information and lifestyle information in order to make it easier for physicians and healthcare professionals to access clinical reference sources, stay abreast of the latest clinical information, learn about new treatment options, earn continuing medical education credits and communicate with peers. It also enables employers and health plans to provide their employees and plan members with access to personalized health and benefit information, and also decision support technology that helps them make informed benefit, provider and treatment choices.

1000 Genomes Project
The goal of the 1000 Genomes Project is to find most genetic variants that have frequencies of at least 1% in the populations studied. This goal can be attained by sequencing many individuals lightly. The 1000 Genomes Project aims to provide a deep characterization of human genome sequence variation as a foundation for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The CDC is one of the major operating components of the Department of Health and Human Services.

ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting-2010
Publications from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). This institution is one of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)-U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Office website of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), a public organism dependent on the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

Medicare section provides information related to ICD-10, Procedure Coding System (PCS) and Clinical Modifications (CM).

chemBlink- Online Database of Chemicals
chemBlink is an open source of chemical information available to the public online since 2005. It also serves as a platform to promote products for worldwide suppliers.

Chemical Book
Website provides chemical product information like properties, structure, melting point, boiling point, density, molecular, and an extensive chemical company website list.

Edmund´s Newsletter, Blog & Web Page
Edmund M. Hayes, R.Ph., M.S., Pharm.D., works at the Department of Pharmacy and Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook.

Cytochrome P-450 enzyme system
Edmund´s website page includes a section with information about the Cytochrome P-450 enzyme system.

Guide to Receptors and Channels (GRAC)-3rd edition

British Journal of Pharmacology ONLINE
Special Issue: Guide to Receptors and Channels (GRAC), 3rd edition.

IUPAC-International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) serves to advance the worldwide aspects of the chemical sciences and to contribute to the application of chemistry in the service of mankind. As a scientific, international, non-governmental and objective body, IUPAC can address many global issues involving the chemical sciences.

IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (Gold Book)
One of the series of IUPAC “Colour Books” on chemical nomenclature, terminology, symbols and units, it collects together terminology definitions from IUPAC recommendations already published in Pure and Applied Chemistry and in the other Colour Books.

IUPHAR (International Union of Pharmacology)
Official database of the IUPHAR (International Union of Pharmacology) Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification.

IUPHAR (International Union of Pharmacology) Database Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification
Database incorporating detailed pharmacological, functional and pathophysiological information on G Protein-Coupled Receptors, Voltage-Gated and Ligand-Gated Ion Channels.

NURSA-Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas website
Browser-based features have been developed to enhance and facilitate the interaction between the community and the NURSA website portal: Datasets, Reagents, and Nuclear Receptor Signaling.

Prous Science
Prous Science has been providing information and communication services on drug R&D, pharmacology, medicine and medicinal chemistry since 1958. Prous Science’s goal is to constantly improve access to and management of drug and medical information by continually incorporating the latest in information technology. The company’s products have evolved through the years from print journals to diskette- and CD-ROM-based databases to classic online files and the newest electronic formats.

Prous Science Integrity®
Prous Science Integrity® is the world’s first integrated drug discovery and development portal, encompassing all knowledge areas in drug discovery and development, including chemistry, genomics, tissue engineering, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pathology. By using the most advanced Internet application server technologies and structure- and sequence-searching capabilities, Integrity® enables researchers to manage and correlate chemistry and genomics data with pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics data and with a knowledge base of disease entities.

Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.
Sigma-Aldrich provides this website, at its discretion, as a service to its customers. This Site provides users with access to extensive product information and documentation.

Sigma Aldrich Catalog Search Page
The data-specific search allows more specific targeting of the product data.

Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters is the world’s leading source of intelligent information for businesses and professionals. They combine industry expertise with innovative technology to deliver critical information to leading decision makers in the financial, legal, tax and accounting, healthcare, science and media markets, powered by the world’s most trusted news organization.

Thomson Reuters Cortellis™
Cortellis™ is a pharma database that combines extensive pharmaceutical content, collated by industry experts, with commentary from the global team of scientific editors. This database includes 41889 drug monographs, 10065 detailed company records (65439 organizations in total), 210907 core patent reports (WO, US, EP and GB patent authorities)-300 patents added each week, 28210 deal reports and 77000 clinical trial reports (31000 with outcomes), updated daily.

USP Dictionary online
The USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names is the leading reference for drug names and chemical structures. It also provides other important drug information.

Wiley InterScience
Wiley InterScience ( is an online service that provides access to over 3 million articles across nearly 1500 journals and 7000 Online Books and major reference works.

Wiley InterScience-MSK Library
Search interface to the publications from John Wiley.